A. As used in this section, unless the context requires a different meaning:
"Virginia qualified research" means qualified research, as defined in § 41(d) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, that is conducted in the Commonwealth.
"Virginia qualified research and development expenses" means qualified research expenses, as defined in § 41(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended, incurred for Virginia qualified research.
B. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2016, but before January 1, 2022, a taxpayer with Virginia qualified research and development expenses for the taxable year in excess of $5 million shall be allowed a credit against the tax levied pursuant to § 58.1-320 or 58.1-400 in an amount equal to 10 percent of the difference between (i) the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the taxable year and (ii) 50 percent of the average Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer for the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined. If the taxpayer did not pay or incur Virginia qualified research and development expenses in any one of the three taxable years immediately preceding the taxable year for which the credit is being determined, the tax credit shall equal five percent of the Virginia qualified research and development expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer during the relevant taxable year.
C. The aggregate amount of credits granted for each fiscal year of the Commonwealth pursuant to this section shall not exceed $20 million.
D. In the event approved applications for the tax credits allowed under this section exceed $20 million for any taxable year, the Department shall apportion the credits by dividing $20 million by the total amount of tax credits approved, to determine the percentage of allowed tax credits each taxpayer shall receive.
E. The amount of the credit claimed for the taxable year shall not exceed 75 percent of the total amount of tax imposed by this chapter upon the taxpayer for the taxable year. Any credit not usable for the taxable year for which the credit was first allowed may be carried over for credit against the income taxes of the taxpayer in the next 10 succeeding taxable years or until the total amount of the tax credit has been taken, whichever is sooner.
F. Any taxpayer who claims the tax credit for Virginia qualified research and development expenses pursuant to this section shall not use such expenses as the basis for claiming any other credit provided under the Code of Virginia.
G. Credits granted to a partnership, limited liability company, or electing small business corporation (S corporation) shall be allocated to the individual partners, members, or shareholders, respectively, in proportion to their ownership interests in such entities or in accordance with a written agreement entered into by such individual partners, members, or shareholders.
H. The Department shall develop and publish guidelines under this section including guidelines for applying for the tax credit. Such guidelines shall be exempt from the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.). Applications for the tax credit must be received by the Department no later than July 1 of the calendar year following the close of the taxable year in which the expenses were paid or incurred.
The Department shall also adopt guidelines to prescribe standards for determining when research and development is considered conducted in the Commonwealth for purposes of allowing the credit under this section. In adopting guidelines, the Department may consider (i) the location where the research and development is performed; (ii) the residence or business location of the taxpayer or taxpayers conducting the research and development; (iii) the location where supplies used in the research and development are consumed; and (iv) any other factors that the Department deems to be relevant.
I. No tax credit shall be allowed pursuant to this section, if the otherwise qualified research and development expenses are paid for or incurred by a taxpayer for research conducted in the Commonwealth on human cells or tissue derived from induced abortions or from stem cells obtained from human embryos. The foregoing provision shall not apply to research conducted using stem cells other than embryonic stem cells.
2016, cc. 300, 661.