Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
3/29/2017

Virginia Limited Liability Company Act

§ 13.1-1000. Short title.

This chapter shall be known as the Virginia Limited Liability Company Act.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1001. Reservation of power to amend or repeal.

The General Assembly shall have the power to amend or repeal all or part of this chapter at any time and all domestic and foreign limited liability companies subject to this chapter shall be governed by the amendment or repeal.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1001.1. Construction.

A. Unless displaced by particular provisions of this chapter, the principles of law and equity supplement this chapter.

B. Sections 9-406 and 9-408 of the Uniform Commercial Code, including §§ 8.9A-406 and 8.9A-408, do not apply to any interest in a limited liability company, including all rights, powers and interests arising under the articles of organization or operating agreement of a limited liability company or this chapter. This provision prevails over §§ 8.9A-406 and 8.9A-408, and is expressly intended to permit the enforcement as a fundamental matter of contract among the members of a limited liability company of any provision of an operating agreement that would otherwise be ineffective under § 9-406 or § 9-408 of the Uniform Commercial Code .

C. This chapter shall be construed in furtherance of the policies of giving maximum effect to the principle of freedom of contract and of enforcing operating agreements.

1993, c. 113; 2003, c. 340.

§ 13.1-1002. Definitions.

As used in this chapter:

"Articles of organization" means all documents constituting, at any particular time, the articles of organization of a limited liability company. The articles of organization include the original articles of organization, the original certificate of organization issued by the Commission, and all amendments to the articles of organization. When the articles of organization have been restated pursuant to any articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger, the articles of organization include only the restated articles of organization without the articles of restatement, amendment, domestication, or merger.

"Bankruptcy" means, with respect to any person, being the subject of an order for relief under Title 11 of the United States Code.

"Commission" means the State Corporation Commission of Virginia.

"Contribution" means any cash, property or services rendered, or a promissory note or other binding obligation to contribute cash or property or to perform services, which a member contributes to a limited liability company in his capacity as a member.

"Distribution" means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property, or incurrence of indebtedness by a limited liability company, to or for the benefit of its members in respect of their interests.

"Domestic business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201.

"Domestic corporation" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Domestic limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1.

"Domestic nonstock corporation" has the same meaning as "domestic corporation" as specified in § 13.1-803.

"Domestic other business entity" means a partnership, limited partnership, business trust, stock corporation, or nonstock corporation that is formed, organized, or incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth.

"Domestic partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit formed under § 50-73.88, or predecessor law of the Commonwealth, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a registered limited liability partnership.

"Domestic stock corporation" has the same meaning as "domestic corporation" as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Electronic transmission" means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by the recipient through an automated process. Any term used in this definition that is defined in § 59.1-480 of the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.) shall have the meaning set forth in that section.

"Eligible interests" means, as to a partnership, partnership interest as specified in § 50-73.79; as to a limited partnership, partnership interest as specified in § 50-73.1; as to a business trust, the beneficial interest of a beneficial owner as specified in § 13.1-1226; as to a stock corporation, shares as specified in § 13.1-603; or, as to a nonstock corporation, membership interest as specified in § 13.1-803.

"Foreign business trust" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-1201.

"Foreign corporation" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Foreign limited liability company" means an entity, excluding a foreign business trust, that is an unincorporated organization that is organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth and that is denominated by that law as a limited liability company, and that affords to each of its members, pursuant to the laws under which it is organized, limited liability with respect to the liabilities of the entity.

"Foreign limited partnership" has the same meaning as specified in § 50-73.1.

"Foreign nonstock corporation" has the same meaning as "foreign corporation" as specified in § 13.1-803.

"Foreign other business entity" means a partnership, limited partnership, business trust, stock corporation, or nonstock corporation that is formed, organized, or incorporated under the laws of a state or jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth.

"Foreign partnership" means an association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit formed under the laws of any state or jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth, and includes, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth, a foreign registered limited liability partnership.

"Foreign registered limited liability partnership" has the same meanings as specified in §§ 50-2 and 50-73.79.

"Foreign stock corporation" has the same meaning as "foreign corporation" as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Limited liability company" or "domestic limited liability company" means an entity that is an unincorporated organization organized and existing under this chapter, or that has become a domestic limited liability company of the Commonwealth pursuant to § 13.1-1010.3 as it existed prior to its repeal, even though also being a non-United States entity organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth, or that has become a domestic limited liability company of the Commonwealth pursuant to § 56-1, even though also being a non-United States entity organized under laws other than the laws of the Commonwealth, or that has become a domestic limited liability company of the Commonwealth pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1 as it existed prior to its repeal, or that has become a domestic limited liability company of the Commonwealth pursuant to Article 12.2 (§ 13.1-722.8 et seq.) of Chapter 9, Article 17.1 (§ 13.1-944.1 et seq.) of Chapter 10, Article 14 (§ 13.1-1074 et seq.) or Article 15 (§ 13.1-1081 et seq.) of this chapter, or Article 12 (§ 13.1-1264 et seq.) of Chapter 14. A limited liability company's status for federal tax purposes shall not affect its status as a distinct entity organized and existing under this chapter.

"Manager" or "managers" means a person or persons designated by the members of a limited liability company to manage the limited liability company as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement.

"Manager-managed limited liability company" means a limited liability company that is managed by a manager or managers as provided for in its articles of organization or an operating agreement.

"Member" means a person that has been admitted to membership in a limited liability company as provided in § 13.1-1038.1 and that has not ceased to be a member.

"Member-managed limited liability company" means a limited liability company that is not a manager-managed limited liability company.

"Membership interest" or "interest" means a member's share of the profits and the losses of the limited liability company and the right to receive distributions of the limited liability company's assets.

"Non-United States entity" means a foreign limited liability company (other than one formed under the laws of a state), or a corporation, business trust or association, real estate investment trust, common-law trust, or any other unincorporated business, including a partnership, formed, incorporated, organized, created or that otherwise came into being under the laws of any foreign country or other foreign jurisdiction (other than any state).

"Operating agreement" means an agreement of the members as to the affairs of a limited liability company and the conduct of its business, or a writing or agreement of a limited liability company with one member that satisfies the requirements of subdivision A 2 of § 13.1-1023.

"Person" has the same meaning as specified in § 13.1-603.

"Principal office" means the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign limited liability company are located or, if there are no such offices, the office, in or out of the Commonwealth, so designated by the limited liability company. The designation of the principal office in the most recent statement of change filed pursuant to § 13.1-1018.1 shall be conclusive for the purpose of this chapter.

"State," when referring to a part of the United States, includes a state, commonwealth and the District of Columbia, and their agencies and governmental subdivisions; and a territory or insular possession, and their agencies and governmental subdivisions, of the United States.

"United States" includes a district, authority, bureau, commission, department, and any other agency of the United States.

1991, c. 168; 1992, cc. 574, 575; 1993, c. 113; 1995, c. 168; 1996, c. 265; 1997, c. 190; 2001, c. 548; 2002, cc. 288, 621; 2003, c. 340; 2005, c. 255; 2006, c. 912; 2007, cc. 233, 639; 2009, cc. 450, 763; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1003. Filing requirements.

A. A document shall satisfy the requirements of this section, and of any other section that adds to or varies these requirements, to be entitled to be filed with the Commission.

B. The document shall be one that this chapter requires or permits to be filed with the Commission.

C. The document shall contain the information required by this chapter. It may contain other information as well.

D. The document shall be typewritten or printed or, if electronically transmitted, shall be in a format that can be retrieved or reproduced in typewritten or printed form. The typewritten or printed portion shall be in black. Photocopies, or other reproduced copies, of typewritten or printed documents may be filed. In every case, information in the document shall be legible and the document shall be capable of being reformatted and reproduced in copies of archival quality.

E. The document shall be in the English language. A limited liability company name need not be in English if written in English letters or Arabic or Roman numerals. The articles of organization, duly authenticated by the official having custody of the applicable records in the state or country under whose law the limited liability company is formed, which are required of foreign limited liability companies, need not be in English if accompanied by a reasonably authenticated English translation.

F. The document shall be signed in the name of the domestic or foreign limited liability company:

1. By any manager or other person who has been delegated the right and power to manage the business and affairs of the limited liability company, or if no managers or such other persons have been selected, by any member of the limited liability company;

2. If the limited liability company has not been formed, or has been formed without any managers or members and no members have been admitted, by an organizer;

3. In the case of a foreign limited liability company, by a person who is authorized to sign an amendment to the articles of organization or other constituent documents delivered for filing to the Secretary of State or other official having custody of limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it is formed; or

4. If the limited liability company is in the hands of a receiver, trustee, or other court-appointed fiduciary, by that fiduciary.

G. The person executing the document shall sign it and state beneath or opposite his signature his name and the capacity in which he signs. Any signature may be a facsimile.

H. If, pursuant to any provision of this chapter, the Commission has prescribed a mandatory form for the document, the document shall be in or on the prescribed form.

I. The document shall be delivered to the Commission for filing and shall be accompanied by the required filing fee and any registration fee required by this chapter.

J. The Commission may accept the electronic filing of any information required or permitted to be filed by this chapter and may prescribe the methods of execution, recording, reproduction and certification of electronically filed information pursuant to § 59.1-496.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 70; 2000, cc. 58, 995; 2003, cc. 340, 379; 2006, c. 748; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1003.1. Filings with the Commission pursuant to reorganization.

A. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in § 13.1-1003, 13.1-1011, 13.1-1014, 13.1-1014.1, 13.1-1050, 13.1-1072, or 13.1-1085, whenever, pursuant to any applicable statute of the United States relating to reorganizations of limited liability companies, a plan of reorganization of a limited liability company has been confirmed by the decree or order of a court of competent jurisdiction, the limited liability company may put into effect and carry out the plan and decrees of the court relative thereto (i) through one or more amendments to the limited liability company's articles of organization containing terms and conditions permitted by this chapter; (ii) through a plan of merger or entity conversion; or (iii) through cancellation, without action by the managers or members, to carry out the plan of reorganization decreed or ordered by the court of competent jurisdiction under federal statute.

B. The individual or individuals designated by the court shall deliver to the Commission for filing articles of amendment, restatement, merger, entity conversion, or cancellation, which, in addition to the matters otherwise required or permitted by law to be set forth therein, shall set forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. Any provision relating to the amendment or amendments, plan of merger or entity conversion, or cancellation approved by the court;

3. The name of the court and the date of the court's order or decree approving the amendment, plan of merger or entity conversion, or cancellation;

4. The title and case number, if any, of the reorganization proceeding in which the order or decree was entered; and

5. A statement that the court had jurisdiction of the proceeding under federal statute.

C. If the Commission finds that the articles of amendment, restatement, merger, entity conversion, or cancellation comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of amendment, restatement, merger, entity conversion, or cancellation.

D. This section does not apply after entry of a final decree in the reorganization proceeding even though the court retains jurisdiction of the proceeding for limited purposes unrelated to consummation of the reorganization plan.

2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1004. Issuance of certificate by Commission; recordation of documents.

A. Whenever this chapter conditions the effectiveness of a document upon the issuance of a certificate by the Commission to evidence the effectiveness of the document, the Commission shall by order issue the certificate if it finds that the document complies with the provisions of this chapter and that all required fees have been paid. The Commission shall admit any such certificate to record in its office.

B. The existence of a limited liability company shall begin at the time the Commission issues a certificate of organization unless a later date and time are specified as provided by subsection D of this section. The certificate of organization shall be conclusive evidence that all conditions precedent required to be performed by the person(s) forming the limited liability company have been complied with and that the limited liability company has been formed under this chapter.

C. Whenever the Commission is directed to admit any document to record in its office, it shall cause it to be spread upon its record books or to be recorded or reproduced in any other manner the Commission may deem suitable. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Commission may furnish information from and provide access to any of its records by any means the Commission may deem suitable.

D. 1. A certificate issued by the Commission is effective at the time such certificate is issued, unless the certificate relates to articles filed with the Commission and the articles state that the certificate shall become effective at a later time and date specified in the articles. In that event, the certificate shall become effective at the earlier of the time and date so specified or 11:59 p.m. on the fifteenth day after the date on which the certificate is issued by the Commission. Any other document filed with the Commission shall be effective when accepted for filing unless otherwise provided for in this chapter.

2. Notwithstanding subdivision 1 of this subsection, any certificate that has a delayed effective time and date shall not become effective if, prior to the effective time and date, the parties to the articles to which the certificate relates file a request for cancellation with the Commission, and the Commission, by order, cancels the certificate.

3. Notwithstanding subdivision 1 of this subsection, for purposes of §§ 13.1-1012 and 13.1-1054, any certificate that has a delayed effective date shall be deemed to be effective when the certificate is issued.

E. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, the Commission shall have the power to act upon a petition filed by a limited liability company at any time to correct Commission records so as to eliminate the effects of clerical errors and of filings made by a person without authority to act for the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1996, c. 265; 2010, c. 703.

§ 13.1-1005. Fees.

The Commission shall charge and collect the following fees:

1. For filing any one of the following, the fee shall be $100:

a. Articles of organization.

b. An application for registration as a foreign limited liability company.

c. Articles of entity conversion to convert a domestic corporation to a limited liability company.

d. Articles of domestication.

2. For filing any one of the following, the fee shall be $25:

a. Articles of amendment.

b. Articles of cancellation.

c. Articles of correction referred to in § 13.1-1011.1, a copy of an amendment or correction referred to in § 13.1-1055, or an amended application for registration referred to in § 13.1-1055, provided that an amended application shall not require a separate fee when it is filed with a copy of an amendment or a correction referred to in § 13.1-1055.

d. A copy of an instrument of merger of a foreign limited liability company referred to in § 13.1-1060.

e. Articles of merger.

f. A copy of an instrument of entity conversion of a foreign limited liability company holding a certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth.

g. Articles of restatement.

h. Articles of organization surrender.

i. An application for a certificate of cancellation of a foreign limited liability company.

3. For filing any one of the following, the fee shall be $10:

a. An application to reserve or to renew the reservation of a name for use by a domestic or foreign limited liability company.

b. A notice of the transfer of a name reserved for use by a domestic or a foreign limited liability company.

4. For issuing a certificate pursuant to § 13.1-1067, $6 for each certificate.

1991, c. 168; 1992, cc. 574, 575; 1993, c. 113; 1995, c. 368; 1998, c. 432; 2001, c. 545; 2002, c. 1; 2003, c. 379; 2004, c. 274; 2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2007, c. 810; 2008, c. 108; 2012, c. 130.

§ 13.1-1006. Penalty for signing false documents.

A. It shall be unlawful for any person to sign a document he knows is false in any material respect with intent that the document be delivered to the Commission for filing.

B. Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of Class 1 misdemeanor.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1007. Unlawful to transact or offer to transact business as a limited liability company unless authorized.

It shall be unlawful for any person to transact business in this Commonwealth as a limited liability company or to offer or advertise to transact business in this Commonwealth as a limited liability company unless the alleged limited liability company is either a domestic limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth. Any person who violates this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

1991, c. 168; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1008. Purposes.

Every limited liability company formed under this chapter has the purpose of engaging in any lawful business, purpose, or activity, whether or not such business, purpose, or activity is carried on for profit, except as otherwise provided by the law of this Commonwealth, unless a more limited purpose is set forth in the articles of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1009. Powers.

Unless the articles of organization provide otherwise, every limited liability company has perpetual duration and succession in its name and has the same powers as an individual to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out its business and affairs, including, without limitation, power:

1. To sue and be sued, complain and defend in its name;

2. To purchase, receive, lease or otherwise acquire, and own, hold, improve, use and otherwise deal with, real or personal property, or any legal or equitable interest in property, wherever located;

3. To sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, and otherwise dispose of all or any part of its property;

4. To purchase, receive, subscribe for, or otherwise acquire, own, hold, vote, use, sell, mortgage, lend, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, and deal in and with shares or other interests in, or obligations of, any other person;

5. To make contracts and guaranties, incur liabilities, borrow money, issue its notes, bonds, and other obligations, and secure any of its obligations by mortgage or pledge of any of its property, franchises or income;

6. To lend money, invest and reinvest its funds, and receive and hold real and personal property as security for repayment;

7. To conduct its business, locate offices, and exercise the powers granted by this chapter within or without this Commonwealth;

8. To elect and appoint managers, employees and agents of the limited liability company, define their duties, fix their compensation, and lend them money and credit;

9. To pay pensions and establish pension plans, pension trusts, profit sharing plans, and benefit and incentive plans for all or any of the current or former managers, members, employees, and agents of the limited liability company or any of its subsidiaries;

10. To make donations to the public welfare or for religious, charitable, scientific, literary or educational purposes;

11. To make payments or donations, or do any other act, not inconsistent with this section or any other applicable law, that furthers the business and affairs of the limited liability company;

12. To pay compensation, or to pay additional compensation to any or all managers, members, and employees on account of services previously rendered to the limited liability company, whether or not an agreement to pay such compensation was made before such services were rendered;

13. To insure for its benefit the life of any of its managers, members, or employees, to insure the life of any member for the purpose of acquiring at his death the interest owned by such member and to continue such insurance after the relationship terminates;

14. To cease its activities, wind up its affairs, and proceed to cancel its existence;

15. To enter into partnership agreements, joint ventures, or other associations of any kind with any person or persons;

16. Subject to such standards and restrictions, if any, as are set forth in its articles of organization or an operating agreement, to indemnify and hold harmless any member or manager or other person from and against any and all claims and demands whatsoever, and to pay for or reimburse any member or manager or other person for reasonable expenses incurred by such a person who is a party to a proceeding in advance of final disposition of the proceeding;

17. To transact any lawful business that a corporation, partnership, or other business entity may conduct under the laws of the Commonwealth subject, however, to any and all laws and restrictions that govern or limit the conduct of such activity by such corporation, partnership or other business entity; and

18. To have and exercise all powers necessary or convenient to effect any or all of the purposes for which the limited liability company is organized.

1991, c. 168; 2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1010. Organizers.

One or more persons may act as organizers of a limited liability company by signing and delivering articles of organization to the Commission for filing. An organizer need not be a member of the limited liability company after formation has occurred.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 748; 2016, c. 288.

§§ 13.1-1010.1 through 13.1-1010.4. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2016, c. 288, cl. 2, effective July 1, 2016.

§ 13.1-1010.2. Effect of conversion; entity unchanged.

A. A general or limited partnership that has been converted pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1 shall be deemed for all purposes the same entity that existed before the conversion.

B. When a conversion takes effect:

1. All property owned by the converting general or limited partnership remains vested in the converted entity;

2. All obligations of the converting general or limited partnership continue as obligations of the converted entity; and

3. An action or proceeding pending against the converting general or limited partnership may be continued as if the conversion had not occurred.

C. In the case of a domestic limited partnership that has been converted pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1, the articles of organization filed pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1 shall serve as a certificate of cancellation of the converting limited partnership, and in the case of a domestic partnership that has been converted pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1, the articles of organization filed pursuant to § 13.1-1010.1 shall, if applicable, serve as a statement of dissolution and a statement of cancellation of registration of the domestic partnership.

1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190.

§ 13.1-1010.3. Domestication of non-United States entities.

A. Any non-United States entity may become domesticated as a limited liability company by complying with subsection E of this section and filing articles of organization that meet the requirements of §§ 13.1-1003 and 13.1-1011 and include the following:

1. The name of the non-United States entity immediately prior to the filing of the articles of organization;

2. The date on which and the jurisdiction in which the non-United States entity was first formed, incorporated, organized, created or otherwise came into being; and

3. The jurisdiction that constituted the seat, siege social, or principal place of business or central administration of the non-United States entity, or any equivalent thereto under applicable law, immediately prior to the filing of the articles of organization.

B. A non-United States entity that has been domesticated pursuant to this section shall be deemed for all purposes the same entity that existed before the domestication.

C. Upon the effective date and time of the certificate of organization:

1. The non-United States entity shall be domesticated as a limited liability company, and the limited liability company shall thereafter be subject to all of the provisions of this chapter, except that notwithstanding subsection B of § 13.1-1004, the existence of the limited liability company shall be deemed to have commenced on the date the non-United States entity commenced its existence in the jurisdiction in which the non-United States entity was first formed, incorporated, organized, created or otherwise came into being;

2. All property owned by the non-United States entity remains vested in the domesticated entity;

3. All obligations of the non-United States entity continue as obligations of the domesticated entity; and

4. An action or proceeding pending against the non-United States entity may be continued as if the domestication had not occurred.

D. The filing of articles of organization shall not affect the choice of law applicable to the non-United States entity, except that from the effective date of the time of the domestication, the law of the Commonwealth of Virginia, including the provisions of this chapter, shall apply to the non-United States entity to the same extent as if the non-United States entity had been organized as a limited liability company on the effective date of the certificate of organization.

E. The terms and conditions of a domestication of a non-United States entity as a limited liability company shall be approved in the manner provided for by the document, instrument, agreement or other writing, as the case may be, governing the internal affairs of the non-United States entity in the conduct of its business or by applicable law other than the law of the Commonwealth, as appropriate.

F. Unless otherwise agreed, or as required under applicable non-Virginia law, the domesticating non-United States entity shall not be required to wind up its affairs or pay its liabilities and distribute its assets. The domestication shall not be deemed to constitute a dissolution of the non-United States entity and shall constitute a continuation of the existence of the domesticating non-United States entity in the form of a domestic limited liability company. If, following domestication, a non-United States entity that has become domesticated as a limited liability company continues its existence in the foreign country or other foreign jurisdiction in which it was existing immediately prior to domestication, the limited liability company and the non-United States entity shall, for all purposes of the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, constitute a single entity formed, organized, incorporated, created or otherwise having come into being, as applicable, and exist under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the laws of such foreign country or other foreign jurisdiction.

1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 581; 2005, c. 255; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1010.4. Conversions involving corporations and limited liability companies.

A domestic corporation may become a domestic limited liability company, and a domestic limited liability company may become a domestic corporation, pursuant to a plan of entity conversion adopted pursuant to Article 12.2 (§ 13.1-722.8 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of this title.

2003, c. 340.

§ 13.1-1011. Articles of organization.

A. The articles of organization shall set forth:

1. A name for the limited liability company that satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1012;

2. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the limited liability company's initial registered office, the name of the city or county in which it is located, the name of its initial registered agent at that office, and that the agent is either (i) an individual who is a resident of Virginia and one of the following: a member or manager of the limited liability company, a member or manager of a limited liability company that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, an officer or director of a corporation that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, a general partner of a general or limited partnership that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, a trustee of a trust that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, or a member of the Virginia State Bar or (ii) a domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company or registered limited liability partnership authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth; and

3. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the principal office of the limited liability company, which may be the same as the registered office, but need not be within the Commonwealth.

B. The articles of organization may set forth any other matter that under this chapter is permitted to be set forth in an operating agreement of a limited liability company.

C. The articles of organization need not set forth any of the powers enumerated in this chapter.

D. If the Commission finds that the articles of organization comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 162; 2001, cc. 517, 541; 2004, c. 314; 2006, c. 748; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1011.1. Articles of correction.

A. A limited liability company may correct its articles of organization at any time to correct a name or address specified in the articles of organization that was inadvertently or improperly set forth.

B. For a correction to the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the correction shall be adopted by a majority vote of the managers, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any managers and no managers have been appointed, the correction may be adopted by a majority vote of the members entitled to vote thereon, unless the articles of organization require a greater vote, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any managers or members and no members have been admitted, a correction may be adopted by a majority vote of the organizers of the limited liability company.

C. To correct its articles of organization, a limited liability company shall file with the Commission articles of correction setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The text of each correction;

3. A statement of the nature of the error necessitating each correction; and

4. A statement of the manner in which the correction was adopted.

If the Commission finds that the articles of correction comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of correction.

1998, c. 432; 2003, c. 379; 2006, c. 748.

§ 13.1-1012. Name.

A. A limited liability company name shall contain the words "limited company" or "limited liability company" or their abbreviations "L.C.," "LC," "L.L.C.," or "LLC."

B. A limited liability company name shall not contain:

1. Any word, abbreviation, or combination of characters that states or implies the limited liability company is a corporation or a limited partnership; or

2. Any word or phrase the use of which is prohibited by law for such company.

C. Except as authorized by subsection D, a limited liability company name shall be distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from:

1. The name of a domestic limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

2. A limited liability company name reserved under § 13.1-1013;

3. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited liability company because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

4. The name of any corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, existing under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth;

5. A corporate name reserved or registered under § 13.1-631, 13.1-632, 13.1-830 or 13.1-831;

6. The designated name adopted by a foreign corporation, whether issuing shares or not issuing shares, because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

7. The name of a domestic business trust or a foreign business trust registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

8. A business trust name reserved under § 13.1-1215;

9. The designated name adopted by a foreign business trust because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth;

10. The name of a domestic limited partnership or a foreign limited partnership registered to transact business in the Commonwealth;

11. A limited partnership name reserved under § 50-73.3; and

12. The designated name adopted by a foreign limited partnership because its real name is unavailable for use in the Commonwealth.

D. A domestic limited liability company may apply to the Commission for authorization to use a name that is not distinguishable upon its records from one or more of the names described in subsection C. The Commission shall authorize use of the name applied for if the other entity consents to the use in writing and submits an undertaking in form satisfactory to the Commission to change its name to a name that is distinguishable upon the records of the Commission from the name of the applying limited liability company.

E. The use of assumed names or fictitious names, as provided for in Chapter 5 (§ 59.1-69 et seq.) of Title 59.1, is not affected by this chapter.

F. The Commission, in determining whether a limited liability company name is distinguishable upon its records from the name of any of the business entities listed in subsection C, shall not consider any word, phrase, abbreviation, or designation required or permitted under this section and § 13.1-544.1, subsection A of § 13.1-630, § 13.1-1104, subsection A of § 50-73.2, and subdivision A 2 of § 50-73.78 to be contained in the name of a business entity formed or organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or authorized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1995, c. 168; 2003, cc. 340, 592; 2005, c. 379; 2012, c. 63.

§ 13.1-1013. Reserved name.

A. A person may apply to the Commission to reserve the exclusive use of a limited liability company name, including a designated name for a foreign limited liability company. The limited liability company name applied for need not comply with subsection A of § 13.1-1012. If the Commission finds that the limited liability company name applied for is distinguishable upon the records of the Commission, it shall reserve the name for the applicant's exclusive use for a 120-day period.

B. The owner of a reserved limited liability company name may renew the reservation for successive periods of 120 days each by filing with the Commission, during the 45-day period preceding the date of expiration of the reservation, a renewal application.

C. The owner of a reserved limited liability company name may transfer the reservation to another person by delivering to the Commission a notice of the transfer, signed by the applicant for whom the name was reserved, and specifying the name and address of the transferee.

D. A reserved limited liability company name may be used by its owner in connection with (i) the formation or an amendment to change the name of a domestic stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership; (ii) an application for a certificate of authority or registration to transact business in the Commonwealth as a foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership; or (iii) an amended application for such authority or registration, provided that the proposed name complies with the provisions of § 13.1-630, 13.1-762, 13.1-829, 13.1-924, 13.1-1012, 13.1-1054, 13.1-1214, 13.1-1244, 50-73.2, or 50-73.56, as the case may be.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 505; 2015, c. 444.

§ 13.1-1014. Amendment of articles of organization.

A. A limited liability company may amend its articles of organization at any time to add or change a provision that is required or permitted in the articles, or to delete a provision not required in the articles. An amendment to the articles of organization may delete the name and address of the registered agent or registered office, or the address of the principal office, if a statement of change described in § 13.1-1016 or 13.1-1018.1, as the case may be, is on file with the Commission.

B. For an amendment to the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the amendment shall be approved by that number or percentage of members required to amend an operating agreement, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement otherwise provide, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any members and no members have been admitted, an amendment may be adopted by a majority of the persons named as a manager in the articles of organization or, if there are no members or managers, by a majority of the organizers of the limited liability company.

C. To amend its articles of organization, a limited liability company shall file with the Commission articles of amendment setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The text of each amendment adopted;

3. The date of each amendment's adoption; and

4. A statement that the amendment was adopted by a vote of the members, by the managers or by the organizers in accordance with this chapter, as the case may be.

If the Commission finds that the articles of amendment comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of amendment.

D. An amendment to articles of organization does not affect a cause of action existing against or in favor of the limited liability company, a proceeding to which the limited liability company is a party, or the existing rights of persons other than members of the limited liability company. An amendment changing a limited liability company's name does not abate a proceeding brought by or against the limited liability company in its former name.

E. A member of a limited liability company does not have a vested property right resulting from any provision of the articles of organization.

1991, c. 168; 1997, c. 190; 2001, c. 548; 2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1014.1. Restatement of articles of organization.

A. A limited liability company may restate its articles of organization at any time.

B. The restatement may include one or more amendments to the articles of organization, including an amendment to delete the name and address of the registered agent or registered office, or the address of the principal office, if a statement of change described in § 13.1-1016 or 13.1-1018.1, as the case may be, is on file with the Commission.

C. For a restatement of the articles of organization of a limited liability company to be adopted, the restatement shall be approved by that number or percentage of members required to amend an operating agreement, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement otherwise provide, provided that if the limited liability company has been formed without any members and no members have been admitted, a restatement may be adopted by a majority of the persons named as a manager in the articles of organization or, if there are no members or managers, by a majority of the organizers of the limited liability company.

D. A limited liability company restating its articles of organization shall file with the Commission articles of restatement setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company immediately prior to restatement;

2. Whether the restatement contains an amendment to the articles of organization;

3. The text of the restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization;

4. The date of adoption of the articles of restatement; and

5. A statement that the restatement was adopted by a vote of the members, by the managers or by the organizers in accordance with this chapter, as the case may be.

E. If the Commission finds that the articles of restatement comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of restatement. When the certificate of restatement is effective, the restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization supersede the original articles of organization and all amendments to the original articles of organization.

F. The Commission may certify restated articles of organization or amended and restated articles of organization as the articles of organization currently in effect.

2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1015. Registered office and registered agent.

A. Each domestic limited liability company and each foreign limited liability company registered pursuant to Article 10 (§ 13.1-1051 et seq.) of this chapter shall continuously maintain in the Commonwealth:

1. A registered office that may be the same as any of its places of business; and

2. A registered agent who shall be either:

a. An individual who is a resident of the Commonwealth and is (i) a member or manager of the limited liability company, (ii) a member or manager of a limited liability company that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (iii) an officer or director of a corporation that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (iv) a general partner of a general or limited partnership that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (v) a trustee of a trust that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, or (vi) a member of the Virginia State Bar, and whose business office is identical with the registered office;

b. A domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, or registered limited liability partnership authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth, the business office of which is identical with the registered office; provided such a registered agent (i) shall not be its own registered agent and (ii) shall designate by instrument in writing, acknowledged before a notary public, one or more natural persons at the office of the registered agent upon whom any process, notice, or demand may be served and shall continuously maintain at least one such person at that office. Whenever any such person accepts service, a photographic copy of such instrument shall be attached to the return; or

c. A Virginia resident who is an officer of the limited liability company, provided that such a registered agent or a natural person designated by the registered agent shall be available during regular business hours at the registered office to accept service of any process, notice, or demand. Whenever any such person accepts service, a photographic copy of such instrument shall be attached to the return. As used in this subdivision, "officer of the limited liability company" means any employee of the limited liability company, other than a member or manager of the limited liability company, who has been designated by the limited liability company by instrument in writing as a person upon whom any process, notice, or demand may be served.

B. The sole duty of the registered agent is to forward to the limited liability company or foreign limited liability company at its last known address any process, notice, or demand that is served on the registered agent.

1991, c. 168; 1993, c. 113; 1994, c. 348; 1996, c. 265; 2000, cc. 162, 537; 2001, cc. 517, 541; 2004, c. 314; 2005, c. 255; 2016, c. 275.

§ 13.1-1016. Change of registered office or registered agent.

A. A limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth may change its registered office or registered agent, or both, upon filing with the Commission a statement of change on a form prescribed and furnished by the Commission that sets forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company or foreign limited liability company;

2. The address of its current registered office;

3. If the current registered office is to be changed, the post-office address, including the street and number, if any, of the new registered office, and the name of the city or county in which it is to be located;

4. The name of its current registered agent;

5. If the current registered agent is to be changed, the name of the new registered agent; and

6. That after the change or changes are made, the domestic or foreign limited liability company will be in compliance with the requirements of § 13.1-1015.

B. A statement of change shall forthwith be filed with the Commission by a domestic or foreign limited liability company whenever its registered agent dies, resigns or ceases to satisfy the requirements of § 13.1-1015.

C. A domestic or foreign limited liability company's registered agent may sign a statement as required above if (i) the business address of the registered agent changes to another post office address within the Commonwealth or (ii) the name of the registered agent has been legally changed. A domestic or foreign limited liability company's new registered agent may sign and submit for filing a statement as required above if (a) the former registered agent is a business entity that has been merged into the new registered agent, (b) the instrument of merger is on record in the office of the clerk of the Commission, and (c) the new registered agent is an entity that is qualified to serve as a registered agent pursuant to § 13.1-1015. In either instance, the registered agent or surviving entity shall forthwith file a statement as required above, which shall recite that a copy of the statement shall be mailed to the principal office address of the domestic or foreign limited liability company on or before the business day following the day on which the statement is filed.

1991, c. 168; 2003, c. 597; 2009, c. 450; 2010, c. 434.

§ 13.1-1017. Resignation of registered agent.

A. The registered agent of a domestic or foreign limited liability company may resign the agency appointment by signing and filing with the Commission a statement of resignation accompanied by a certification that the registered agent shall mail a copy thereof to the principal office of the domestic or foreign limited liability company by certified mail on or before the business day following the day on which the statement is filed. The statement of resignation may include a statement that the registered office is also discontinued.

B. The agency appointment is terminated, and the registered office discontinued if so provided, on the thirty-first day after the date on which the statement was filed.

1991, c. 168; 2010, c. 434.

§ 13.1-1018. Service on limited liability company.

A. A domestic or foreign limited liability company's registered agent is the limited liability company's agent for service of process, notice, or demand required or permitted by law to be served on the limited liability company. The registered agent may by instrument in writing, acknowledged before a notary public, designate a natural person or persons in the office of the registered agent upon whom any such process, notice or demand may be served. Whenever any such person accepts service of process, a photographic copy of such instrument shall be attached to the return.

B. Whenever a domestic or foreign limited liability company fails to appoint or maintain a registered agent in this Commonwealth, or whenever its registered agent cannot with reasonable diligence be found at the registered office, then the clerk of the Commission shall be an agent of the limited liability company upon whom service may be made in accordance with § 12.1-19.1.

C. This section does not prescribe the only means, or necessarily the required means, of serving a domestic or foreign limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 2001, cc. 517, 541.

§ 13.1-1018.1. Change of principal office.

A. A limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered pursuant to Article 10 (§ 13.1-1051 et seq.) may change its principal office upon filing in the office of the Commission a statement of change on a form supplied by the Commission that sets forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company or foreign limited liability company;

2. The address of its current principal office; and

3. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the new principal office.

B. A statement of change shall forthwith be delivered to the Commission for filing by a domestic limited liability company or a foreign limited liability company registered pursuant to Article 10 (§ 13.1-1051 et seq.) whenever the address of its principal office ceases to be the office at which the principal executive offices of the domestic or foreign limited liability company are located.

2009, c. 450; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1019. Liability to third parties.

Except as otherwise provided by this Code or as expressly provided in the articles of organization, no member, manager, organizer or other agent of a limited liability company, regardless of whether the limited liability company has a single member or multiple members, shall have any personal obligation for any liabilities of a limited liability company, whether such liabilities arise in contract, tort or otherwise, solely by reason of being a member, manager, organizer or agent of a limited liability company. For the purposes of this section, a person to whom the rights of a member or manager are delegated as provided in § 13.1-1022 or § 13.1-1024 shall be deemed an agent of a limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 912; 2015, c. 627.

§ 13.1-1020. Parties to actions.

A member of a limited liability company, solely by reason of being a member, is not a proper party to a proceeding by or against a limited liability company, except where (i) the object is to enforce a member's right against or liability to the limited liability company or (ii) as provided in Article 8 (§ 13.1-1042 et seq.) of this chapter.

1991, c. 168; 2007, cc. 233, 639.

§ 13.1-1021. Limited liability company property.

Any estate or interest in property may be acquired in the name of the limited liability company, and title to any estate or interest so acquired vests in the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1021.1. Agency of members and managers.

A. Subject to subsections B and C:

1. Each member is an agent of the limited liability company for the purpose of its business;

2. An act of a member, including the signing of an instrument in the limited liability company name, for apparently carrying on in the ordinary course the limited liability company business or business of the kind carried on by the limited liability company, binds the limited liability company, unless the member had no authority to act for the limited liability company in the particular matter and the person with whom the member was dealing knew or had notice that the member lacked authority; and

3. An act of a member which is not apparently for carrying on in the ordinary course the limited liability company business or business of the kind carried on by the limited liability company binds the limited liability company only if the act was authorized by the other members in accordance with § 13.1-1022.

B. Subject to subsection C, in a manager-managed limited liability company:

1. If the articles of organization specify that the limited liability company is to be managed by a manager or managers, a member is not an agent of the limited liability company for the purpose of its business solely by reason of being a member;

2. Each manager is an agent of the limited liability company for the purpose of its business;

3. An act of a manager, including the signing of an instrument in the limited liability company name, for apparently carrying on in the ordinary course the limited liability company business or business of the kind carried on by the limited liability company, binds the limited liability company, unless the manager had no authority to act for the limited liability company in the particular matter and the person with whom the manager was dealing knew or had notice that the manager lacked authority; and

4. An act of a manager which is not apparently for carrying on in the ordinary course the limited liability company business or business of the kind carried on by the limited liability company binds the company only if the act was authorized in accordance with § 13.1-1024.

C. Unless the articles of organization limit their authority, any member in a member-managed limited liability company, or any manager in a manager-managed limited liability company, may sign and deliver any instrument transferring or affecting the limited liability company's interest in real property, which instrument shall be conclusive in favor of a person who gives value without knowledge of the lack of authority of the person signing and delivering the instrument.

1995, c. 168.

§ 13.1-1022. Management of limited liability company.

A. Except to the extent that the articles of organization or an operating agreement provides in writing for management of a limited liability company by a manager or managers, management of a limited liability company shall be vested in its members.

B. Unless otherwise provided in this chapter, in the articles of organization, or in an operating agreement, the members of a limited liability company shall vote in proportion to their contributions to the limited liability company, as adjusted from time to time, and a majority vote of the members of a limited liability company shall consist of the vote or other approval of members having a majority share of the voting power of all members.

C. Unless otherwise provided in this chapter, in the articles of organization, or in an operating agreement, any action required or permitted to be taken by the members of a limited liability company may be taken upon a majority vote of the members.

D. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the members of a limited liability company have the power and authority to delegate to one or more other persons the members' rights and powers to manage and control the business and affairs of the limited liability company, including to delegate to agents, officers and employees of a member or manager of the limited liability company, and to delegate by a management agreement or other agreement with, or otherwise to, other persons. Such persons may be denominated as officers of the limited liability company without being deemed to have the status of a manager, unless designated as a manager in the articles of organization or an operating agreement.

E. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the members of a limited liability company may take action permitted or required to be taken by the members without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by members having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting. A consent transmitted by a member by electronic transmission shall be deemed to be signed for the purposes of this section. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, on any matter that is to be voted on by members, the members may vote in person or by proxy.

F. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide for classes or groups of members having such relative rights, powers, and duties as the articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide, and may make provision for the future creation in the manner provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement of additional classes or groups of members having such relative rights, powers, and duties as may from time to time be established, including rights, powers, and duties senior to existing classes and groups of members.

G. The articles of organization, an operating agreement, or a plan of merger may provide that dissenters' rights with respect to a membership interest shall be available for any class or group of members in connection with any amendment of an operating agreement, any merger in which the limited liability company is a party, any conversion of the limited liability company to another business form, any transfer to or domestication in any other jurisdiction by the limited liability company, or the sale of all or substantially all of the limited liability company's assets.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1995, c. 168; 1998, c. 432; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601; 2005, c. 255.

§ 13.1-1023. Operating agreement.

A. Authority.

1. The members of a limited liability company may enter into any operating agreement to regulate or establish the affairs of the limited liability company, the conduct of its business and the relations of its members. A limited liability company is bound by its operating agreement whether or not the limited liability company executes the operating agreement. An operating agreement may contain any provisions regarding the affairs of a limited liability company and the conduct of its business to the extent that such provisions are not inconsistent with the laws of the Commonwealth or the articles of organization. An operating agreement may provide rights to any person, including a person who is not a party to the operating agreement, to the extent set forth in the operating agreement.

2. If a limited liability company has only one member, an operating agreement shall be deemed to include:

a. Any writing signed by the member, without regard to whether the writing constitutes an agreement, that relates to the affairs of the limited liability company and the conduct of its business.

b. Any agreement, regardless of whether the agreement is in writing, between the member and the limited liability company, that relates to the affairs of the limited liability company and the conduct of its business, provided that the limited liability company has a manager that is a person other than the member.

B. Adoption and amendment.

1. An operating agreement must initially be agreed to by all of the members. Unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement specifically requires otherwise, an operating agreement need not be in writing.

2. If the articles of organization or an operating agreement does not provide for the manner by which an operating agreement may be amended, then all of the members must agree to any amendment of an operating agreement.

3. If the articles of organization or the operating agreement provide for the manner by which an operating agreement may be amended, including by requiring the approval of a person who is not a party to the operating agreement or requiring the satisfaction of conditions, an operating agreement may be amended only in that manner or as otherwise permitted by law; provided that (i) the approval of any person may be waived by that person and (ii) any conditions may be waived by all persons for whose benefit the conditions were intended.

C. Enforcement of operating agreement.

1. A court of equity may enforce an operating agreement by injunction or by such other relief that the court in its discretion determines to be fair and appropriate in the circumstances.

2. As an alternative to injunctive or other equitable relief, when the provisions of § 13.1-1047 are applicable, the court may order dissolution of the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2005, c. 255; 2009, c. 763; 2012, c. 706.

§ 13.1-1023.1. Remedies for breach of operating agreement by member or manager.

A. An operating agreement may provide that:

1. A member or manager who fails to perform in accordance with, or to comply with terms and conditions of, the operating agreement shall be subject to specified penalties or specified consequences; and

2. At the time or upon the happening of events specified in the operating agreement, a member or manager shall be subject to specified penalties or specified consequences.

The specified penalties or specified consequences may include and take the form of any penalty or consequence set forth in subsection D of § 13.1-1027.

B. In the articles of organization, in writing in an operating agreement or in another writing, a member or manager may consent to or be subject to the nonexclusive jurisdiction of the courts of, or arbitration in, a specified jurisdiction, or the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of the Commonwealth, or the exclusivity of arbitration in a specified jurisdiction of the Commonwealth, and to be served with legal process in a manner prescribed in the articles of organization, an operating agreement, or other writing.

2003, c. 340; 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1024. Management of a limited liability company by a manager or managers.

A. The articles of organization or an operating agreement of a limited liability company may delegate full or partial responsibility for managing a limited liability company to or among one or more managers.

B. Managers need not be residents of this Commonwealth or members of the limited liability company unless the articles of organization or an operating agreement so require. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may prescribe other qualifications for managers.

C. The number of managers shall be fixed by or in the manner provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement. The number of managers may be increased or decreased by amendment to, or in the manner provided in, the articles of organization or an operating agreement.

D. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, managers shall be elected by the members.

E. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, any vacancy occurring in the office of manager shall be filled by a majority vote of the members.

F. All managers or any lesser number may be removed in the manner provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement. If the articles of organization or an operating agreement does not provide for the removal of managers, then all managers or any lesser number may be removed with or without cause by a majority vote of the members.

G. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, any action required or permitted to be taken by the managers of a limited liability company may be taken upon a majority vote of the managers.

H. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a manager of a limited liability company has the power and authority to delegate to one or more other persons the manager's rights and powers to manage and control the business and affairs of the limited liability company, including to delegate to agents, officers and employees of a member or manager of the limited liability company, and to delegate by a management agreement or another agreement with, or otherwise to, other persons. Such persons may be denominated as officers of the limited liability company without being deemed to have the status of a manager, unless designated as a manager in the articles of organization or an operating agreement. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, such delegation by a manager of a limited liability company shall not cause the manager to cease to be a manager of the limited liability company.

I. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the managers of a limited liability company may take any action permitted or required to be taken by the managers without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be signed by managers having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting. A consent transmitted by a manager by electronic transmission shall be deemed to be signed for the purposes of this section. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, on any matter that is to be voted on by managers, the managers may vote in person or by proxy, and any such proxy may be granted in writing, by means of electronic transmission or as otherwise permitted by applicable law.

J. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide for classes or groups of managers having such relative rights, powers, and duties as the articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide, and may make provision for the future creation in the manner provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement of additional classes or groups of managers having such relative rights, powers, and duties as may from time to time be established, including rights, powers, and duties senior to existing classes and groups of managers.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1996, c. 265; 1998, c. 432; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1024.1. General standards of conduct for a manager.

A. A manager shall discharge his or its duties as a manager in accordance with the manager's good faith business judgment of the best interests of the limited liability company.

B. Unless a manager has knowledge or information concerning the matter in question that makes reliance unwarranted, a manager is entitled to rely on information, opinions, reports or statements, including financial statements and other financial data, if prepared or presented by:

1. One or more managers or employees of the limited liability company whom the manager believes, in good faith, to be reliable and competent in the matters presented;

2. Legal counsel, public accountants, or other persons as to matters the manager believes, in good faith, are within the person's professional or expert competence; or

3. A committee of the managers of which the manager is not a member if the manager believes, in good faith, that the committee merits confidence.

C. A person alleging a violation of this section has the burden of proving the violation.

D. For the purposes of this section only, the term "manager" shall be deemed to include any member that is participating in the management of the limited liability company.

1992, c. 574 .

§ 13.1-1025. Limitation of liability of members and managers; exception.

A. In any proceeding brought by or in the right of a limited liability company or brought by or on behalf of members of the limited liability company, the damages assessed against a manager or member arising out of a single transaction, occurrence or course of conduct shall not exceed the lesser of:

1. The monetary amount, including the elimination of liability, specified in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement as a limitation on or elimination of the liability of the manager or member; or

2. The greater of (i) $100,000 or (ii) the amount of cash compensation received by the manager or member from the limited liability company during the twelve months immediately preceding the act or omission for which liability was imposed; however, the cash compensation of a manager or member shall not be deemed to include amounts constituting distributions for the purposes of § 13.1-1035.

B. The liability of a manager or member shall not be limited as provided in this section to the extent otherwise provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, or if the manager or member engaged in willful misconduct or a knowing violation of the criminal law.

C. No limitation on or elimination of liability adopted pursuant to this section may be affected by any amendment of the articles of organization or operating agreement with respect to any act or omission occurring before such amendment.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2002, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1026. Business transactions of members or managers with the limited liability company.

Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member or manager may lend money to and transact other business with the limited liability company and, subject to other applicable law, has the same rights and obligations with respect thereto as a person who is not a member or manager.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1027. Contributions.

A. The contributions of a member to a limited liability company may be in cash, property, or services rendered or a promissory note or other binding obligation to contribute cash or property or to perform services.

B. Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member is obligated to the limited liability company to perform any enforceable promise to contribute cash or property or to perform services, even if he is unable to perform because of death, disability or any other reason. If a member does not make the required contribution of property or services, he is obligated at the option of the limited liability company to contribute cash equal to that portion of the value, as stated in the limited liability company records required to be kept by § 13.1-1028, of such contribution that has not been made.

C. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the obligation of a member to make a contribution or return money or other property paid or distributed in violation of this chapter may be compromised only by consent of all the members. Notwithstanding the compromise, a creditor of a limited liability company who extends credit or otherwise acts in reliance on the original obligation may enforce the original obligation to the extent that, in extending credit, the creditor reasonably relied on the obligation of a member to make a contribution or return. A conditional obligation of a member to make a contribution or return money or other property to a limited liability company may not be enforced unless the conditions of the obligation have been satisfied or waived as to or by such member. Conditional obligations include contributions payable upon a discretionary call of a limited liability company prior to the time the call occurs.

D. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide in writing that the interest of any member who fails to make any contribution that he is obligated to make shall be subject to specified penalties for, or specified consequences of, such failure. Such penalty or consequence may take the form of reducing or eliminating the defaulting member's proportionate interest in a limited liability company, subordinating his interest in the limited liability company to that of nondefaulting members, a forced sale of his interest in the limited liability company, forfeiture of his interest in the limited liability company, the lending by other members of the amount necessary to meet his commitment, a fixing of the value of his interest in the limited liability company by appraisal or by formula and redemption or sale of his interest in the limited liability company at such value, or other penalty or consequence.

E. No promise by a member to contribute to a limited liability company is enforceable unless set out in a writing signed by the member.

F. The contributions of a corporation to a limited liability company of which such corporation is a member may be in the form of an asset for which an application for a project requiring a certificate has been approved by the Commissioner pursuant to the provisions of Title 32.1. No further approval by such Commissioner shall be required as a condition to the validity of the member's contribution of such an asset to the limited liability company if (i) both the member and the limited liability company have their principal offices within the same city or county of the Commonwealth, (ii) such contributing member owns at least one-third of the membership interests of the limited liability company, and (iii) the assets contributed by such member to the limited liability company comprise not more than ten percent of such assets of the member.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168; 1999, c. 966.

§ 13.1-1028. Information and records.

A. Each limited liability company shall, at its discretion, either (i) keep at its principal office or (ii) provide each member access as an electronic record, as defined in § 13.1-603, on a network or system to the following:

1. A current list of the full name and last known business address of each member, in alphabetical order;

2. A copy of the articles of organization and the certificate of organization, and all articles of amendment and certificates of amendment thereto;

3. Copies of the limited liability company's federal, state and local income tax returns and reports, if any, for the three most recent years;

4. Copies of any then-effective written operating agreement and of any financial statements of the limited liability company for the three most recent years; and

5. Unless contained in a written operating agreement, a writing setting out:

a. The amount of cash and a description and statement of the agreed value of the other property or services contributed by each member and which each member has agreed to contribute;

b. The times at which or events on the happening of which any additional contributions agreed to be made by each member are to be made;

c. Any right of a member to receive, or of the limited liability company to make, distributions to a member which include a return of all or any part of the member's contribution; and

d. Any events upon the happening of which the limited liability company is to be dissolved and its affairs wound up.

B. Each member has the right, upon reasonable request, to:

1. Inspect and copy any of the limited liability company records required to be maintained by this section; and

2. Obtain from the manager or managers, or if the limited liability company has no manager or managers, from any member or other person with access to such information, from time to time upon reasonable demand (i) true and full information regarding the state of the business and financial condition of the limited liability company, (ii) promptly after becoming available, a copy of the limited liability company's federal, state and local income tax returns for each year, and (iii) other information regarding the affairs of the limited liability company, except to the extent the information demanded is unreasonable or otherwise improper under the circumstances.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections A and B, the rights of a member to obtain information as provided in such subsections may be restricted in writing in an original operating agreement or any subsequent written amendment to an operating agreement approved or adopted by all of the members and in compliance with any applicable requirements of the operating agreement.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2001, c. 548; 2002, c. 288; 2016, c. 287.

§ 13.1-1029. Sharing of profits and losses.

The profits and losses of a limited liability company shall be allocated among the members, and among classes of members, on the basis provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement. If the articles of organization or an operating agreement does not so provide in writing, profits and losses shall be allocated on the basis of the value, as stated in the limited liability company records required to be kept pursuant to § 13.1-1028, of the contributions made by each member to the extent they have been received by the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168; 1997, c. 190.

§ 13.1-1030. Sharing of distributions.

Distributions of cash or other assets of a limited liability company shall be allocated among the members, and among classes of members, on the basis provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement. If the articles of organization or an operating agreement do not so provide in writing, distributions shall be made on the basis of the value, as stated in the limited liability company records required to be kept pursuant to § 13.1-1028, of the contributions made by each member to the extent they have been received by the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168; 1997, c. 190.

§ 13.1-1031. Interim distributions.

Except as provided in this article, a member is entitled to receive distributions from a limited liability company before the dissolution and winding up thereof to the extent and at the times or upon the happening of the events specified in the articles of organization or an operating agreement.

1991, c. 168; 1996, c. 265.

§ 13.1-1032. Resignation of member.

A member may resign from a limited liability company only to the extent provided for in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168.

§ 13.1-1033. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1995, c. 168.

§ 13.1-1034. Distribution in kind.

Except as provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member, regardless of the nature of his or its contribution, has no right to demand and receive any distribution from a limited liability company in any form other than cash. Except as provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member may not be compelled to accept a distribution of any asset in kind from a limited liability company to the extent that the percentage of the asset distributed to him or it exceeds a percentage of that asset which his or its membership interest constitutes of all membership interests in the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1035. Restrictions on making distribution.

A. No distribution may be made by a limited liability company if, after giving effect to the distribution:

1. The limited liability company would not be able to pay its debts as they became due in the usual course of business; or

2. The limited liability company's total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus, unless the articles of organization or an operating agreement permits otherwise, the amount that would be needed, if the limited liability company were to be dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of members whose preferential rights are superior to the rights of members receiving the distribution.

B. The limited liability company may base a determination that a distribution is not prohibited under subsection A of this section either on:

1. Financial statements prepared on the basis of accounting practices and principles that are reasonable in the circumstances; or

2. A fair valuation or other method that is reasonable in the circumstances.

C. The effect of a distribution under subsection A of this section is measured as of (i) the date the distribution is authorized if the payment occurs within 120 days after the date of authorization or (ii) the date the payment is made if it occurs more than 120 days after the date of authorization.

D. [Repealed.]

E. For the purposes of this section, the term "distribution" shall not include amounts constituting reasonable compensation for present or past services or reasonable payments made in the ordinary course of business pursuant to a bona fide retirement plan or other benefits program.

F. This section shall not apply to distributions in liquidation under Article 9 (§ 13.1-1046 et seq.) of this chapter.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2001, c. 548; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1036. Liability upon wrongful distribution.

If a member has received a distribution in violation of the articles of organization or an operating agreement or in violation of § 13.1-1035 of this chapter, then the member is liable to the limited liability company for a period of two years thereafter for the amount of the distribution wrongfully made.

1991, c. 168; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1037. Right to distribution.

At the time a member becomes entitled to receive a distribution, he or it has the status of, and is entitled to all remedies available to, a creditor of the limited liability company with respect to the distribution.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1038. Nature of interest in limited liability company.

A membership interest in a limited liability company is personal property. The only transferable interest of a member in the limited liability company is the member's share of the profits and losses of the limited liability company and the member's right to receive distributions.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1038.1. Admission of members.

A. Subject to subsection B, a person may become a member in a limited liability company:

1. In the case of a person acquiring a membership interest directly from the limited liability company, upon compliance with an operating agreement or, if the operating agreement does not so provide, upon the consent of a majority of the managers of a manager-managed limited liability company or a majority vote of the members of a member-managed limited liability company;

2. In the case of an assignee of a membership interest, as provided in subsection A of § 13.1-1040;

3. In the case of a limited liability company that has no members as of the commencement of its existence under § 13.1-1004, as provided in any writing signed by both the initial member or members and the managers, if any are designated in the articles of organization, or, if no managers are so designated, the organizers;

4. In the case of a limited liability company the last remaining member of which has dissociated, (i) as provided in a writing executed by the successor in interest of that member, who may provide for the admission of the successor in interest or its nominee or designee to the limited liability company as a member, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, provided that the articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide that the successor in interest of the last remaining member shall be obligated to agree in writing to the admission of the successor in interest of that member or its nominee or designee to the limited liability company as a member, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, or (ii) in the manner provided for in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, effective as of the occurrence of the event that caused the dissociation of the last remaining member, pursuant to a provision of the articles of organization or an operating agreement that specifically provides for the admission of a member to the limited liability company after there is no longer a remaining member of the limited liability company;

5. In the case of a person being admitted as a member of a limited liability company pursuant to a merger approved in accordance with § 13.1-1071, as provided in the articles of merger or an operating agreement of the surviving limited liability company; and

6. In the case of a person being admitted as a member of a limited liability company pursuant to a conversion or domestication of a partnership, non-United States entity, foreign limited liability company, or corporation into a domestic limited liability company in accordance with Article 12.2 (§ 13.1-722.8 et seq.) of Chapter 9 of this title, or, effective on and after November 1, 2006, Article 14 (§ 13.1-1074 et seq.) of Chapter 12 of this title, as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement of the converted or domesticated limited liability company at the time of conversion or domestication.

B. The effective time of admission of a member to a limited liability company shall be the later of:

1. The date the limited liability company is formed; or

2. The time provided in an operating agreement, articles of merger or articles of organization, as applicable, or, if no such time is provided therein, then when the person's admission is reflected in the records of the limited liability company.

C. A person may be admitted to a limited liability company as a member of the limited liability company and may receive a membership interest in the limited liability company without making a contribution or being obligated to make a contribution to the limited liability company. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement:

1. A person may be admitted to a limited liability company as a member of the limited liability company without acquiring a membership interest in the limited liability company; and

2. A person may be admitted as the sole member of a limited liability company without making a contribution or being obligated to make a contribution to the limited liability company or without acquiring a membership interest in the limited liability company.

1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 581; 2001, c. 548; 2005, c. 255; 2006, cc. 748, 912; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1039. Assignment of interest.

A. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a membership interest in a limited liability company is assignable in whole or in part. An assignment of an interest in a limited liability company does not of itself dissolve the limited liability company. Except as provided in subsection A of § 13.1-1040, an assignment does not entitle the assignee to participate in the management and affairs of the limited liability company or to become or to exercise any rights of a member. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, such an assignment entitles the assignee to receive, to the extent assigned, only any share of profits and losses and distributions to which the assignor would be entitled.

B. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a membership interest in a limited liability company may be evidenced by a certificate of interest issued by the limited liability company. The articles of organization or an operating agreement may provide for the assignment or transfer of any interest represented by such a certificate and make other provisions with respect to such certificates.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1998, c. 432; 2006, c. 912; 2013, c. 772.

§ 13.1-1040. Right of assignee to become member.

A. Except as otherwise provided in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, an assignee of an interest in a limited liability company may become a member only by the consent of a majority of the member-managers (other than the assignor member) of a manager-managed limited liability company of which one or more members is a manager, or by a majority vote of the members (other than the assignor member) of any other limited liability company.

B. An assignee who has become a member has, to the extent assigned, the rights and powers, and is subject to the restrictions and liabilities, of a member under the articles of organization, any operating agreement and this chapter. An assignee who becomes a member also is liable for any obligations of his assignor to make contributions and return distributions as provided in Articles 5 (§ 13.1-1022 et seq.) and 6 (§ 13.1-1029 et seq.) of this chapter. However, an assignee who becomes a member is not obligated for liabilities of the assignor unknown to him at the time he or it became a member.

C. If an assignee of an interest in a limited liability company becomes a member, the assignor is not released from his liability under §§ 13.1-1027 and 13.1-1036 to the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168; 1994, c. 348; 1995, c. 168; 1997, c. 190.

§ 13.1-1040.1. Events causing member's dissociation.

Except as otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, a member is dissociated from a limited liability company upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

1. To the extent resignation of a member is provided for in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the limited liability company's having notice of the member's express will to resign as a member on a later date specified by the member in the notice or, if no later date is specified, the date of notice;

2. An event agreed to in the articles of organization or an operating agreement as causing the member's dissociation;

3. The member's expulsion pursuant to the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

4. The member's expulsion by the unanimous vote of the other members if:

a. It is unlawful to carry on the business of the limited liability company with that member; or

b. There has been an assignment or transfer of all or substantially all of that member's membership interest, other than a transfer for security purposes or a court order charging the member's interest;

5. On application by the limited liability company or another member, the member's expulsion by judicial determination because:

a. The member engaged in wrongful conduct that adversely and materially affected the business of the limited liability company;

b. The member willfully or persistently committed a material breach of the articles of organization or an operating agreement; or

c. The member engaged in conduct relating to the business of the limited liability company which makes it not reasonably practicable to carry on the business with the member;

6. The member's:

a. Becoming a debtor in bankruptcy;

b. Executing an assignment for the benefit of creditors;

c. Seeking, consenting to, or acquiescing in the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of that member or of all or substantially all of that member's property; or

d. Failing, within ninety days after the appointment, to have vacated or stayed the appointment of a trustee, receiver, or liquidator of the member or of all or substantially all of the member's property obtained without the member's consent or acquiescence, or failing within ninety days after the expiration of a stay to have the appointment vacated;

7. In the case of a member who is an individual:

a. The member's death;

b. The appointment of a guardian, committee or conservator for the member; or

c. A judicial determination that the member has otherwise become incapable of performing the member's duties under the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

8. In the case of a member that is a trust or is acting as a member by virtue of being a trustee of a trust, distribution of the trust's entire transferable interest in the limited liability company, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor trustee;

9. In the case of a member that is an estate or is acting as a member by virtue of being a personal representative of an estate, distribution of the estate's entire transferable interest in the limited liability company, but not merely by reason of the substitution of a successor personal representative;

10. Termination of a member who is not an individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, or estate;

11. The expiration of ninety days after the limited liability company notifies a corporate member that it will be expelled because it has filed articles of dissolution or the equivalent, its existence has been terminated or its charter has been revoked, or its right to conduct business has been suspended by the jurisdiction of its incorporation, if there is no revocation of the certificate of dissolution or no reinstatement of its existence, its charter or its right to conduct business; or

12. A partnership or limited liability company that is a member has been dissolved and its business is being wound up.

1998, c. 432; 2002, c. 288; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1040.2. Effect of a member's dissociation.

A. Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the dissociation of a member shall not affect the membership interest held by the dissociated member or the former member's successor in interest. The former member or successor in interest shall continue to hold a membership interest and shall have the same rights that an assignee of the membership interest would have under subsection A of § 13.1-1039.

B. Except as provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, the dissociation of a member shall not cause the limited liability company to be dissolved or its affairs to be wound up, and, upon the occurrence of any such event, the limited liability company shall be continued without dissolution.

2000, c. 581; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1041. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1041.1. Member's transferable interest subject to charging order.

A. On application by a judgment creditor of a member or of a member's assignee, a court having jurisdiction may charge the transferable interest of the judgment debtor to satisfy the judgment. To the extent so charged, the judgment creditor has only the right to receive any distribution or distributions to which the judgment debtor would otherwise have been entitled in respect of the interest.

B. A charging order constitutes a lien on the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the limited liability company.

C. This chapter does not deprive a member or a member's assignee of a right under exemption laws with respect to the judgment debtor's interest in the limited liability company.

D. The entry of a charging order is the exclusive remedy by which a judgment creditor of a member or of a member's assignee may satisfy a judgment out of the judgment debtor's transferable interest in the limited liability company.

E. No creditor of a member or of a member's assignee shall have any right to obtain possession of, or otherwise exercise legal or equitable remedies with respect to, the property of the limited liability company.

2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1042. Right of action; standing; condition precedent; stay of proceeding.

A. A member shall not commence or maintain a derivative proceeding unless the member fairly and adequately represents the interests of the limited liability company in enforcing the right of the limited liability company and is a proper plaintiff pursuant to § 13.1-1043.

B. No member may commence a derivative proceeding until:

1. A written demand has been made on the limited liability company to take suitable action; and

2. Ninety days have expired from the date delivery of the demand was made unless (i) the member has been notified before the expiration of 90 days that the demand has been rejected by the limited liability company or (ii) irreparable injury to the limited liability company would result by waiting until the end of the 90-day period.

C. If the limited liability company commences a review and evaluation of the allegations made in the demand or complaint, the court may stay any derivative proceeding for such period as the court deems appropriate.

1991, c. 168; 2011, c. 379.

§ 13.1-1043. Proper plaintiff.

In a derivative action, the plaintiff shall be a member at the time of bringing the action and (i) shall have been a member at the time of the transaction of which he or it complains or (ii) his or its status as a member shall have devolved upon him or it by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of the articles of organization or an operating agreement from a person who was a member at the time of the transaction.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1044. Pleading.

In derivative action, the complaint shall set forth with particularity the effort of the plaintiff to secure commencement of the action by a member or manager with the authority to do so or the reasons for not making the effort.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1045. Expenses.

If a derivative action is successful, in whole or in part, or if anything is received by the plaintiff as a result of a judgment, compromise or settlement of an action or claim, except as hereinafter provided, the court may award the plaintiff reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, and shall direct the plaintiff to remit to the limited liability company the remainder of those proceeds received by him or it. On termination of the derivative action, the court may require the plaintiff to pay any defendant's reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, incurred in defending the action if it finds that the action was commenced without reasonable cause or the plaintiff did not fairly and adequately represent the interests of the members and the limited liability company in enforcing the right of the limited liability company.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1046. Dissolution; generally.

A limited liability company organized under this chapter is dissolved and its affairs shall be wound up upon the happening of the first to occur of the following events:

1. At the time or on the happening of any events specified in writing in the articles of organization or an operating agreement;

2. Upon the unanimous written consent of the members;

3. The entry of a decree of judicial dissolution under § 13.1-1047;

4. Automatic cancellation of its existence pursuant to § 13.1-1050.2; or

5. Involuntary cancellation of its existence pursuant to § 13.1-1050.3.

1991, c. 168; 1994, c. 348; 1995, c. 168; 1996, c. 265; 1997, c. 190; 1998, c. 432; 2000, c. 581; 2001, c. 548; 2008, cc. 108, 588, 770; 2009, c. 167.

§ 13.1-1047. Judicial dissolution.

A. On application by or for a member, the circuit court of the locality in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located may decree dissolution of a limited liability company if it is not reasonably practicable to carry on the business in conformity with the articles of organization and any operating agreement.

B. When the winding up of the affairs of the limited liability company has been completed, the court shall so advise the Commission, which shall enter an order of cancellation of the limited liability company's existence.

1991, c. 168; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1047.1. Waiver of cancellation.

Except in the case of an event of dissolution described in subdivision 4 or 5 of § 13.1-1046, at any time after the dissolution of a limited liability company and before the winding up of its business is completed, all of the members may waive the right to have the limited liability company's business wound up and its existence canceled. In that event:

1. The limited liability company resumes carrying on its business as if dissolution had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the limited liability company or a member after the dissolution and before the waiver is determined as if dissolution had never occurred; and

2. The rights of a third party arising out of conduct in reliance on the dissolution before the third party knew or received a notification of the waiver may not be adversely affected.

2012, c. 706.

§ 13.1-1048. Winding up.

A. The winding up of a limited liability company shall be completed when all debts, liabilities, and obligations of the limited liability company have been paid and discharged or reasonably adequate provision therefor has been made, and all of the remaining property and assets of the limited liability company have been distributed to the members.

B. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, upon the dissolution of a limited liability company, the members may wind up the limited liability company's affairs; however, the circuit court of the locality in which the registered office of the limited liability company is located, on cause shown, may wind up the limited liability company's affairs on application of any member, his legal representative, or assignee, and in connection therewith, may appoint one or more liquidating trustees.

C. Upon dissolution of a limited liability company and until the effective date of a certificate of cancellation issued pursuant to § 13.1-1050, the liquidating trustees, in the name and on behalf of the limited liability company, may (i) prosecute and defend suits, whether civil, criminal or administrative, (ii) wind up the limited liability company's business, (iii) dispose of and convey the limited liability company's property, (iv) discharge or make reasonable provision for the limited liability company's liabilities, and (v) distribute to the members any remaining assets of the limited liability company, all without affecting the liability of members and without imposing the liability of a general partner on a liquidating trustee.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 168; 2002, c. 288; 2004, c. 601; 2006, c. 748; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1049. Distribution of assets upon dissolution.

Upon the winding up of a limited liability company, the assets of the limited liability company shall be distributed as follows:

1. To creditors, including members who are creditors, to the extent permitted by law, in satisfaction of liabilities of the limited liability company other than for distributions to members under § 13.1-1031;

2. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, to members and former members in satisfaction of liabilities for distributions under § 13.1-1031; and

3. Unless otherwise provided in the articles of organization or an operating agreement, to members first for the return of their contributions and second with respect to their interests in the limited liability company, in the proportions in which the members share in distributions.

1991, c. 168; 1996, c. 265.

§ 13.1-1049.1. Known claims against dissolved limited liability company.

A. A dissolved limited liability company may dispose of the known claims against it by following the procedure described in this section.

B. The dissolved limited liability company shall deliver to each of its known claimants written notice of the dissolution at any time after its effective date. The written notice shall:

1. Provide a reasonable description of the claim that the claimant may be entitled to assert;

2. State whether the claim is admitted, or not admitted, and if admitted (i) the amount that is admitted, which may be as of a given date, and (ii) any interest obligation if fixed by an instrument of indebtedness;

3. Provide a mailing address where a claim may be sent;

4. State a deadline, which may not be fewer than 120 days from the effective date of the written notice, by which confirmation of the claim shall be delivered to the dissolved limited liability company; and

5. State that, except to the extent that any claim is admitted, the claim will be barred if written confirmation of the claim is not delivered by the deadline.

C. A claim against the dissolved limited liability company is barred to the extent that it is not admitted:

1. If the dissolved limited liability company delivered written notice to the claimant in accordance with subsection B and the claimant does not deliver written confirmation of the claim to the dissolved limited liability company by the deadline; or

2. If the dissolved limited liability company delivered written notice to the claimant that its claim is not admitted, in whole or in part, and the claimant does not commence a proceeding to enforce the claim within 90 days from the effective date of such notice.

D. For purposes of this section, "claim" does not include (i) a contingent liability or a claim based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution or (ii) a liability or claim the ultimate maturity of which is more than 60 days after the delivery of written notice to the claimant pursuant to subsection B.

E. If a liability exists but the full extent of any damages is or may not be ascertainable, and a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced pursuant to subdivision C 2, the claimant may amend the pleadings after filing to include any damages that occurred or are alleged to have occurred after filing, and the court having jurisdiction of such claim may continue such proceeding during its pendency if it appears that further damages are or still may be occurring.

2004, c. 601; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1049.2. Other claims against dissolved limited liability company.

A. A dissolved limited liability company may also publish notice of its dissolution and request that persons with claims against the dissolved limited liability company present them in accordance with the notice.

B. The notice shall:

1. Be published one time in a newspaper of general circulation in the city or county where the dissolved limited liability company's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located;

2. Describe the information that must be included in a claim and provide a mailing address where the claim may be sent; and

3. State that a claim against the dissolved limited liability company will be barred unless a proceeding to enforce the claim is commenced prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the date of publication of the notice.

C. If the dissolved limited liability company publishes a newspaper notice in accordance with subsection B, the claim of each of the following claimants is barred unless the claimant commences a proceeding to enforce the claim against the dissolved limited liability company prior to the earlier of the expiration of any applicable statute of limitations or three years after the publication date of the newspaper notice:

1. A claimant who was not given written notice under § 13.1-1049.1;

2. A claimant whose claim was timely sent to the dissolved limited liability company but not acted on; and

3. A claimant whose claim does not meet the definition of a claim in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.1.

D. A claim that is not barred by subsection C of § 13.1-1049.1 or subsection C of § 13.1-1049.2 may be enforced:

1. Against the dissolved limited liability company, to the extent of its undistributed assets; or

2. Except as provided in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.3, if the assets have been distributed in liquidation, against a member of the dissolved limited liability company to the extent of the member's pro rata share of the claim or the limited liability company assets distributed to the member in liquidation, whichever is less, but a member's total liability for all claims under this section may not exceed the total amount of assets distributed to the member.

2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1049.3. Court proceedings.

A. A dissolved limited liability company that has complied with the notice requirements of § 13.1-1049.2 may file an application with the circuit court of the city or county where the dissolved limited liability company's principal office, or, if none in the Commonwealth, its registered office, is or was last located for a determination of the amount and form of security to be provided for payment of claims that (i) are contingent or have not been made known to the dissolved limited liability company or that are based on an event occurring after the effective date of dissolution but that, based on the facts known to the dissolved limited liability company, are reasonably estimated to arise after the effective date of dissolution or (ii) are based on a liability the ultimate maturity of which is more than 60 days after delivery of written notice to the claimant pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-1049.1. Provision need not be made for any claim that is or is reasonably anticipated to be barred under subsection C of § 13.1-1049.2.

B. Within 10 days after the filing of the application, notice of the proceeding shall be given by the dissolved limited liability company to each claimant holding a contingent claim whose contingent claim is shown on the records of the dissolved limited liability company.

C. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem to represent all claimants whose identities are unknown in any proceeding brought under this section. The reasonable fees and expenses of such guardian, including all reasonable expert witness fees, shall be paid by the dissolved limited liability company.

D. Provision by the dissolved limited liability company for security in the amount and the form ordered by the court under subsection A shall satisfy the dissolved limited liability company's obligations with respect to claims that do not meet the definition of a claim in subsection D of § 13.1-1049.1, and such claims may not be enforced against a member who received assets in liquidation.

2006, c. 912; 2009, c. 763.

§ 13.1-1050. Articles of cancellation.

A. When the affairs of a limited liability company have been wound up pursuant to § 13.1-1048, it shall file articles of cancellation with the Commission. The articles shall set forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company;

2. The identification number issued by the Commission to the limited liability company;

3. The effective date of its certificate of organization;

4. A statement that the limited liability company has completed the winding up of its affairs; and

5. Any other information the members determine to include therein, including the reason for filing the articles of cancellation.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of cancellation comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall by order issue a certificate of cancellation, canceling the limited liability company's existence. Upon the effective date of such certificate, the existence of the limited liability company shall cease, except for the purpose of suits, other proceedings, and appropriate actions by members as provided in this chapter.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 748; 2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2008, c. 108, cl. 2, effective April 1, 2009.

§ 13.1-1050.2. Automatic cancellation of limited liability company existence.

A. Whether or not the notice described in subsection B of § 13.1-1064 is mailed, if any limited liability company fails to pay its annual registration fee on or before the last day of the third month immediately following its annual registration fee due date each year, the existence of the limited liability company shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

B. If any limited liability company whose registered agent has filed with the Commission a statement of resignation pursuant to § 13.1-1017 fails to file a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016 within 31 days after the date on which the statement of resignation was filed, the Commission shall mail notice to the limited liability company of the impending cancellation of its existence. If the limited liability company fails to file the statement of change on or before the last day of the second month immediately following the month in which the impending cancellation notice was mailed, the existence of the limited liability company shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

C. The properties and affairs of a limited liability company whose existence has been canceled pursuant to this section shall pass automatically to its managers, or if the limited liability company is managed by its members, then to its members, or if the limited liability company has no managers or members, then to the holders of its interests, in each such case as trustees in liquidation. The trustees shall then proceed to (i) collect the assets of the limited liability company; (ii) sell, convey, and dispose of such of its properties as are not to be distributed in kind to its members; (iii) pay, satisfy, and discharge its liabilities and obligations; and (iv) do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets, either in cash or in kind, among its members or interest holders according to their respective rights and interests.

D. No member, manager or other agent of a limited liability company shall have any personal obligation for any liabilities of the limited liability company, whether such liabilities arise in contract, tort, or otherwise, solely by reason of the cancellation of the limited liability company's existence pursuant to this section.

2008, c. 108; 2010, c. 703; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.3. Involuntary cancellation of limited liability company existence.

A. The existence of a limited liability company may be canceled involuntarily by order of the Commission when it finds that the limited liability company has:

1. Continued to exceed or abuse the authority conferred upon it by law;

2. Failed to maintain a registered office or a registered agent in the Commonwealth as required by law;

3. Failed to file any document required by this chapter to be filed with the Commission; or

4. Been convicted for a violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a (f), as amended, for actions of its members or managers constituting a pattern or practice of employing unauthorized aliens in the Commonwealth.

B. Before entering any such order, the Commission shall issue a rule against the limited liability company giving it an opportunity to be heard and show cause why such an order should not be entered. The Commission may issue the rule on its own motion or on motion of the Attorney General.

C. The properties and affairs of a limited liability company whose existence has been canceled pursuant to this section shall pass automatically to its managers, or if the limited liability company is managed by its members, then to its members, or if the limited liability company has no managers or members, then to the holders of its interests, in each such case as trustees in liquidation. The trustees shall then proceed to (i) collect the assets of the limited liability company; (ii) sell, convey, and dispose of such of its properties as are not to be distributed in kind to its members; (iii) pay, satisfy, and discharge its liabilities and obligations; and (iv) do all other acts required to liquidate its business and affairs. After paying or adequately providing for the payment of all its obligations, the trustees shall distribute the remainder of its assets, either in cash or in kind, among its members or interest holders according to their respective rights and interests.

D. Any limited liability company convicted of the offense listed in subdivision A 4 shall immediately report such conviction to the Commission and file with the Commission an authenticated copy of the judgment or record of conviction. A limited liability company whose existence is canceled pursuant to subdivision A 4 shall not be eligible for reinstatement for a period of not less than one year.

2008, c. 108; 2009, c. 167.

§ 13.1-1050.4. Reinstatement of a limited liability company that has ceased to exist.

A. A limited liability company that has ceased to exist may apply to the Commission for reinstatement within five years thereafter, unless the cancellation was by order of the Commission (i) entered pursuant to subdivision A 1 of § 13.1-1050.3 or (ii) entered pursuant to § 13.1-1047 and the circuit court's decree directing dissolution contains no provision for reinstatement of the existence of the limited liability company.

B. To have its existence reinstated, a limited liability company shall provide the Commission with the following:

1. An application for reinstatement, which may be in the form of a letter, that includes the identification number issued by the Commission to the limited liability company;

2. A reinstatement fee of $100;

3. All annual registration fees and penalties that were due before the limited liability company ceased to exist and that would have been assessed or imposed to the date of reinstatement if the limited liability company's existence had not been canceled;

4. If the name of the limited liability company does not comply with the provisions of § 13.1-1012 at the time of reinstatement, articles of amendment to the articles of organization to change the limited liability company's name to a name that satisfies the provisions of § 13.1-1012, with the fee required by this chapter for the filing of articles of amendment; and

5. If the limited liability company's registered agent has filed a statement of resignation and a new registered agent has not been appointed, a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016.

C. If the limited liability company complies with the provisions of this section, the Commission shall enter an order of reinstatement of existence. Upon entry of the order, the existence of the limited liability company shall be deemed to have continued from the date of the cancellation as if cancellation had never occurred, and any liability incurred by the limited liability company or a member, manager, or other agent after the cancellation and before the reinstatement is determined as if cancellation of the limited liability company's existence had never occurred.

2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1050.5. Survival of remedy after cancellation of existence.

The cancellation of existence of a limited liability company shall not take away or impair any remedy available to or against the limited liability company or its members or managers for any right or claim existing, or any liability incurred, before the cancellation. Any action or proceeding by or against the limited liability company may be prosecuted or defended by the limited liability company in its name. The members or managers shall have power to take limited liability company action or other action as shall be appropriate to protect any remedy, right, or claim.

2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1051. Authority to transact business required; governing law.

A. A foreign limited liability company may not transact business in the Commonwealth until it obtains a certificate of registration from the Commission.

B. Subject to the Constitution of the Commonwealth:

1. The laws of the state or other jurisdiction under which a foreign limited liability company is formed govern its formation and internal affairs and the liability of its members and managers; and

2. A foreign limited liability company may not be denied a certificate of registration by reason of any difference between those laws and the laws of the Commonwealth.

However, a foreign limited liability company holding a valid certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth shall have no greater rights and privileges than a domestic limited liability company. The certificate of registration shall not be deemed to authorize the foreign limited liability company to exercise any of its powers or purposes that a domestic limited liability company is forbidden by law to exercise in the Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1052. Application for certificate of registration.

A. A foreign limited liability company may apply to the Commission for a certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth. The application shall be made on a form prescribed and furnished by the Commission. The application shall set forth:

1. The name of the foreign limited liability company and, if the limited liability company is prevented by § 13.1-1054 from using its own name in the Commonwealth, a designated name that satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1054;

2. The name of the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it is formed, its date of formation and period of duration, and if the limited liability company was previously authorized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth as a foreign corporation, limited liability company, business trust, limited partnership, or registered limited liability partnership, with respect to every prior authorization or registration, (i) the name of the entity; (ii) the entity type; (iii) the state or other jurisdiction of incorporation, organization or formation; and (iv) the entity identification number issued to it by the Commission;

3. The address of the proposed registered office of the foreign limited liability company in the Commonwealth (including both (i) the post office address with street and number, if any, and (ii) the name of the county or city in which it is located) and the name of its proposed registered agent in the Commonwealth at that address and a statement that the registered agent is either (a) an individual who is a resident of the Commonwealth and is either (1) a member or manager of the limited liability company, (2) a member or manager of a limited liability company that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (3) an officer or director of a corporation that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (4) a general partner of a general or limited partnership that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, (5) a trustee of a trust that is a member or manager of the limited liability company, or (6) a member of the Virginia State Bar, or (b) a domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, limited liability company, or registered limited liability partnership authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth, the business office of which is identical with the registered office;

4. A statement that the clerk of the Commission is irrevocably appointed the agent of the foreign limited liability company for service of process if the foreign limited liability company fails to maintain a registered agent in the Commonwealth as required by § 13.1-1015, the registered agent's authority has been revoked, the registered agent has resigned, or the registered agent cannot be found or served with the exercise of reasonable diligence;

5. The post office address, including the street and number, if any, of the foreign limited liability company's principal office; and

6. A statement evidencing that the foreign limited liability company is a "foreign limited liability company" as defined in § 13.1-1002.

B. The foreign limited liability company shall deliver with the completed application a copy of its articles of organization or other constituent documents and all amendments and corrections thereto filed in the foreign limited liability company's state or other jurisdiction of organization, duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of the limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it is organized.

C. If the Commission finds that the application complies with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1996, c. 265; 2002, c. 608; 2004, c. 274; 2008, c. 108; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1053. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2008, c. 108, cl. 2, effective April 1, 2009.

§ 13.1-1054. Name of foreign limited liability company.

A. No certificate of registration shall be issued to a foreign limited liability company unless the name of the foreign limited liability company satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1012.

B. If the name of a foreign limited liability company does not satisfy the requirements of § 13.1-1012, to obtain or maintain a certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth:

1. The foreign limited liability company may adopt a designated name for use in the Commonwealth that adds the words "limited company" or "limited liability company" or the abbreviation "L.C.," "LC," "L.L.C." or "LLC" to its name or, if it is a professional limited liability company, the words "professional company" or "professional limited liability company" or the initials "P.L.C.," "PLC," "P.L.L.C.," or "PLLC" at the end of its name, if it informs the Commission of its designated name; or

2. If its real name is unavailable, the foreign limited liability company may adopt a designated name that is available, and which satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1012, if it informs the Commission of the designated name.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 1996, c. 265; 2012, c. 63; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1055. Amendments; amended applications for registration.

A. A foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth shall promptly file with the Commission an amended application for registration on a form prescribed and furnished by the Commission:

1. If any statement in the application for registration was false when made or any arrangements or other facts described have changed, making the application inaccurate in any respect; or

2. To abandon or change the designated name adopted by the limited liability company for use in the Commonwealth pursuant to subsection B of § 13.1-1054.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, the manner by which a foreign limited liability company shall change its registered office or principal office is by filing a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016 or 13.1-1018.1, as the case may be.

C. Whenever the articles of organization or other constituent document of a foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth is amended or corrected, the foreign limited liability company shall promptly deliver to the Commission for filing a copy of the amendment or correction duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of the limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction of its organization.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 574; 2003, c. 370; 2008, c. 108; 2009, c. 450; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1056. Voluntary cancellation of certificate of registration.

A. A foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth may apply to the Commission for a certificate of cancellation to cancel its certificate of registration. The application shall be on a form prescribed and furnished by the Commission, which shall set forth:

1. The name of the foreign limited liability company, the name of the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it is or was formed, and the identification number issued by the Commission to the foreign limited liability company;

2. If applicable, a statement that the foreign limited liability company was a party to a merger permitted by the laws of the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws it was organized and that it was not the surviving entity of the merger, or has converted to another type of entity under the laws of the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it was formed;

3. That the foreign limited liability company is not transacting business in the Commonwealth and that it surrenders its registration to transact business in the Commonwealth;

4. That the foreign limited liability company revokes the authority of its registered agent to accept service on its behalf and appoints the clerk of the Commission as its agent for service of process in any proceeding based on a cause of action arising during the time it was authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth;

5. A mailing address to which the clerk of the Commission may mail a copy of any process served on him under subdivision 4; and

6. A commitment to notify the clerk of the Commission in the future of any change in the mailing address of the foreign limited liability company.

B. The Commission shall not issue a certificate of cancellation to any foreign limited liability company unless the foreign limited liability company files with the Commission a statement certifying that the foreign limited liability company has filed returns and has paid all state taxes to the time of the certificate, or a statement that no returns are required to be filed or taxes are required to be paid. In that case the foreign limited liability company may file returns and pay taxes before they would otherwise be due. If the Commission finds that the application complies with the requirements of law and all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of cancellation canceling the certificate of registration.

C. Before any foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth cancels its existence, it shall deliver to the Commission for filing an application for a certificate of cancellation. Whether or not an application is filed, the cancellation of the existence of a foreign limited liability company shall not take away or impair any remedy available against the foreign limited liability company for any right or claim existing or any liability incurred before the cancellation. Any action or proceeding against a foreign limited liability company whose existence has been canceled may be defended by the foreign limited liability company in its name. The members, managers, and officers shall have power to take any action as shall be appropriate to protect any remedy, right, or claim. The right of a foreign limited liability company whose existence has been canceled to institute and maintain in its name actions, suits, or proceedings in the courts of the Commonwealth shall be governed by the law of the state or other jurisdiction of its organization.

D. Service of process on the clerk of the Commission is service of process on a foreign limited liability company whose certificate of registration has been canceled pursuant to this section. Service upon the clerk shall be made in accordance with § 12.1-19.1, and service upon the foreign limited liability company may be made in any other manner permitted by law.

1991, c. 168; 2008, cc. 588, 770; 2009, c. 167; 2012, c. 130; 2013, c. 17; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1056.1. Automatic cancellation of certificate of registration.

A. Whether or not the notice described in subsection B of § 13.1-1064 is mailed, if any foreign limited liability company fails to pay its annual registration fee on or before the last day of the third month immediately following its annual registration fee due date each year, such foreign limited liability company shall automatically cease to be authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth and its certificate of registration shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

B. If any foreign limited liability company whose registered agent has filed with the Commission a statement of resignation pursuant to § 13.1-1017 fails to file a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016 within 31 days after the date on which the statement of resignation was filed, the Commission shall mail notice to the foreign limited liability company of the impending cancellation of its certificate of registration. If the foreign limited liability company fails to file the statement of change on or before the last day of the second month immediately following the month in which the impending cancellation notice was mailed, the foreign limited liability company shall automatically cease to be authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth and its certificate of registration shall be automatically canceled as of that day.

C. The automatic cancellation of a foreign limited liability company's certificate of registration constitutes the appointment of the clerk of the Commission as the foreign limited liability company's agent for service of process in any proceeding based on a cause of action arising during the time the foreign limited liability company was registered to transact business in the Commonwealth. Service of process on the clerk of the Commission under this subsection is service on the foreign limited liability company and shall be made on the clerk in accordance with § 12.1-19.1.

D. Cancellation of a foreign limited liability company's certificate of registration does not terminate the authority of the registered agent of the foreign limited liability company.

2008, c. 108; 2010, c. 703; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1056.2. Involuntary cancellation of certificate of registration.

A. The certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth of any foreign limited liability company may be canceled involuntarily by order of the Commission when it finds that the foreign limited liability company:

1. Has continued to exceed or abuse the authority conferred upon it by law;

2. Has failed to maintain a registered office or a registered agent in the Commonwealth as required by law;

3. Has failed to file any document required by this chapter to be filed with the Commission;

4. No longer exists under the laws of the state or other jurisdiction of its organization; or

5. Has been convicted for a violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a (f), as amended, for actions of its members or managers constituting a pattern or practice of employing unauthorized aliens in the Commonwealth.

B. Before entering any such order the Commission shall issue a rule against the foreign limited liability company giving it an opportunity to be heard and show cause why such an order should not be entered. The Commission may issue the rule on its own motion or on motion of the Attorney General.

C. The authority of a foreign limited liability company to transact business in the Commonwealth ceases on the date shown on the order canceling its certificate of registration.

D. The Commission's cancellation of a foreign limited liability company's certificate of registration appoints the clerk of the Commission the foreign limited liability company's agent for service of process in any proceeding based on a cause of action arising during the time the foreign limited liability company was registered to transact business in the Commonwealth. Service of process on the clerk of the Commission under this subsection is service on the foreign limited liability company and shall be made on the clerk in accordance with § 12.1-19.1.

E. Cancellation of a foreign limited liability company's certificate of registration does not terminate the authority of the registered agent of the foreign limited liability company.

F. Any foreign limited liability company convicted of the offense listed in subdivision A 5 shall immediately report such conviction to the Commission and file with the Commission an authenticated copy of the judgment or record of conviction. A certificate of registration canceled pursuant to subdivision A 5 shall not be eligible for reinstatement for a period of not less than one year.

2008, c. 108; 2009, c. 167.

§ 13.1-1056.3. Reinstatement of a certificate of registration that has been canceled.

A. A foreign limited liability company whose certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth has been canceled may be relieved of the cancellation and have its certificate of registration reinstated by the Commission within five years of the date of cancellation unless the certificate of registration was canceled by order of the Commission entered pursuant to subdivision A 1 of § 13.1-1056.2.

B. To have its certificate of registration reinstated, a foreign limited liability company shall provide the Commission with the following:

1. An application for reinstatement, which may be in the form of a letter, that includes the identification number issued by the Commission to the limited liability company;

2. A reinstatement fee of $100;

3. All annual registration fees and penalties that were due before the certificate of registration was canceled and that would have been assessed or imposed to the date of reinstatement if the limited liability company had not had its certificate of registration canceled;

4. A duly authenticated copy of any amendments or corrections made to the articles of organization or other constituent documents of the foreign limited liability company and any mergers entered into by the foreign limited liability company from the date of cancellation of its certificate of registration to the date of its application for reinstatement, along with an amended application for registration if required for an amendment or a correction, and all fees required by this chapter for the filing of such instruments;

5. If the name of the foreign limited liability company does not comply with the provisions of § 13.1-1054 at the time of reinstatement, an amended application for registration to adopt a designated name for use in the Commonwealth that satisfies the requirements of § 13.1-1054, with the fee required by this chapter for the filing of an amended application for registration; and

6. If the foreign limited liability company's registered agent has filed a statement of resignation and a new registered agent has not been appointed, a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016.

C. If the foreign limited liability company complies with the provisions of this section, the Commission shall enter an order of reinstatement, reinstating the foreign limited liability company's certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth.

2008, c. 108; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1057. Transaction of business without registration.

A. A foreign limited liability company transacting business in the Commonwealth may not maintain any action, suit, or proceeding in any court of the Commonwealth until it has registered in the Commonwealth.

B. The successor to a foreign limited liability company that transacted business in the Commonwealth without registering in the Commonwealth and the assignee of a cause of action arising out of that business may not maintain a proceeding based on that cause of action in any court in the Commonwealth until the foreign limited liability company or its successor has registered in the Commonwealth.

C. The failure of a foreign limited liability company to register in the Commonwealth does not impair the validity of any contract or act of the foreign limited liability company or prevent the foreign limited liability company from defending any action, suit, or proceeding in any court of the Commonwealth.

D. If a foreign limited liability company transacts business in the Commonwealth without a certificate of registration, each member, manager or employee of the limited liability company who does any of such business in the Commonwealth knowing that a certificate of registration is required and has not been obtained shall be liable for a penalty of not less than $500 and not more than $5,000 to be imposed by the Commission, after the limited liability company and the individual have been given notice and an opportunity to be heard.

E. Suits, actions, and proceedings may be initiated against a foreign limited liability company that transacts business in the Commonwealth without a certificate of registration by serving process on any manager, managing member, or agent of the limited liability company doing such business or, if none can be found, on the clerk of the Commission or on the limited liability company in any other manner permitted by law. If any foreign limited liability company transacts business in the Commonwealth without a certificate of registration, it shall by transacting such business be deemed to have thereby appointed the clerk of the Commission its agent for service of process. Service upon the clerk shall be made in accordance with § 12.1-19.1.

1991, c. 168; 2006, c. 912; 2008, c. 523; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1058. Actions by Attorney General.

The Attorney General may bring an action to restrain a foreign limited liability company from transacting business in this Commonwealth in violation of this article.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1059. Transactions not constituting doing business.

A. The following activities of a foreign limited liability company, among others, do not constitute transacting business within the meaning of this article:

1. Maintaining, defending, or settling any proceeding;

2. Holding meetings of its members or carrying on any other activities concerning its internal affairs;

3. Maintaining bank accounts;

4. Maintaining offices or agencies for the transfer, exchange and registration of the foreign limited liability company's securities or maintaining trustees or depositaries with respect to those securities;

5. Selling through independent contractors;

6. Soliciting or obtaining orders, whether by mail or through employees or agents or otherwise, if the orders require acceptance outside this Commonwealth before they become contracts;

7. Creating or acquiring indebtedness, deeds of trust, and security interests in real or personal property;

8. Securing or collecting debts or enforcing deeds of trust and security interests in property securing the debts;

9. Owning, without more, real or personal property;

10. Conducting an isolated transaction that is completed within 30 days and that is not one in the course of repeated transactions of a like nature;

11. For a period of less than 90 consecutive days, producing, directing, filming, crewing or acting in motion picture feature films, television series or commercials, or promotional films that are sent outside of the Commonwealth for processing, editing, marketing and distribution; or

12. Serving, without more, as a general partner of, or as a partner in a partnership that is a general partner of, a domestic or foreign limited partnership that does not otherwise transact business in the Commonwealth.

B. The term "transacting business" as used in this section shall have no effect on personal jurisdiction under § 8.01-328.1.

C. The list of activities in subsection A of this section is not exhaustive. This section does not apply in determining the contracts or activities that may subject a foreign limited liability company to service of process or taxation in this Commonwealth or to regulation under any other law of this Commonwealth.

1991, c. 168; 1996, c. 265; 2004, c. 601.

§ 13.1-1060. Merger of foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in Commonwealth.

A. Whenever a foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth is a party to a merger permitted by the laws of the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws it is organized, and that limited liability company is the surviving entity of the merger, it shall, within 30 days after the merger becomes effective, deliver to the Commission for filing a copy of the instrument of merger duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it is organized. However, the filing shall not be required when a foreign limited liability company merges with a domestic corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership, business trust, or partnership; the foreign limited liability company's articles of organization or other constituent documents are not amended by the merger; and the articles or statement of merger filed on behalf of the domestic corporation, limited liability company, limited partnership, business trust, or partnership pursuant to § 13.1-720, 13.1-1072, 13.1-1261, 50-73.48:3, or 50-73.131 contains a statement that the merger is permitted under the laws of the state or other jurisdiction in which the foreign limited liability company is organized and that the foreign limited liability company has complied with that law in effecting the merger.

B. Whenever a foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth is a party to a merger permitted by the laws of the state or other jurisdiction under the laws of which it is organized, and that limited liability company is not the surviving entity of the merger, the surviving partnership, limited liability company, business trust, limited partnership, or corporation shall, if not continuing to transact business in the Commonwealth, within 30 days after the merger becomes effective, deliver to the Commission a copy of the instrument of merger duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose law it was organized, and comply in behalf of the predecessor limited liability company with § 13.1-1056. If a surviving business trust, registered limited liability partnership, limited liability company, limited partnership, or corporation is to continue to transact business in the Commonwealth and has not registered as a foreign registered limited liability partnership, limited liability company, business trust, or limited partnership or received a certificate of authority to transact business in the Commonwealth as a foreign corporation, as the case may be, it shall, within 30 days after the merger becomes effective, deliver to the Commission an application, if a foreign registered limited liability partnership, for registration as a foreign registered limited liability partnership, if a foreign limited liability company, for registration as a foreign limited liability company, if a foreign business trust, for registration as a foreign business trust, if a foreign limited partnership, for registration as a foreign limited partnership, or, if a foreign corporation, for a certificate of authority to transact business in the Commonwealth, together with a duly authenticated copy of the instrument of merger and also a copy of its partnership certificate, statement of registered limited liability partnership, articles of organization, articles of trust, certificate of limited partnership, or articles of incorporation and all amendments thereto, duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of registered limited liability partnership, limited liability company, business trust, limited partnership, or corporate records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws it is organized, formed, or incorporated.

C. Upon the merger of a foreign limited liability company with one or more foreign partnerships, limited liability companies, business trusts, limited partnerships, or corporations, all property in the Commonwealth owned by any of the partnerships, limited liability companies, business trusts, limited partnerships, or corporations shall pass to the surviving partnership, limited liability company, business trust, limited partnership, or corporation except as otherwise provided by the laws of the state or other jurisdiction by which it is governed, but only from and after the time when a duly authenticated copy of the instrument of merger is filed with the Commission.

1991, c. 168; 1992, c. 575; 1997, c. 190; 2004, c. 274; 2008, c. 108; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1060.1. Entity conversion of foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in Commonwealth.

A. Whenever a foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth converts to another type of entity, the surviving or resulting entity shall, within 30 days after such entity conversion becomes effective, file with the Commission a copy of the instrument of entity conversion duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws such entity conversion was effected; and

1. If the surviving or resulting entity is not continuing to transact business in the Commonwealth or is not a foreign corporation, business trust, limited partnership, or registered limited liability partnership, then, within 30 days after such entity conversion, it shall comply on behalf of the predecessor limited liability company with the provisions of § 13.1-1056; or

2. If the surviving or resulting entity is a foreign corporation, business trust, limited partnership, or registered limited liability partnership and is to continue to transact business in the Commonwealth, then, within such 30 days, it shall deliver to the Commission an application for a certificate of authority or registration to transact business in the Commonwealth or, in the case of a foreign registered limited liability partnership, a statement of registration.

B. Upon the entity conversion of a foreign limited liability company that is registered to transact business in the Commonwealth, all property in the Commonwealth owned by the foreign limited liability company shall pass to the surviving or resulting entity except as otherwise provided by the laws of the state or other jurisdiction by which it is governed, but only from and after the time when a duly authenticated copy of the instrument of entity conversion is filed with the Commission.

2004, c. 274.

§ 13.1-1061. Annual registration fees to be assessed and collected by Commission; application of payment.

The Commission shall assess and collect the annual registration fees imposed by this chapter. When the Commission receives payment of a registration fee assessed against a domestic or foreign limited liability company, such payment shall be applied against any unpaid registration fees previously assessed against such limited liability company, including any penalties incurred thereon, beginning with the assessment that has remained unpaid for the longest period of time.

1991, c. 168 .

§ 13.1-1062. Assessment of annual registration fees; annual registration fees to be paid by domestic and foreign limited liability companies.

A. Each domestic limited liability company and each foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth shall pay into the state treasury on or before the last day of the twelfth month next succeeding the month in which it was organized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth, and by such date in each year thereafter, an annual registration fee of $50, provided that the initial annual registration fee to be paid by a domestic limited liability company created by entity conversion shall be due in the year after the calendar year in which it converted.

The annual registration fee shall be imposed irrespective of any specific license tax or other tax or fee imposed by law upon the limited liability company for the privilege of carrying on its business in the Commonwealth or upon its franchise, property or receipts.

B. Each year, the Commission shall ascertain from its records each domestic limited liability company and each foreign limited liability company registered to transact business in the Commonwealth as of the first day of the second month next preceding the month in which it was organized or registered to transact business in the Commonwealth, and, except as provided in subsection A, shall assess against each such limited liability company the annual registration fee herein imposed.

C. At the discretion of the Commission, the annual registration fee due date for a limited liability company may be extended, on a monthly basis for a period of not less than one month nor more than 11 months, at the request of its registered agent of record or as may be necessary to distribute annual registration fee due dates of limited liability companies as equally as practicable throughout the year on a monthly basis.

D. A statement of the assessment, when made, shall be forwarded by the clerk of the Commission to the Comptroller and to each domestic and foreign limited liability company.

E. Any domestic limited liability company that has ceased to exist in the Commonwealth because of the issuance of a certificate of cancellation of existence, certificate of organization surrender, or certificate of entity conversion, or any foreign limited liability company that has obtained a certificate of cancellation, effective on or before its annual registration fee due date pursuant to subsection A in any year, shall not be required to pay the annual registration fee for that year. Any domestic or foreign limited liability company that has merged, effective on or before its annual registration fee due date pursuant to subsection A in any year, into a surviving domestic or foreign corporation, limited liability company, business trust, limited partnership, or partnership that files with the Commission an authenticated copy of the instrument of merger on or before such date, shall not be required to pay the annual registration fee for that year. Any foreign limited liability company that has converted, effective on or before its annual registration fee due date pursuant to subsection A in any year, to a different entity type that files with the Commission an authenticated copy of the instrument of entity conversion on or before such date, shall not be required to pay the annual registration fee for that year. The Commission shall cancel the annual registration fee assessments specified in this subsection that remain unpaid.

F. Registration fee assessments that have been paid shall not be refunded.

G. The fees paid into the state treasury under this section and the fees collected under § 13.1-1005 shall be set aside and paid into the special fund created under § 13.1-775.1, and shall be used only by the Commission as it deems necessary to defray the costs of the Commission and of the office of the clerk of the Commission in supervising, implementing, administering and enforcing the provisions of this chapter. The projected excess of fees collected over the costs of administration and enforcement so incurred shall be paid into the general fund prior to the close of each fiscal year, based on the unexpended balance of the special fund at the end of the prior fiscal year. An adjustment of this transfer amount to reflect actual fees collected shall occur during the first quarter of the succeeding fiscal year.

1991, c. 168; 1995, c. 621; 2001, c. 545; 2002, c. 1; 2006, c. 748; 2010, c. 703; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1063. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2010, c. 703, cl. 3.

§ 13.1-1064. Penalty for failure to timely pay annual registration fees.

A. Any domestic or foreign limited liability company that fails to pay the annual registration fee into the state treasury within the time prescribed in § 13.1-1062 shall incur a penalty of $25, which shall be added to the amount of the annual registration fee due. The penalty prescribed herein shall be in addition to any other penalty or liability imposed by law.

B. The Commission shall mail to each domestic and foreign limited liability company that fails to pay the annual registration fee within the time prescribed in § 13.1-1062 a notice of assessment of the penalty imposed herein and of the impending cancellation of its existence or certificate of registration, as the case may be.

1991, c. 168; 1997, c. 190; 2000, c. 52; 2004, cc. 274, 601; 2005, c. 255; 2008, c. 108.

§ 13.1-1065. Payment of fees, fines, penalties, and interest prerequisite to Commission action; refunds.

A. The Commission shall not file or issue with respect to any domestic or foreign limited liability company any document or certificate specified in this chapter, except a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1016, a statement of resignation pursuant to § 13.1-1017, and a statement of change pursuant to § 13.1-1018.1, until all fees, fines, penalties, and interest assessed, imposed, charged, or to be collected by the Commission pursuant to this chapter or Title 12.1 have been paid by or on behalf of such limited liability company. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Commission may file or issue any document or certificate with respect to a domestic or foreign limited liability company that has been assessed an annual registration fee if the document or certificate is filed or issued with an effective date that is on or before the due date of the limited liability company's annual registration fee payment in any year, provided that the Commission shall not issue a certificate of domestication with respect to a foreign limited liability company until the annual registration fee has been paid by or on behalf of that limited liability company.

B. The Commission shall have authority to certify to the Comptroller directing refund of any overpayment of a fee, or of any fee collected for a document that is not accepted for filing, at any time within one year from the date of its payment.

1991, c. 168; 2002, c. 608; 2004, c. 316; 2006, c. 659; 2007, c. 810; 2009, c. 450.

§ 13.1-1066. Collection of unpaid bills for annual registration fees.

The annual registration fee with penalty and interest shall be enforceable, in addition to existing remedies for the collection of taxes, levies, and fees, by action in the name of the Commonwealth in the appropriate circuit court. Venue shall be in accordance with § 8.01-261.

1991, c. 168; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1067. Property title records.

A. Whenever the records in the office of the clerk of the Commission reflect that a domestic or foreign limited liability company has changed or corrected its name, merged into a domestic or foreign limited liability company, corporation, business trust, limited partnership or partnership, converted into a domestic or foreign corporation, business trust, limited partnership or partnership, or domesticated in or from another jurisdiction, the clerk of the Commission, upon request, shall issue a certificate reciting such change, correction, merger, conversion or domestication. The certificate may be admitted to record in the deed books, in accordance with § 17.1-227, of any court's office within the jurisdiction of which any property of the limited liability company is located in order to maintain the continuity of title records. The person filing the certificate shall pay a fee of $10 to the clerk of the court, but no tax shall be due thereon.

B. Whenever a foreign limited liability company has changed or corrected its name, merged into another business entity, converted into another type of business entity, or domesticated in another jurisdiction, and it cannot or chooses not to obtain a certificate reciting such change, correction, merger, conversion or domestication from the clerk of the Commission pursuant to subsection A, a similar certificate by any competent authority of the foreign limited liability company's jurisdiction of organization may be admitted to record in the deed books, in accordance with § 17.1-227, of any recording office within the jurisdiction of which any property of the limited liability company is located in order to maintain the continuity of title records. The person filing the certificate shall pay a fee of $10 to the clerk of the court, but no tax shall be due thereon.

1991, c. 168; 1992, cc. 574, 575; 1993, c. 113; 1996, c. 282; 1997, c. 190; 2001, c. 548; 2003, c. 340; 2006, c. 912; 2007, c. 771.

§ 13.1-1067.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1993, c. 113 .

§ 13.1-1068. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 709, cl. 2.

§ 13.1-1069. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2005, c. 839, effective October 1, 2005.

§ 13.1-1069.1. Definitions.

As used in this article:

"Merger" means a business combination pursuant to § 13.1-1070.

"Party to a merger" means any domestic or foreign limited liability company or other business entity that will merge under a plan of merger.

"Survivor" in a merger means the domestic or foreign limited liability company or other business entity into which one or more other domestic or foreign limited liability companies or other business entities are merged.

2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1070. Merger.

A. One or more domestic limited liability companies may merge with one or more domestic or foreign limited liability companies or other business entities pursuant to a plan of merger.

B. A foreign limited liability company or other business entity may be a party to a merger with a domestic limited liability company only if the merger is permitted by the laws under which the foreign limited liability company or other business entity is organized, formed, or incorporated.

C. The plan of merger shall include:

1. The name and entity type of each domestic or foreign limited liability company or other business entity that will merge and the name of the domestic or foreign limited liability company or other business entity that will be the survivor of the merger;

2. The name of the state or other jurisdiction under whose law each party to the merger is organized, formed, or incorporated;

3. The terms and conditions of the merger;

4. The manner and basis of converting the membership interests of each merging domestic or foreign limited liability company and eligible interests of each merging domestic or foreign other business entity into membership interests, eligible interests, or other securities, obligations, rights to acquire membership interests, eligible interests, or other securities, cash, or other property, or any combination of the foregoing;

5. The manner and basis of converting any rights to acquire the membership interests of each merging domestic or foreign limited liability company and eligible interests of each merging domestic or foreign other business entity into membership interests, eligible interests, or other securities, obligations, rights to acquire membership interests, eligible interests, or other securities, cash, or other property, or any combination of the foregoing;

6. When the survivor is a domestic limited liability company, any amendments to its articles of organization, which may be in the form of amended and restated articles of organization; and

7. Any other provisions required by the laws under which any party to the merger is organized or by which it is governed, or by the articles of organization or other organizational document of any party.

D. The plan of merger may also include a provision that the plan may be amended before the effective time and date of the certificate of merger, but if the members of a domestic limited liability company that is a party to the merger are required by any provision of this chapter to approve the plan, the plan may not be amended after approval of the plan by the members to change any of the following, unless the amendment is approved by the members:

1. The amount or kind of eligible interests or other securities, obligations, rights to acquire eligible interests, or other securities, cash, or other property to be received by the members, shareholders, or holders of eligible interests in any party to the merger;

2. The articles of organization of any domestic or foreign limited liability company, the articles of incorporation of any domestic or foreign stock or nonstock corporation, the articles of trust or governing instrument of any domestic or foreign business trust, the certificate of limited partnership of any domestic or foreign limited partnership, or the partnership agreement of any domestic or foreign partnership that will survive the merger; or

3. Any of the other terms or conditions of the plan if the change would adversely affect the members in any material respect.

1992, c. 575; 1997, c. 190; 2003, c. 340; 2004, c. 601; 2005, c. 765; 2008, c. 108; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1071. Action on a plan of merger.

Each domestic limited liability company that is a party to a merger shall approve the plan of merger, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement of the limited liability company provides otherwise, by the unanimous vote of the members of the limited liability company. However, a provision of a limited liability company's articles of organization or operating agreement purporting to authorize the limited liability company to approve a merger by a less than unanimous vote of the members shall be effective to permit approval of a merger by a less than unanimous vote only if either (i) the articles of organization or operating agreement included that provision at the time each member who does not vote in favor of the merger became bound by the articles of organization or operating agreement or (ii) the provision was added to the articles of organization or operating agreement through an amendment to which each member who does not vote in favor of the merger specifically consented.

1992, c. 575; 1993, c. 113; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1072. Articles of merger.

A. After a plan of merger has been adopted and approved as required by this chapter, articles of merger shall be signed on behalf of each party to the merger. The articles shall set forth:

1. The plan of merger;

2. If the articles of organization of a domestic limited liability company that is the survivor of a merger are amended, as an attachment to the articles of merger, the amendments to the survivor's articles of organization;

3. The date the plan of merger was approved by each domestic limited liability company that is a party to the merger;

4. A statement that the plan of merger was approved by each domestic limited liability company that is a party to the merger in accordance with the provisions of § 13.1-1071; and

5. As to each foreign limited liability company or other business entity that is a party to the merger, a statement that the merger is permitted by the state or other jurisdiction under whose law the foreign limited liability company or other business entity is organized, formed, or incorporated and that the foreign limited liability company or other business entity has complied with that law in effecting the merger.

B. Articles of merger shall be delivered to the Commission for filing by the survivor of the merger. If the Commission finds that the articles of merger comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of merger. Articles of merger filed under this section may be combined with any filing required under the provisions of this title and Title 50 regarding any domestic other business entity that is a party to the merger if the combined filing satisfies the requirements of this section and the requirements for the filing of articles of merger or a statement of merger on behalf of the domestic other business entity.

1992, c. 575; 1993, c. 113; 1997, c. 190; 2003, cc. 340, 597; 2004, c. 274; 2008, c. 108; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1073. Effect of merger.

When a merger takes effect:

1. The separate existence of every domestic limited liability company that is a party to the merger except the surviving domestic limited liability company, if any, ceases;

2. The title to all real estate and other property owned by each domestic limited liability company party to the merger is vested in the surviving domestic or foreign limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, business trust or corporation without reversion or impairment;

3. The surviving domestic or foreign limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, business trust or corporation has all liabilities of each domestic limited liability company party to the merger;

4. A proceeding pending by or against any domestic limited liability company party to the merger may be continued as if the merger had not occurred, or the surviving domestic or foreign limited liability company, partnership, limited partnership, business trust or corporation may be substituted in the proceeding for the domestic limited liability company whose existence ceased;

5. If a domestic limited liability company is the surviving entity of the merger, the articles of organization and operating agreement of that limited liability company are amended to the extent provided in the plan of merger; and

6. The former holders of membership interests of every domestic limited liability company party to the merger are entitled only to the rights provided in the plan of merger.

1992, c. 575; 1997, c. 190; 2003, c. 340.

§ 13.1-1073.1. Abandonment of merger.

A. Unless otherwise provided in a plan of merger or in the laws under which a foreign limited liability company or a domestic or foreign other business entity that is a party to a merger is organized or by which the merger is governed, after the plan has been approved as required by this article, and at any time before the certificate of merger has become effective, it may be abandoned by a domestic limited liability company that is a party thereto without action by members in accordance with any procedures set forth in the plan of merger or, if no procedures are set forth in the plan, by a vote of the members of the limited liability company that is equal to or greater than the vote cast for the plan of merger pursuant to § 13.1-1071, subject to any contractual rights of other parties to the merger.

B. If a merger is abandoned under subsection A after articles of merger have been filed with the Commission but before the certificate of merger has become effective, a statement that the merger has been abandoned in accordance with this section, signed on behalf of a party to the merger, shall be delivered to the Commission for filing before the effective time and date of the certificate of merger. Upon filing, the statement shall take effect and the merger shall be deemed abandoned and shall not become effective.

2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1074. Domestication.

A. A foreign limited liability company may become a domestic limited liability company if the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign limited liability company is organized authorize it to domesticate in another jurisdiction. The laws of this Commonwealth shall govern the effect of domesticating in this Commonwealth pursuant to this article.

B. A domestic limited liability company not required by law to be a domestic limited liability company may become a foreign limited liability company if the jurisdiction in which the limited liability company intends to domesticate allows for the domestication. Regardless of whether the laws of the foreign jurisdiction require the adoption of a plan of domestication, the domestication shall be approved in the manner provided in this article. The laws of the jurisdiction in which the limited liability company domesticates shall govern the effect of domesticating in that jurisdiction.

2006, c. 912; 2013, c. 17.

§ 13.1-1075. Plan of domestication.

A. The plan of domestication shall set forth:

1. The name of the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws the domestic or foreign limited liability company is organized;

2. A statement of the jurisdiction in which the domestic or foreign limited liability company is to be domesticated;

3. The terms and conditions of the domestication, provided that such terms and conditions may not alter the ownership proportion and relative rights, preferences, and limitations of the interests of the limited liability company; and

4. For a foreign limited liability company that is to become a domestic limited liability company, as a referenced attachment, amended and restated articles of organization that comply with § 13.1-1011 as they will be in effect upon consummation of the domestication.

B. The plan of domestication may include any other provision relating to the domestication.

C. The plan of domestication may also include a provision that the members may amend the plan at any time prior to the effective date of the certificate of domestication or such other document required by the laws of the other jurisdiction to consummate the domestication.

2006, c. 912; 2012, c. 130.

§ 13.1-1076. Action on plan of domestication by a domestic limited liability company.

In the case of a domestic limited liability company, unless the articles of organization or a written operating agreement of the limited liability company provides otherwise, the members of the limited liability company shall approve the plan of domestication in the manner provided in the limited liability company's operating agreement for amendments to the operating agreement by the members or, if no provision is made in an operating agreement, by all the members.

2006, c. 912; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1077. Articles of domestication.

A. After the domestication of a foreign limited liability company to a domestic limited liability company is approved in the manner required by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the limited liability company is organized, the limited liability company shall deliver to the Commission for filing articles of domestication setting forth:

1. The name of the foreign limited liability company immediately before the filing of the articles of domestication and the name of the limited liability company upon its domestication as a domestic limited liability company, which shall satisfy the requirements of § 13.1-1012;

2. The date on which the foreign limited liability company was originally formed, organized, or incorporated, and its original name, entity type, and jurisdiction of formation, organization, or incorporation, and, for each subsequent change of entity type or jurisdiction of formation, organization, or incorporation made before the filing of the articles of domestication, the effective date of the change and the limited liability company's name, entity type, and jurisdiction of formation, organization, or incorporation upon consummation of the change;

3. The plan of domestication, including the full text of the amended and restated articles of organization of the domestic limited liability company that comply with the requirements of this chapter, as they will be in effect upon consummation of the domestication; and

4. A statement that the domestication is permitted by the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign limited liability company is organized and that the foreign limited liability company has complied with those laws in effecting the domestication.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of domestication comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of domestication.

C. The certificate of domestication shall become effective pursuant to subsection D of § 13.1-1004.

D. A foreign limited liability company's existence as a domestic limited liability company shall begin when the certificate of domestication is effective. Upon becoming effective, the certificate of domestication shall be conclusive evidence that all conditions precedent required to be performed by the foreign limited liability company have been complied with and that the limited liability company has been organized under this chapter.

E. If the foreign limited liability company is authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth under Article 10 (§ 13.1-1051 et seq.), its certificate of registration shall be canceled automatically on the effective time and date of the certificate of domestication issued by the Commission.

2006, c. 912; 2012, c. 130; 2013, c. 17; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1078. Surrender of articles of organization upon domestication.

A. Whenever a domestic limited liability company has approved, in the manner required by this article, a plan of domestication providing for the limited liability company to be domesticated under the laws of another jurisdiction, the limited liability company shall deliver to the Commission for filing articles of organization surrender setting forth:

1. The name of the limited liability company immediately before the filing of the articles of organization surrender;

2. The jurisdiction in which the limited liability company is to be domesticated and the name of the limited liability company upon its domestication under the laws of that jurisdiction;

3. The plan of domestication;

4. A statement that the plan of domestication was adopted by the limited liability company in accordance with § 13.1-1076;

5. A statement that the articles of organization surrender are being filed in connection with the domestication of the limited liability company as a foreign limited liability company to be organized under the laws of another jurisdiction and that the limited liability company is surrendering its certificate of organization under the laws of this Commonwealth;

6. A statement that the limited liability company revokes the authority of its registered agent to accept service on its behalf and appoints the clerk of the Commission as its agent for service of process in any proceeding based on a cause of action arising during the time it was organized in the Commonwealth;

7. A mailing address to which the clerk may mail a copy of any process served on him under subdivision 6; and

8. A commitment by the limited liability company to notify the clerk of the Commission in the future of any change in the mailing address of the limited liability company.

B. If the Commission finds that the articles of organization surrender comply with the requirements of law and that all required fees have been paid, it shall issue a certificate of organization surrender.

C. The limited liability company shall automatically cease to be a domestic limited liability company when the certificate of organization surrender becomes effective.

D. If the former domestic limited liability company intends to continue to transact business in the Commonwealth, then, within thirty days after the effective date of the certificate of organization surrender, it shall deliver to the Commission an application for a certificate of registration to transact business in the Commonwealth pursuant to § 13.1-1052 together with a copy of its instrument of domestication and articles of organization and all amendments thereto, duly authenticated by the Secretary of State or other official having custody of limited liability company records in the state or other jurisdiction under whose laws it is organized or domesticated.

2006, c. 912; 2009, c. 201; 2016, c. 288.

§ 13.1-1079. Effect of domestication.

A. When a foreign limited liability company's certificate of domestication in this Commonwealth becomes effective, with respect to that limited liability company:

1. The title to all real estate and other property remains in the limited liability company without reversion or impairment;

2. The liabilities remain the liabilities of the limited liability company;

3. A proceeding pending may be continued by or against the limited liability company as if the domestication did not occur;

4. The articles of organization attached to the articles of domestication constitute the articles of organization of the limited liability company; and

5. The limited liability company is deemed to:

a. Be organized under the laws of this Commonwealth for all purposes;

b. Be the same limited liability company as the limited liability company that existed under the laws of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions in which it was originally organized or formerly domesticated; and

c. Have been organized on the date it was originally formed or organized.

B. Any member of a foreign limited liability company that domesticates into this Commonwealth who, prior to the domestication, was liable for the liabilities or obligations of the limited liability company is not released from those liabilities or obligations by reason of the domestication.

2006, c. 912.

§ 13.1-1080. Abandonment of domestication.

A. Unless otherwise provided in a plan of domestication of a domestic limited liability company to become a foreign limited liability company, after the plan has been approved as required by this article, and at any time before the certificate of organization surrender has become effective, the domestication may be abandoned without action by the members in accordance with any procedures set forth in the plan of domestication or, if no procedures are set forth in the plan, by a vote of the members of the domestic limited liability company that is equal to or greater than the vote cast for the plan of domestication pursuant to § 13.1-1076.

B. If a domestication is abandoned under subsection A after articles of organization surrender have been filed with the Commission but before the certificate of organization surrender has become effective, a statement that the domestication has been abandoned in accordance with this section shall be delivered to the Commission for filing before the effective time and date of the certificate of organization surrender. Upon filing, the statement shall take effect and the domestication shall be deemed abandoned and shall not become effective.

C. If the domestication of a foreign limited liability company into the Commonwealth is abandoned in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction in which the foreign limited liability company is organized after articles of domestication have been filed with the Commission but before the certificate of domestication has become effective, a statement that the domestication has been abandoned shall be delivered to the Commission for filing before the effective time and date of the certificate of domestication. Upon filing, the statement shall take effect and the domestication shall be deemed abandoned and shall not become effective.

2006, c. 912; 2016, c. 288.

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