Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
Chapter 6. Retail Sales and Use Tax

§ 58.1-609.2. Agricultural exemptions.

The tax imposed by this chapter or pursuant to the authority granted in §§ 58.1-605 and 58.1-606 shall not apply to the following:

1. Commercial feeds; seeds; plants; fertilizers; liming materials; breeding and other livestock; semen; breeding fees; baby chicks; turkey poults; rabbits; quail; llamas; bees; agricultural chemicals; fuel for drying or curing crops; baler twine; containers for fruit and vegetables; farm machinery; medicines and drugs sold to a veterinarian provided they are used or consumed directly in the care, medication, and treatment of agricultural production animals or for resale to a farmer for direct use in producing an agricultural product for market; tangible personal property, except for structural construction materials to be affixed to real property owned or leased by a farmer, necessary for use in agricultural production for market and sold to or purchased by a farmer or contractor; and agricultural supplies provided the same are sold to and purchased by farmers for use in agricultural production, which also includes beekeeping and fish, quail, rabbit and worm farming for market.

2. Every agricultural commodity or kind of seafood sold or distributed by any person to any other person who purchases not for direct consumption but for the purpose of acquiring raw products for use or consumption in the process of preparing, finishing, or manufacturing such agricultural or seafood commodity for the ultimate retail consumer trade, except when such agricultural or seafood commodity is actually sold or distributed as a marketable or finished product to the ultimate consumer. "Agricultural commodity," for the purposes of this subdivision, means horticultural, poultry, and farm products, livestock and livestock products, and products derived from bees and beekeeping.

3. Livestock and livestock products, poultry and poultry products, and farm and agricultural products, when produced by the farmer and used or consumed by him and the members of his family.

4. Machinery, tools, equipment, materials or repair parts therefor or replacement thereof; fuel or supplies; and fishing boats, marine engines installed thereon or outboard motors used thereon, and all replacement or repair parts in connection therewith; provided the same are sold to and purchased by watermen for use by them in extracting fish, bivalves or crustaceans from waters for commercial purposes.

5. Machinery or tools or repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, fuel, power, energy or supplies, and cereal grains and other feed ingredients, including, but not limited to, drugs, vitamins, minerals, nonprotein nitrogen, and other supplements or additives, used directly in making feed for sale or resale. Making of feed shall include the mixing of liquid ingredients.

6. Machinery or tools and repair parts therefor or replacements thereof, fuel, power, energy or supplies, used directly in the harvesting of forest products for sale or for use as a component part of a product to be sold. Harvesting of forest products shall include all operations prior to the transport of the harvested product used for (i) removing timber or other forest products from the harvesting site, (ii) complying with environmental protection and safety requirements applicable to the harvesting of forest products, (iii) obtaining access to the harvesting site, and (iv) loading cut timber or other forest products onto highway vehicles for transportation to storage or processing facilities.

7. Agricultural produce, as defined in § 3.2-4738, and eggs, as described in § 3.2-5305, raised and sold by an individual at local farmers markets and roadside stands, when such individual's annual income from such sales does not exceed $2,500.

8. The following property used directly in producing agricultural products for market in an indoor, closed, controlled-environment commercial agricultural facility:

a. Internal components or materials, whether or not they are affixed to real property, required (i) to create, support, and maintain the necessary growing environment for plants, including towers for growing plants; conveyances for moving such towers; and insulation, partitions, and cladding; (ii) for lighting systems; (iii) for heating, cooling, humidification, dehumidification, and air circulation systems; and (iv) for watering and water treatment systems;

b. External components, machinery, and equipment required (i) for heating, cooling, humidification, dehumidification, and air circulation systems; (ii) for utility upgrades and related distribution infrastructure; and (iii) for creating, supporting, and maintaining the necessary growing environment for plants; and

c. Structural components of (i) insulation, partitions, or cladding used in indoor vertical farming to create and maintain the necessary growing environment for plants or (ii) translucent or transparent elements, including windows, walls, and roofs, that allow sunlight in greenhouses to create and maintain the necessary growing environment for plants.

For purposes of this subdivision, "indoor, closed, controlled-environment commercial agricultural facility" shall include indoor vertical farming or a greenhouse, regardless of whether the greenhouse is affixed to real property and, "agricultural products" shall include any horticultural, floricultural, viticulture, or other farm crops. However, the exemption provided by this subdivision shall not apply to property used in producing cannabis or any derivative of cannabis.

1993, c. 310; 1994, cc. 365, 381; 1999, c. 229; 2006, cc. 331, 361; 2011, c. 466; 2013, c. 223; 2018, c. 362; 2023, cc. 516, 517.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.