Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
4/4/2020

Title 5.1. Aviation

Chapter 1. Aircraft, Airmen and Airports Generally.

Article 1. General Provisions

This section has more than one version with varying effective dates. To view a complete list of the versions of this section see Table of Contents.

§ 5.1-1. (Effective until September 1, 2023) Definitions.

When used in this title, unless expressly stated otherwise:

"Aircraft" means any contrivance now known, or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of or flight in the air, including a balloon or other contrivance designed for maneuvering in airspace at an altitude greater than 24 inches above ground or water level, except that any contrivance now or hereafter invented of fixed or flexible wing design, operating without the assistance of any motor, engine, or other mechanical propulsive device, which is designed to utilize the feet and legs of the operator or operators as the sole means of initiating and sustaining forward motion during the launch and of providing the point of contact with the ground upon landing and commonly called a "hang glider" shall not be included within this definition.

"Aircraft based in this Commonwealth" means an aircraft that is either (i) domiciled in a county, city, or town in the Commonwealth or (ii) parked in a county, city, or town in the Commonwealth when not in flight for the period of time specified in § 5.1-5.

"Airman" means any individual, including the person in command and any pilot, mechanic, or member of the crew, who engages in the navigation of aircraft while under way within Virginia airspace; any individual who is directly in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling, or repair of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or accessories; and any individual who serves in the capacity of aircraft dispatcher.

"Air navigation facility" means any airport ground or air navigation facility, other than one owned and operated by the United States, used in, available for use in, or designed for use in aid of air navigation, including any structures, buildings, mechanisms, lights, beacons, markers, communicating systems, or other instrumentalities or devices, and any combination of any or all of such facilities, used or useful as an aid, or constituting any advantage or convenience, to the safe taking off, navigation, and landing of aircraft; in the safe and efficient operation or maintenance of an airport; in the safe, efficient and convenient handling or processing of aviation passengers, mail or cargo; or in the servicing or maintenance of aircraft or ground equipment.

"Airport" means any area of land or water which is used, or intended for public use, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for airport buildings or other airport facilities or rights-of-way, easements and together with all airport buildings and facilities located thereon.

"Airport hazard" means any structure, object or natural growth, or use of land that obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off at an airport or is otherwise hazardous to such landing or taking off of aircraft.

"Airspace" means all that space above the land and waters within the boundary of the Commonwealth.

"Board" means the Virginia Aviation Board.

"Civil aircraft" means any aircraft other than a public aircraft.

"Commercial aircraft" means any civil aircraft used in flight activity for compensation or for hire.

"Contract carrier by aircraft" or "contract carrier" means any person not included under the definitions of "common carrier by aircraft" or "restricted common carrier by aircraft" as defined in § 5.1-89 who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, and whether directly or by a lease or any other arrangement, transports passengers or property by aircraft for compensation and in the transportation of passengers does not charge individual fares.

"Department" means the Department of Aviation.

"Drop zone" means any locality whether over land or water that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and recovery of sky divers or parachutists using a parachute or other contrivance designed for sport jumping.

"Fighter or attack jet" means a jet-powered aircraft designed for military (i) combat training or (ii) operational mission execution.

"Landing area" or "landing field" means any locality, whether over land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft and open to the public for such use, whether or not facilities are provided for the sheltering, servicing, or repair of aircraft or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

"Person" means any individual, corporation, government, political subdivision of the Commonwealth, or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, two or more of any of the foregoing having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Public aircraft" means an aircraft used exclusively in the service of any state, or political subdivision thereof, or the federal government. "Public aircraft" includes any fighter or attack jet that is leased or owned by a private entity, provided that the aircraft operations are conducted exclusively for the purpose of military combat training in service to the federal government.

Code 1950, § 5-1; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1975, c. 561; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721; 1988, c. 588; 2011, c. 809; 2018, cc. 357, 441.

§ 5.1-1. (Effective September 1, 2023) Definitions.

When used in this title, unless expressly stated otherwise:

"Aircraft" means any contrivance now known, or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of or flight in the air, including a balloon or other contrivance designed for maneuvering in airspace at an altitude greater than 24 inches above ground or water level, except that any contrivance now or hereafter invented of fixed or flexible wing design, operating without the assistance of any motor, engine, or other mechanical propulsive device, which is designed to utilize the feet and legs of the operator or operators as the sole means of initiating and sustaining forward motion during the launch and of providing the point of contact with the ground upon landing and commonly called a "hang glider" shall not be included within this definition.

"Aircraft based in this Commonwealth" means an aircraft that is either (i) domiciled in a county, city, or town in the Commonwealth or (ii) parked in a county, city, or town in the Commonwealth when not in flight for the period of time specified in § 5.1-5.

"Airman" means any individual, including the person in command and any pilot, mechanic, or member of the crew, who engages in the navigation of aircraft while under way within Virginia airspace; any individual who is directly in charge of the inspection, maintenance, overhauling, or repair of aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, or accessories; and any individual who serves in the capacity of aircraft dispatcher.

"Air navigation facility" means any airport ground or air navigation facility, other than one owned and operated by the United States, used in, available for use in, or designed for use in aid of air navigation, including any structures, buildings, mechanisms, lights, beacons, markers, communicating systems, or other instrumentalities or devices, and any combination of any or all of such facilities, used or useful as an aid, or constituting any advantage or convenience, to the safe taking off, navigation, and landing of aircraft; in the safe and efficient operation or maintenance of an airport; in the safe, efficient and convenient handling or processing of aviation passengers, mail or cargo; or in the servicing or maintenance of aircraft or ground equipment.

"Airport" means any area of land or water which is used, or intended for public use, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for airport buildings or other airport facilities or rights-of-way, easements and together with all airport buildings and facilities located thereon.

"Airport hazard" means any structure, object or natural growth, or use of land that obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off at an airport or is otherwise hazardous to such landing or taking off of aircraft.

"Airspace" means all that space above the land and waters within the boundary of the Commonwealth.

"Board" means the Virginia Aviation Board.

"Civil aircraft" means any aircraft other than a public aircraft.

"Commercial aircraft" means any civil aircraft used in flight activity for compensation or for hire.

"Contract carrier by aircraft" or "contract carrier" means any person not included under the definitions of "common carrier by aircraft" or "restricted common carrier by aircraft" as defined in § 5.1-89 who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, and whether directly or by a lease or any other arrangement, transports passengers or property by aircraft for compensation and in the transportation of passengers does not charge individual fares.

"Department" means the Department of Aviation.

"Drop zone" means any locality whether over land or water that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and recovery of sky divers or parachutists using a parachute or other contrivance designed for sport jumping.

"Landing area" or "landing field" means any locality, whether over land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft and open to the public for such use, whether or not facilities are provided for the sheltering, servicing, or repair of aircraft or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo.

"Person" means any individual, corporation, government, political subdivision of the Commonwealth, or governmental subdivision or agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, two or more of any of the foregoing having a joint or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity.

"Public aircraft" means an aircraft used exclusively in the service of any state, or political subdivision thereof, or the federal government.

Code 1950, § 5-1; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1975, c. 561; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721; 1988, c. 588; 2011, c. 809.

§ 5.1-1.1. Creation of Department of Aviation.

There is hereby created a Department of Aviation.

1979, c. 272; 1984, c. 720.

§ 5.1-1.2. Appointment of Director; term; vacancies.

The Department shall be under the direction of a director, hereinafter referred to in this title as "Director," who shall be appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly if in session when such appointment is made, and, if not in session, then at its next succeeding session. He shall hold his office at the pleasure of the Governor for a term coincident with that of each Governor making the appointment or until his successor shall be appointed and qualified. Vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term in the same manner as original appointments are made.

1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-1.3. Oath and bond of Director; salary.

The Director, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take an oath that he will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties of his office and he shall give bond in such penalty as may be fixed by the Governor, conditioned upon the faithful discharge of his duties. The premium on such bond shall be paid out of the funds available for the maintenance and operation of his office. The Director shall receive such salary as may be appropriated for the purpose.

1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-1.4. Enforcement of laws, rules and regulations.

Except for the provisions of Chapter 9 (§ 5.1-89 et seq.) of this title, the Department shall have the authority to enforce any provision of this title and any rules and regulations promulgated by the Board in reference to aircraft, airfields, pilots and other similar subjects. Said rules and regulations, and enforcement actions taken in connection therewith, shall be in accordance with the substantive and procedural requirements of the Administrative Process Act, Chapter 40 (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) of Title 2.2.

1979, c. 272; 2002, c. 94.

§ 5.1-1.5. General powers of Department.

The Department shall have the following general powers:

1. To employ such personnel as may be required to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

2. To make and enter into all contracts and agreements necessary or incidental to the performance of its duties and the execution of its powers under this chapter, including, but not limited to, contracts with the United States, other states, agencies and governmental subdivisions of the Commonwealth.

3. To accept grants from the United States government and agencies and instrumentalities thereof and any other source. To these ends, the Department shall have the power to comply with such conditions and execute such agreements as may be necessary, convenient or desirable.

4. To do all acts necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-1.6. Further powers and duties of Department; State Corporation Commission to administer Chapter 9.

A. The Department shall have the following powers and duties:

1. Administer the provisions of Chapters 1 (§ 5.1-1 et seq.), 3 (§ 5.1-31 et seq.), 5 (§ 5.1-51 et seq.) and 8.1 (§ 5.1-88.1 et seq.);

2. Plan for the development of a state aviation system;

3. Promote aviation in the Commonwealth in the interest of the public, including representing the interests of the Commonwealth before all tribunals, agencies or offices, federal, state and local, in any matter tending to affect any phase of Virginia aviation;

4. Register aircraft and license airports and landing areas; and

5. Provide assistance to cities, towns, counties and other governmental subdivisions for the planning, development, construction and operation of airports, landing fields and other aviation facilities.

B. The State Corporation Commission shall continue to administer Chapter 9 (§ 5.1-89 et seq.).

1979, c. 272; 1991, c. 126; 1992, c. 108; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-1.7. Suits to enjoin violations of title.

The Department may seek to enjoin any act in violation of any provision of this title, or of any rule or regulation promulgated under any provision of this title, by application for injunctive relief to the circuit court of the jurisdiction where the violation occurs, which shall give priority on its docket to suits brought by the Department.

1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-2. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-2.1. Virginia Aviation Commission continued as Virginia Aviation Board; membership; terms; Chairman.

A. The Virginia Aviation Commission, a public body corporate and politic, is hereby continued within the Department of Aviation as a political subdivision of the Commonwealth and shall hereafter be known as the Virginia Aviation Board. The Board shall consist of eight members, selected so far as practicable from different geographic areas of the Commonwealth, appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, to serve at the pleasure of the Governor. Members shall serve for four-year terms and no member shall serve for more than two full successive terms. Initial appointments to the Board shall be made as follows: one shall be for a term of one year, two shall be for terms of two years, two shall be for terms of three years, and two shall be for terms of four years each and thereafter all appointments shall be for terms of four years each. The Chairman of the Board shall be appointed by the Governor.

B. Whenever the Board shall acquire ownership or jurisdiction over an airport or airports previously operated by an agency of the United States, there may be a member appointed to the Board by the President of the United States. Such member shall have the powers and duties of other members of the Board only with respect to the airport or airports so acquired.

C. There may be a member of the Board from any county or city wherein the Board acquires or constructs an airport, to be elected by the governing body of the county or city and to serve at its pleasure. Such member shall have the powers and duties of other members of the Board only with respect to such airport. If the Board acquires an airport which was constructed by one political subdivision but is located in another, the political subdivision which constructed the airport, rather than the political subdivision in which it is located, shall be represented on the Board.

1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 750; 1985, c. 448.

§ 5.1-2.2. Powers and duties of Board.

The Board shall exercise the following powers and duties:

1. Provide a means of citizen access to the Department;

2. Provide a means of publicizing the policies and programs of the Department in order to educate the public and elicit public support for Department activities;

3. Monitor the policies and activities of the Department and have the right of access to departmental information;

4. Advise the Governor and the Director on matters relating to the Commonwealth's aviation policies and programs;

5. Promulgate such rules and regulations relating to airports, landing fields and other aviation facilities, aircraft, and such other kindred matters and things as may be proper and necessary to promote and develop safe aviation practices and operations; and

6. Develop on behalf of the Department recommendations for distribution of funds to localities by the State Corporation Commission for aviation development through the end of the 1978-80 biennium, after which time the Board shall be responsible for the allocation on behalf of the Department of all such funds as provided in this act, which funds shall be distributed by the Department in accordance with such allocation.

1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 306; 1984, c. 720; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-2.2:1. Further powers and duties of the Board.

The Board shall have all the powers necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this chapter including, but not limited to, the power:

1. To sue in its own name, to have a seal, and to have perpetual succession;

2. To execute such contracts and other instruments and take such other action as may be necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this chapter;

3. To plan, establish, develop, construct, enlarge, improve, maintain, equip, operate, regulate, and protect airports and air navigation facilities, within this Commonwealth and within any adjoining state, including the acquisition, construction, installation, equipment, maintenance, and operation at such airports of buildings and other facilities for the servicing of aircraft or for the comfort and accommodation of air travelers, and the purchase and sale of supplies, goods, and commodities as an incident to the operation of its airport properties. For such purposes the Board may, by purchase, gift, devise, lease, condemnation, or otherwise, acquire property, real or personal, or any interest therein, including easements in airport hazards or land outside the boundaries of an airport or airport site, as are necessary to permit the removal, elimination, obstruction marking or obstruction lighting of airport hazards or to prevent the establishment of airport hazards, or for the enlargement of an airport constructed or acquired under this subdivision 3; provided, however, such power of eminent domain shall not extend to the taking of any radio or television towers or installation in existence on June 27, 1958;

4. To acquire, by purchase, gift, devise, or lease, existing airports and air navigation facilities;

5. To establish or acquire and maintain airports in, over, and upon any public waters of this Commonwealth or any submerged lands under such public waters; and to construct and maintain terminal buildings, landing floats, causeways, roadways, and bridges for approaches to or connecting with any such airport, and landing floats and breakwaters for the protection thereof;

6. To construct, or permit the construction of, for sale or lease, on such terms and conditions as the Board may deem proper, industrial, commercial or recreational facilities and approaches thereto and appurtenances thereof, on any lands of the Board not acquired by eminent domain and not needed for operational use of an airport owned or operated by it; provided, that any such factory or manufacturing facility shall be so constructed as not to constitute an airport hazard. In the exercise of the powers conferred by this subdivision, the Board shall comply with any applicable zoning restrictions of the political subdivision in which any airport or facility is, or is proposed to be located.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.2:2. Commercial air service plan.

A. The Board shall develop and review every five years a commercial air service plan for commercial air service airports within the Commonwealth. In developing and reviewing such plan, the Board shall (i) analyze trends in commercial air service generally, (ii) analyze the current and projected future demographic and economic trends related to air travel needs in the Commonwealth, (iii) solicit input from other appropriate stakeholders, (iv) consider any other factors determined to be appropriate by the Board, and (v) establish reasonable goals for commercial air service based on clauses (i) through (iv).

B. In developing the plan pursuant to subsection A, the Board shall coordinate with each commercial air service airport.

C. Prior to the allocation of funds pursuant to subdivision A 3 of § 58.1-638, the Board shall ensure that any requested funds are not inconsistent with the Board's commercial air service plan and that no commercial service airport is penalized for not meeting goals set forth in such commercial air service plan.

2017, c. 709.

§ 5.1-2.2:3. Transparency and accountability in the use of Commonwealth Airport Fund revenues.

A. By November 1 of each year, the Board shall report to the Governor and the General Assembly on the use of Commonwealth Airport Fund revenues the previous fiscal year. The report shall include at a minimum the following:

1. The use of entitlement funds allocated pursuant to subdivision A 3 a of § 58.1-638 by each air carrier airport, including the amount of funds that are unobligated;

2. The award and use of discretionary funds allocated for air carrier and reliever airports pursuant to subdivision A 3 b (1) (a) of § 58.1-638 by every such airport;

3. The award and use of discretionary funds allocated for general aviation airports pursuant to subdivision A 3 b (1) (b) of § 58.1-638 by every such airport; and

4. The award and use of discretionary funds allocated for all airports pursuant to subdivision A 3 b (2) of § 58.1-638 by every such airport.

Such report shall also include the status of ongoing projects funded in whole or in part by the Commonwealth Airport Fund pursuant to subdivision A 3 of § 58.1-638.

B. Each year prior to the release of entitlement funds allocated pursuant to subdivision A 3 a of § 58.1-638, each air carrier airport shall submit a plan that outlines the planned use of such funds for the upcoming fiscal year to the Board for review and approval. The Board shall approve such plan provided that the use of funds is in accordance with Board policies. An airport may modify its plan during a fiscal year by submitting a revised plan to the Board for review.

C. The Board shall have the right to withhold entitlement funds allocated pursuant to subdivision A 3 a of § 58.1-638 in the event that the entitlement utilization plan is not approved by the Board or the airport uses the funds in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved plan.

2017, c. 709; 2018, c. 506.

§ 5.1-2.2:4. Transparency and accountability for use of Department and Board funds.

A. Any (i) airport board, commission, authority, or body established pursuant to § 5.1-31 or 5.1-36 or (ii) public use privately owned airport that has received funding from the Department or Board shall keep records of receipts and disbursements thereof, which records shall be open for audit and evaluation by the appropriate state authorities.

B. By August 1 of each year, any (i) airport board, commission, authority, or body established pursuant to § 5.1-31 or 5.1-36 or (ii) public use privately owned airport that has received or disbursed funds from the Department or Board within the prior fiscal year shall submit to the Department a report detailing the purpose for which such funds were received or disbursed. The report shall also list any localities from which such entity receives funds. The Department shall make such report available to the public upon request and shall post such report on the website for the Department. Sensitive financial, personal, or security information contained in the report may be redacted at the discretion of the Department prior to public release. The Department shall send such redacted report to the governing body of any locality from which such airport board, commission, authority, or body receives funds.

2018, c. 430.

§ 5.1-2.3. Meetings of Board; quorum.

The Board shall meet at least once every three months, and on the call of the Chairman, when in his opinion additional meetings are necessary. Four members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.

1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-2.4. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1980, c. 728.

§ 5.1-2.5. Eminent domain; right of entry.

The Board is hereby vested with the power of eminent domain and may exercise the same for the purposes set forth in subdivision 3 of § 5.1-2.2:1 in the manner set forth in Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1 and to the extent permitted to railroads by § 56-347; provided, however, such power of eminent domain shall not extend to the taking of any radio or television towers or installation in existence on June 27, 1958. If the owner, lessee or occupier of any property to be condemned or otherwise acquired shall refuse to remove his property therefrom or give up possession thereof, the Board may proceed to obtain possession in any manner provided by law. The authorized agents and employees may enter upon any lands, waters, and premises in the Commonwealth for the purpose of making surveys, soundings, drillings, and examinations as they may deem necessary or convenient for the purposes of this chapter, and such entry shall not be deemed a trespass, nor shall an entry for such purpose be deemed an entry under any condemnation proceedings that may be then pending. The Board shall make reimbursement for any actual damage resulting to such lands, waters, and premises as a result of such activities.

1980, c. 750; 2003, c. 940.

§ 5.1-2.6. Disposal of airport, air navigation facility or other property.

Except as may be limited by the terms and conditions of any grant, loan or agreement authorized by § 5.1-2.16 the Board may, by sale, lease, or otherwise, dispose of any airport, air navigation facility, or other property, or portion thereof or interest therein, acquired pursuant to this chapter. Such disposal by sale, lease, or otherwise, shall be in accordance with the laws of this Commonwealth governing the disposition of other public property, except that in the case of disposal to another authority, a municipality or an agency of the Commonwealth or federal government for use and operation as a public airport, the sale, lease, or other disposal may be effected in such manner and upon such terms as the commissioners of the Board may deem in the best interest of aviation.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.7. Revenue bonds generally.

The Board is hereby authorized to provide for the issuance, at one time or from time to time, of revenue bonds of the Board for the purpose of paying all or any part of the cost of any one or more airport projects or of any portion or portions thereof. The principal of and the interest on such bonds shall be payable solely from the funds provided in this chapter for such payment. Any bonds of the Board issued pursuant to this chapter shall not constitute a debt of the Commonwealth, or any political subdivision thereof other than the Board, and shall so state on their face. Neither the commissioners of the Board nor any person executing such bonds shall be liable personally thereon by reason of the issuance thereof. The bonds of each issue shall be dated, shall bear interest at such rate or rates as may be determined by the Board, shall mature at such time or times not exceeding forty years from their date or dates, as may be determined by the Board, and may be made redeemable before maturity, at the option of the Board, at such price or prices and under such terms and conditions as may be fixed by the Board prior to the issuance of the bonds. The Board shall determine the form and the manner of execution of the bonds, including any interest coupons to be attached thereto, and shall fix the denomination or denominations of the bonds and the place or places of payment of principal and interest, which may be at any bank or trust company within or without the Commonwealth. In case any officer whose signature or a facsimile of whose signature shall appear on any bonds or coupons shall cease to be such officer before the delivery of such bonds, such signature or such facsimile shall nevertheless be valid and sufficient for all purposes the same as if he had remained in office until such delivery. The bonds may be issued in coupon or in registered form or both, as the Board may determine, and provision may be made for the registration of any coupon bonds as to principal alone and also as to both principal and interest, for the reconversion into coupon bonds of any bonds registered as to both principal and interest, and for the interchange of registered and coupon bonds. The Board may sell such bonds in such manner, either at public or private sale, and for such price as it may determine will best effect the purposes of this chapter.

The proceeds of the bonds of each issue shall be used solely for the payment of the cost of the airport project or projects for which such bonds shall have been issued, and shall be disbursed in such manner and under such restrictions, if any, as the Board may provide in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement hereinafter mentioned securing the same. If the proceeds of the bonds of any issue, by error of estimates or otherwise, shall be less than such cost, additional bonds may in like manner be issued to provide the amount of such deficit, and, unless otherwise provided in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement securing the same, shall be deemed to be of the same issue and shall be entitled to payment from the same fund without preference or priority of the bonds first issued. If the proceeds of the bonds of any issue shall exceed such cost, the surplus shall be deposited to the credit of the sinking fund for such bonds, or may be applied to the payment of the cost of any additional airport project or projects.

Prior to the preparation of definitive bonds, the Board may, under like restrictions, issue interim receipts or temporary bonds with or without coupons, exchangeable for definitive bonds when such bonds shall have been executed and are available for delivery. The Board may also provide for the replacement of any bonds which shall become mutilated or shall be destroyed or lost. Bonds may be issued under the provisions of this chapter without obtaining the consent of any department, division, commission, board, bureau or agency of the Commonwealth, and without any other proceedings or the happening of any other conditions or things than those proceedings, conditions or things which are specifically required by this chapter.

1980, c. 750; 1982, c. 563.

§ 5.1-2.8. Trust agreement securing bonds.

In the discretion of the Board any bonds issued under the provisions of this chapter may be secured by a trust agreement by and between the Board and a corporate trustee, which may be any trust company or bank having the powers of a trust company within or without the Commonwealth. Such trust agreement or the resolution providing for the issuance of such bonds may pledge or assign the revenues to be received, but shall not convey or mortgage any airport project or any part thereof. Such trust agreement or resolution providing for the issuance of such bonds may contain such provisions for protecting and enforcing the rights and remedies of the bondholders as may be reasonable and proper and not in violation of law, including covenants setting forth the duties of the Board in relation to the acquisition of property and the acquisition, construction, establishment, improvement, extension, enlargement, equipment, maintenance, repair, operation, and insurance of the airport project or projects in connection with which such bonds shall have been authorized, the rates and fees to be charged, the custody, safeguarding, and application of all moneys, and conditions or limitations with respect to the issuance of additional bonds. It shall be lawful for any bank or trust company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth which may act as depositary of the proceeds of bonds or of revenues to furnish such indemnifying bonds or to pledge such securities as may be required by the Board. Any such trust agreement may set forth the rights and remedies of the bondholders and of the trustee, and may restrict the individual right of action by bondholders. In addition to the foregoing, any such trust agreement or resolution may contain such other provisions as the Board may deem reasonable and proper for the security of the bondholders. All expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of such trust agreement or resolution may be treated as a part of the cost of the operation of the airport project or projects.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.9. Rents, fees and charges for services or use of facilities; use and disposition of revenues.

The Board is hereby authorized to fix, revise, charge, and collect rates, fees, and other charges for the use of or for the services and facilities furnished by each airport project and the different parts thereof, and to contract with any person, partnership, association, or corporation desiring the use of any part thereof, and to fix the terms, conditions, rents and rates of charges for such use. Such rates, fees, and other charges shall be so fixed and adjusted that revenues of the Board, together with any other available funds, will be sufficient at all times to pay (i) the cost of maintaining, repairing and operating such airport project or projects, and (ii) the principal of and the interest on such bonds as the same shall become due and payable, and to create reserves for such purposes. Such rates, fees and other charges shall not be subject to supervision or regulation by any other commission, board, bureau or agency of the Commonwealth. The revenues derived from the airport project or projects in connection with which the bonds shall have been issued, except such part thereof as may be necessary to pay such cost of maintenance, repair, and operation and to provide such reserves therefor as may be provided for in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement securing the same, shall be set aside at such regular intervals as may be provided in such resolution or such trust agreement in a sinking fund which is hereby pledged to, and charged with, the payment of the principal of and the interest on such bonds as the same shall become due, and the redemption price or the purchase price of bonds retired by call or purchase as therein provided. Such pledge shall be valid and binding from the time when the pledge is made, the revenues or other moneys so pledged and thereafter received by the Board shall immediately be subject to the lien of such pledge without any physical delivery thereof or further act, and the lien of any such pledge shall be valid and binding as against all parties having claims of any kind against the Board, irrespective of whether such parties have notice thereof. Neither the resolution nor any trust agreement by which a pledge is created need be filed or recorded except in the records of the Board. The use and disposition of moneys to the credit of such sinking fund shall be subject to the provisions of the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or of such trust agreement. Except as may otherwise be provided in such resolution or such trust agreement, such sinking fund shall be a fund for all such bonds without distinction or priority of one over another.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.10. Moneys received deemed trust funds.

All moneys received pursuant to the authority of this chapter, whether as proceeds from the sale of bonds or as revenues, shall be deemed to be trust funds to be held and applied solely as provided in this chapter. The resolution authorizing the bonds of any issue or the trust agreement securing such bonds shall provide that any officer with whom, or any bank or trust company with which, such moneys shall be deposited shall act as trustee of such moneys and shall hold and apply the same for the purposes hereof, subject to such regulations as this chapter and such resolution or trust agreement may provide. In the case of revenues or the proceeds from the sale of revenue bonds, the trustee may invest and reinvest such funds in securities that are legal investments under the laws of the Commonwealth for funds held by fiduciaries pending their need for the construction of the projects. In the case of the proceeds of the sale of refunding bonds, the trustee may invest and reinvest such funds in direct obligations of, or obligations the principal of and the interest on which are guaranteed by, the United States of America. Such money and the interest, income and profits, if any, earned on such investment shall be available for the payment of all or any part of the principal, interest and redemption premium, if any, of the bonds being refunded. The proceeds of the sale of refunding bonds shall be so invested and applied as to ensure that the principal, interest and redemption premium, if any, on the bonds being refunded shall be paid in full on their respective maturity, redemption or interest payment dates. After the terms of the trust have been fully satisfied, any balance of such proceeds, interest, income and profits, if any, realized on the investments thereof may be returned to the Board for use by it in any lawful manner.

1980, c. 750; 1982, c. 563.

§ 5.1-2.11. Proceedings by bondholder or trustee to enforce rights.

Any holder of bonds issued under the provisions of this chapter or any of the coupons appertaining thereto, and the trustee under any trust agreement, except to the extent the rights herein given may be restricted by such trust agreement or the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds, may, either at law or in equity, by suit, action, mandamus, or other proceeding, protect and enforce any and all rights under the laws of the Commonwealth or granted hereunder or under such trust agreement or resolution, and may enforce and compel the performance of all duties required by this chapter or by such trust agreement or resolution to be performed by the Board or by any officer thereof, including the fixing, charging, and collecting of rates, fees and other charges.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.12. Bonds made securities for investment and deposit.

Bonds issued by the Board under the provisions of this chapter are hereby made securities in which all public officers and public bodies of the Commonwealth and its political subdivisions, all insurance companies, trust companies, banking associations, investment companies, executors, administrators, trustees, and other fiduciaries may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them. Such bonds are hereby made securities which may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state or municipal officer or any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds or obligations of the Commonwealth is now or may hereafter be authorized by law.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.13. Revenue refunding bonds; bonds for refunding and for cost of additional projects.

The Board is hereby authorized to provide for the issuance of revenue refunding bonds of the Board for the purpose of refunding any bonds then outstanding which shall have been issued under the provisions of this chapter, including the payment of any redemption premium thereon and any interest accrued or to accrue to the date of redemption of such bonds, and, if deemed advisable by the Board, for the additional purpose of constructing improvements, extensions, or enlargements of the airport project or projects in connection with which the bonds to be refunded shall have been issued. The Board is further authorized to provide by resolution for the issuance of its revenue bonds for the combined purpose of (i) refunding any bonds then outstanding which shall have been issued under the provisions of this chapter including the payment of any redemption premium thereon and any interest accrued or to accrue to the date of redemption of such bonds, and (ii) paying all or any part of the cost of any additional airport project or projects or of any portion or portions thereof. The issuance of such bonds, the maturities, and other details thereof, the rights of the holders thereof, and the rights, duties, and obligations of the Commonwealth in respect of the same shall be governed by the provisions of this chapter insofar as the same may be applicable.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.14. Contracts, leases, and other arrangements.

A. In connection with the operation of an airport or air navigation facility owned or controlled by the Board, the Board may enter into contracts, leases, and other arrangements with any person or persons (i) granting the privilege of using or improving the airport or air navigation facility or any portion or facility thereof or space therein consistent with the purposes of this chapter; (ii) conferring the privileges of supplying goods, commodities, things, services, or facilities at the airport or air navigation facility; and (iii) making available services to be furnished by the Board or its agents at the airport or air navigation facility.

In each case the Board may establish the terms and conditions and fix the charges, rentals, or fee for the privilege or service, which shall be reasonable and uniform for the same class of privilege or service at each airport and shall be established with due regard to the property and improvements used and the expenses of operation to the Board; provided that in no case shall the public be deprived of its rightful, equal, and uniform use of the airport, air navigation facility, or portion of facility thereof.

B. Except as may be limited by the terms and conditions of any grant, loan, or agreement authorized by § 5.1-2.16, the Board may by contract, lease, or other arrangements, upon a consideration fixed by it, grant to any qualified person, for a term not to exceed thirty years, the privilege of operating, as agent of the Board or otherwise, any airport owned or controlled by the Board; provided that no person shall be granted any authority to operate an airport other than as a public airport or to enter into any contracts, leases, or other arrangements in connection with the operation of the airport which the Board might not have undertaken under subsection A of this section.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.15. Resolutions, rules and regulations, etc.

The Board is authorized to adopt, amend, and repeal such reasonable resolutions, rules, regulations, and orders as it shall deem necessary for the management, government, and use of any airport or air navigation facility owned by it or under its control. No rule, regulation, order, or standard prescribed by the Board shall be inconsistent with, or contrary to, any law of this Commonwealth or act of the Congress of the United States or any regulation promulgated or standard established pursuant thereto concerning such airport or the operation of aircraft. The Board shall keep on file at the principal office of the Board for public inspection a copy of all its rules and regulations.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.16. Grants or loans of public or private funds.

The Board is authorized to accept, receive, receipt for, disburse, and expend federal and state moneys and other moneys, public or private, made available by grant or loan or both, to accomplish, in whole or in part, any of the purposes of this chapter. All federal moneys accepted under this section shall be accepted and expended by the Board upon such terms and conditions as are prescribed by the United States and as are consistent with state law, and all state moneys accepted under this section shall be accepted and expended by the Board upon such terms and conditions as are prescribed by the Commonwealth. State moneys allocated pursuant to subdivision A 3 of § 58.1-638 shall not be used for (i) operating costs unless otherwise approved by the Board or (ii) purposes related to supporting the operation of an airline, either directly or indirectly, through grants, credit enhancements, or other related means.

In considering or evaluating the application for or award of any grant of moneys under this section, the Board shall take into account the capacities of all airports within the affected geographic region.

1980, c. 750; 1998, c. 480; 2017, c. 709.

§ 5.1-2.17. Exemptions from taxes or assessments; payments to county or city in lieu of taxes.

The exercise of the powers granted by this chapter will be in all respects for the benefit of the people of the Commonwealth, for the increase of their commerce and prosperity, and for the improvement of their health and living conditions, and as the operation and maintenance of airport projects by the Board will constitute the performance of essential governmental functions. The Board shall not be required to pay any taxes or assessments upon any airport project or any property acquired or used by the Board under the provisions of this chapter or upon the income therefrom, and any bonds issued under the provisions of this chapter, their transfer and the income therefrom, including any profit made on the sale thereof, shall at all times be free from taxation within the Commonwealth; provided that the exemption hereby granted shall not be construed to extend to persons conducting on the premises of an airport businesses for which local or state taxes would otherwise be required. When the bonds or other obligations of the Board issued in connection with the acquisition, construction or improvement of an airport or air navigation facility have been paid, or at an earlier date if the Board deems it financially feasible, the Board shall enter into negotiations with the governing body of the political subdivision in which such airport or facility is located and may agree with such governing body on sums to be paid to the county or city in lieu of taxes. In case of disagreement as to the value of the property, an appeal shall lie to the circuit court of the jurisdiction in which the airport or facility is located which court shall determine the value of such property and the ratio of assessed to true values of property in such political subdivision.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.18. Joint agency or authority; agreements authorized; terms.

The Board may, to the extent permitted by law, enter into agreements with agencies or authorities in this Commonwealth or from adjoining states or with an agency or authority of the United States for joint action pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. Each such agreement shall specify its duration, the proportionate interest which each participating authority or agency shall have in the property, facilities, and privileges of the joint undertaking; the apportionment of the costs of the undertaking among the participating authorities or agencies; the disposition of all property, facilities, and privileges jointly owned upon termination of such agreement or any renewal thereof; the payment or assumption of any indebtedness arising out of such joint operation which remains unpaid upon the disposal of all assets or upon the termination of the agreement or any renewal thereof; and such other provisions as may be necessary to insure efficient operation of the joint undertaking.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.19. Same; governing body; officers and agents; powers generally.

The agreement shall specify the composition of the governing body of the joint agency or authority created under § 5.1-2.18; provided, however, that the membership thereof from this Commonwealth shall be the same as the membership of the Board created by § 5.1-2.1. Each joint authority shall select officers for such terms as are fixed by the agreement and shall have the power to employ such agents and employees as it may require and as are reasonably necessary in carrying out the purposes of this chapter. Subject to the limitations and restrictions hereinafter set forth, such joint authority shall have the powers set forth in § 5.1-2.2:1.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.20. Same; eminent domain.

Eminent domain proceedings shall not be instituted by any joint authority except by majority vote of each component agency or authority of such joint authority. If so instituted, any property or rights acquired thereunder shall be held by such agencies or authorities jointly, according to the terms of the agreement creating the joint authority.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.21. Same; disposal of airport or facility.

The joint authority shall not dispose of any airport, airport navigational facility or real property under its jurisdiction except by majority vote of each component agency or authority; provided, however, that this restriction shall not be construed to apply to any disposition of property contemplated or permitted by § 5.1-2.2:1.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.22. Acquisition of airport previously operated by United States.

Whenever the Board shall acquire ownership and jurisdiction over any airport or airports previously operated by an agency of the United States, the Board is hereby authorized to enter into an agreement with such agency of the United States, as a condition of the acquisition of the airport, for the provision, necessary and appropriate use, maintenance, and operation, of such airport facilities as may be required by the United States or any specified agency or agencies thereof.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.23. Board as successor to Virginia Airports Authority.

The Board is the successor in interest to that political subdivision formerly known as the Virginia Airports Authority. As such, the Board stands in the place and stead of, and assumes all rights and duties formerly of, such Authority, including but not limited to all leases, contracts, grants-in-aid and all other agreements of whatsoever nature; holds title to all realty and personalty formerly held by such Authority; and may exercise all powers which might at any time past have been exercised by said Authority.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-2.24. Applicability of certain sections.

The provisions of §§ 5.1-2.5, 5.1-2.7, 5.1-2.8, 5.1-2.9, 5.1-2.10, 5.1-2.11, 5.1-2.12, 5.1-2.13, and 5.1-2.20 of this chapter shall be applicable only to any airport owned by the Virginia Airports Authority or its successor agency on January 1, 1980.

1980, c. 750.

§ 5.1-3. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-4. Aircraft for use of Department; construction, etc., of aviation facilities by Department.

Within the limits of appropriations made for such purposes, the Department is authorized to purchase aircraft for the use of the Department, provided, however, that the Department shall not purchase any new or used executive aircraft unless specifically requested in the Governor's budget and approved by the General Assembly in the Appropriations Act, and to purchase land for and to construct, maintain and improve airports, landing fields and other aviation facilities within the Commonwealth for the promotion of aviation in the interest of the public; and neither the appropriations nor any part thereof may be transferred or used for any other purpose than is specified in this section.

Code 1950, § 5-4; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-5. Registration of aircraft.

A. Every resident of the Commonwealth owning a civil aircraft, every nonresident owning a civil aircraft based in the Commonwealth for more than 60 days during any 12-month period, and every owner of an aerial application aircraft operating within the Commonwealth or of a civil aircraft operated in the Commonwealth as a for-hire intrastate air carrier shall register such aircraft with the Department before such aircraft is operated in the Commonwealth.

B. The Department shall provide for the issuance, expiration, suspension, and revocation of aircraft registration in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board. Such aircraft registration or registration requirement shall be considered the licensure or licensure requirement for purposes of the tax imposed pursuant to Chapter 15 (§ 58.1-1500 et seq.) of Title 58.1. The Department shall furnish any necessary forms pursuant to the issuance of such registration and may assess a fee for such issuance not in excess of $5 annually. The Department may, in lieu of issuing aircraft registration required by subsection A, issue commercial aircraft registration to air carriers and commercial dealers and issue to noncommercial dealers noncommercial dealer fleet registration, to cover all aircraft owned by such dealers and all aircraft for sale held by dealers on a consignment basis from an aircraft manufacturer. The Department may assess a fee not in excess of $50 annually for any such noncommercial dealer fleet registrations issued and a fee not in excess of $100 annually for any such commercial fleet registrations issued. The fee for a commercial single aircraft registration shall not be in excess of $10 annually.

Code 1950, § 5-5; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1974, c. 431; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-6. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 45.

§ 5.1-7. Licensing of airports and landing areas.

Except as provided in § 5.1-7.2, every person, before operating an airport or landing area or adding or extending a runway, shall first secure from the Department a license. The application therefor shall be made on the form prescribed and furnished by the Department and shall be accompanied by a fee not exceeding $100.

Such license shall be issued for a period not to exceed seven years and shall be renewed every seven years. Before issuing such license, the Department shall require the holder of such license to furnish proof of financial responsibility prescribed in Chapter 8.2 (§ 5.1-88.7 et seq.).

It shall be unlawful for any person to operate any airport or landing area which is open to the general public for the landing or departure of any aircraft until a license therefor shall be issued by the Department.

Before issuing such license for the establishment of a new airport, the Department shall investigate the location of such airport or landing area with the relation to its proximity to and its runway orientation in relation to any other airport or landing area and shall provide for the safety of civil aircraft alighting thereon or departing therefrom. If the proposed airport or landing area shall be so situated as to endanger aircraft using the same or any other airport or landing area in close proximity, and if proper provisions have not been made in all other respects for the safety of aircraft alighting thereon or departing therefrom, the license shall not be granted. To be licensed, an airport required to be licensed under § 5.1-7.2 must meet this criterion and any applicable requirement provided for in regulation promulgated under this section, but no others.

The Board may, by regulation, adopt any other requirements for licensure that are related to the safety of civil aircraft using such airport or landing area. Any airport having a license issued prior to October 1, 1995, and not meeting one or more minimum standards as defined in Part III (24VAC5-20-120 et seq.) of the Virginia Aviation Regulations, shall be exempt from having to comply with those noncomplying standards for as long as the airport remains an active public-use facility unless those noncomplying standards are caused by natural growth. Should such airport cease to be open to the public for one year, and subsequently reopen, it shall be required to comply with all applicable minimum standards for licensure.

In addition to the above safety requirements, before a license is initially issued, the Department shall consider the reviews and comments of appropriate state agencies coordinated by the Department of Environmental Quality, and shall cause a public hearing to be held concerning the economic, social and environmental effects of the location or runway orientation of the airport or landing area if the facility is listed in the Virginia Air Transportation System Plan; however, such coordinated review by the Department of Environmental Quality shall not exceed 90 days after the Department has requested review by the Department of Environmental Quality. The public hearing required by this section shall be conducted by the Department of Environmental Quality in the jurisdiction in which the airport or landing area is located, after publication of notice of the hearing in a newspaper of general circulation in such jurisdiction at least 10 days in advance of such hearing.

Any license issued shall describe the number of runways, the length and orientation of each runway and/or, if appropriate, the landing area.

If a runway is to be extended or new runways are to be added, a revised license shall be applied for from the Department. If the airport or landing area is listed in the Virginia Air Transportation System Plan, the Department shall consider the reviews and comments of appropriate state agencies, coordinated by the Department of Environmental Quality, and shall cause a public hearing to be held concerning the economic, social and environmental effects of such changes to the license.

Whenever a public hearing is called for herein, if there has been a public hearing associated with the development of any environmental documents to comply with the receipt of federal funds, the Department and the Department of Environmental Quality may rely on such document or hearing in carrying out their respective duties set out in this section.

If an airport or landing area cannot meet the requirements for licensure that have been adopted by the Virginia Aviation Board, or having met those requirements cannot maintain compliance, the Department may issue conditional licenses to allow time for the airport or landing areas to take steps to meet those requirements or may revoke any license issued, if requirements for licensure are not met or cannot be met.

Any party aggrieved by the granting or refusal to grant any such license shall have a right of appeal to the circuit court of the jurisdiction where the airport or landing area is to be located, which appeal shall be filed in accordance with the Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.).

All airports or landing areas that hold licenses or permits shall be issued new licenses, without charge, on or before October 1, 1995, describing the number, length and orientation of the runway or runways or, if appropriate, the landing area, which shall be valid for up to seven years. The length of the new license term may be staggered so that all licenses will not become renewable at the same time. If any airport landing area does not meet the current requirements for licensure, a new license may be issued.

Code 1950, § 5-7; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721; 1981, c. 326; 1991, c. 126; 1995, cc. 682, 690; 1996, cc. 148, 303; 2011, c. 75.

§ 5.1-7.1. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1980, c. 56.

§ 5.1-7.2. Registration of private landing areas not within five miles of commercial airport.

Any person owning an area for landing any aircraft, which area is not within five miles of a commercial airport and has been constructed by such person for his private use and which is not open to the general public, shall only be required to register, upon forms furnished by the Department, such landing area with the Department and with the Federal Aviation Administration.

1981, c. 326.

§ 5.1-7.3. Duty of care and liability for damages of owners of private landing areas.

A. For the purposes of this section:

"Fee" means any payment or payments of money to a landowner for use of the premises or in order to engage in any activity described in subsections B and C, but does not include any action taken by another to improve the land or access to the land for the purposes set forth in subsections B and C or to remedy damage caused by such uses.

"Land" or "premises" means any privately owned area for landing any aircraft, that is not open to the general public, and that is registered with the Department and the Federal Aviation Administration pursuant to § 5.1-7.2.

"Landowner" means the legal title holder, lessee, occupant, or any other person in control of the land or premises.

B. A landowner shall not be liable for ordinary negligence related to conditions on his premises that proximately cause damage to property or injury to occupants of an aircraft or ultralight vehicle landing on or taking off from such premises, provided that no commercial operation is being conducted on or about the premises.

C. Any landowner who gives permission, express or implied, to another person to operate aircraft or ultralight vehicles of any type for the personal use of such person or for the use of an easement as set forth in subsection B does not thereby:

1. Impliedly or expressly represent that the premises are safe for such purposes;

2. Grant invitee status or its corresponding duty of care to the person to whom such permission has been granted; or

3. Assume responsibility for or incur liability for any intentional or negligent acts of such person or any other person, except as provided in subsection D.

D. Nothing contained in this section shall limit the liability of a landowner that may otherwise arise or exist by reason of his gross negligence or willful or malicious failure to guard or warn against a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity. The provisions of this section shall not limit the liability of a landowner that may otherwise arise or exist when the landowner receives a fee for use of the premises or to engage in any activity described in subsection B or C. Nothing contained in this section shall relieve any landowner who sponsors or conducts any event or competition of the duty to exercise ordinary care in such events.

2012, c. 302.

§ 5.1-8. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1995, cc. 682 and 690, effective October 1, 1995.

§ 5.1-9. Disposition of fees.

All fees or sums collected by the Department under the provisions of this chapter shall be paid into the special fund created by § 5.1-51.

Code 1950, § 5-9; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-9.1. Certain privately owned airports declared to be works of public improvement; exemption from local taxation authorized.

(a) Any public use privately owned airport in this Commonwealth, or any improvements made thereto, which is open to the public at no charge and which has been licensed by the Department is hereby declared to be a work of internal improvement.

(b) The governing body of any city, town or county in this Commonwealth is authorized to exempt from local taxation, as an inducement to their location, the runways and taxiways of any privately owned, public use airport, which is available to the public at no charge and which has been licensed by the Department.

Code 1950, § 5-9.1; 1966, c. 221; 1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-9.2. Contract carriers; permit and registration required.

No person shall operate or engage in the business of a contract carrier by aircraft intrastate in the airspace of this Commonwealth unless such person has secured from the Department a permit authorizing him to conduct such operation or to engage in such business and has registered under § 5.1-5 all aircraft used in this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 5.1-103; 1970, c. 708; 1979, c. 357; 1980, c. 721; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-9.3. Same; application for permit; fee; action of Department.

Any person desiring a permit under this chapter shall file with the Department an application in the form prescribed by the Department with a fee of fifty dollars. Such application shall contain a promise of compliance by the applicant with the provisions of this title and with the lawful rules and regulations of the Department governing the operations of contract carriers by aircraft in the airspace of the Commonwealth. Such application may be filed with the Department by the applicant in person or transmitted by registered mail. Upon being satisfied that the provisions of this chapter and the lawful rules and regulations of the Department adopted pursuant hereto, which are prerequisite to the granting of a permit, have been complied with, the Department shall issue such permit to such applicant, subject to such terms, limitations and restrictions as the Department may deem proper, without further proceedings.

Code 1950, § 5.1-104; 1970, c. 708; 1972, c. 232; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-9.4. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 45.

§ 5.1-9.5. Contract carriers; bonds, insurance or certificate of insurance required prior to issuance of registration or permit; securities deposited in lieu thereof.

A. No registration or permit shall be issued by the Department to any contract carrier by aircraft until and after such contract carrier has filed with the Department an insurance policy, a bond underwritten by an insurer, or certificate of insurance in lieu thereof, which certificate shall certify that such policy or bond covers the liability of such contract carrier in accordance with the provisions of this statute.

B. Such policy, bond or certificate of insurance shall be issued or underwritten only by an insurer approved or authorized to do business in Virginia, or by one who is eligible as a surplus lines insurer pursuant to Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4805.1 et seq.) of Title 38.2, and shall be in amounts not less than the following minimum limits: liability for bodily injury to or death of any one person, passenger or other, aboard the aircraft; $75,000, liability for each occurrence in any one aircraft of at least an amount equal to the sum produced by multiplying $75,000 by seventy-five percent of the total number of passenger seats installed in the aircraft; and liability for loss or damage to cargo owned by others than the insured of at least $10,000 for each occurrence. However, the holder of a registration or permit issued by the Department shall not be required to file any cargo insurance, bond, or bonds for cargo liability for the hauling of property transported under contract.

C. In no event shall the limits required herein for contract carriers be less than those prescribed for like carriers by the Civil Aeronautics Board or the Federal Aviation Administration or their successors.

D. In lieu of such policy, underwritten bond or certificate of insurance, a contract carrier may, with the consent of the Department, submit bonds, in an amount approved by the Department, of the United States of America, the Commonwealth of Virginia, or of any municipality of this Commonwealth as security for its bond. Such federal, state, or municipal bonds shall be deposited with the State Treasurer, and shall not be reduced in amount, pledged as security, or otherwise encumbered for any other purpose during the life of such registration or permit, except with the prior written approval of the Department.

1980, c. 721; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-9.6. Same; duration and custody of bonds, etc.

Insurance policies, bonds, certificates of insurance, or federal, state, or municipal bonds filed with the Department shall be kept in full force at all times. The policy, bond, or certificate of insurance shall remain in the custody of the Department six months after the insurance or bond has expired or has been canceled for any cause. If federal, state, or municipal bonds are deposited with the State Treasurer as security, such bonds shall remain so deposited until six months after the authority for use of equipment insured has expired or is cancelled for any cause, unless otherwise ordered by the Department.

1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-9.7. Same; condition of bond, etc.

The insurance bond, or other security, shall obligate the insurer or surety to pay any final judgment for damages sustained by the passengers, shippers, or consignees for injury to any passenger or passengers, or for loss or damage to property entrusted to such contract carrier when a cargo policy is required, and for any and all injuries to persons and loss of, or damage to, property resulting from the negligent operation of any aircraft.

1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-9.8. Same; effect of failure to give or maintain adequate security.

Failure of any contract carrier holding a registration or permit issued by and under the authority of the Department to comply with any of the provisions of §§ 5.1-9.5 through 5.1-9.7 shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor and punishable as such.

1980, c. 721; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-9.9. Same; duration of permits; suspension or revocation; penalty.

A. Contract carrier permits issued pursuant to this chapter shall be effective from the date of issuance and shall remain in effect only so long as the contract carrier's insurance, underwritten bond or certificate of insurance required by § 5.1-9.5 remains in full force and effect.

B. The Department may suspend or revoke such permit for violation of any of the aviation laws of this Commonwealth or of the United States of America, or for violation of any of the rules and regulations of the Virginia Aviation Board.

C. Willful misrepresentation of any material fact in obtaining a contract carrier permit shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor and punishable as such.

1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-10. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-11. Government-owned aircraft.

This article shall not apply to public aircraft owned by the United States but shall apply to all other public aircraft.

Code 1950, § 5-14; 1966, c. 576; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-12. Federally certificated airlines and interstate service.

This article shall not apply to any aircraft operated by any air carrier operating under Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121 or Part 135 if operating with an exemption from Title IV of the Federal Aviation Act to provide scheduled passenger service.

Code 1950, § 5-14; 1966, c. 576; 1980, c. 721; 1988, c. 45; 1991, c. 535.

Article 2. Illegal Operation, Etc.; Procedure; Penalties

§ 5.1-13. Operation of aircraft while under influence of intoxicating liquors or drugs; reckless operation.

Any person who shall operate any aircraft within the airspace over, above or upon the lands or waters of this Commonwealth, while under the influence of intoxicating liquor or of any narcotic or any habit-forming drugs shall be guilty of a felony and shall be confined in a state correctional facility not less than one nor more than five years, or, in the discretion of the court or jury trying the case, be confined in jail not exceeding twelve months and fined not exceeding $500, or both such fine and imprisonment.

Any person who shall operate any aircraft within the airspace over, above or upon the lands or waters of this Commonwealth carelessly or heedlessly in willful or wanton disregard of the rights or safety of others, or without due caution and circumspection and in a manner so as to endanger any person or property, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 5-10.1; 1964, c. 416; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-14. Operation of unregistered aircraft.

Any person who operates or causes to be operated any civil aircraft within the airspace over, above or upon the lands or waters of this Commonwealth, which aircraft has not been and is not at the time of such operation properly certificated under and in accordance with existing federal law and registered under and in accordance with the existing laws of this Commonwealth and rules and regulations promulgated in pursuance thereof, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 5-10.2; 1966, c. 576; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-15. Operation of aircraft by unlicensed persons.

Any person who operates any civil aircraft within the airspace over, above, or upon the lands or waters of this Commonwealth, without being, at the time of such operation, in possession of a valid airman's certificate for such operation, issued under and in accordance with existing federal law shall be deemed to be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 5-10.3; 1966, c. 576; 1988, c. 45.

§ 5.1-16. Tampering with, etc., airplanes or markings of airports, landing fields or other aeronautical facilities.

It shall be unlawful for any person to tamper with, alter, destroy, remove, carry away, or cause to be carried away, an airplane or other flying device or instrumentality or any objects used for the marking of airports, landing fields, drop zones or other aeronautical facilities, or in any way change their position or location, except by and under the direction of the proper authorities charged with the maintenance and operation of such facilities. Any person violating any of the provisions of this section or who shall illegally have in his possession any objects or devices used for such markings, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 5-10.4; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-16.1. Misuse of licensed airports.

It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to use licensed airport runways, taxiways or ramp areas for other than aeronautical purposes without written approval of the controlling authority of such airport.

1970, c. 717.

§ 5.1-17. Use of aircraft for hunting.

It shall be unlawful for any person to hunt, pursue or kill any wild waterfowl or other birds or animals by any means whatever during such time as such person is in flight in an aircraft in the airspace over the lands or waters of this Commonwealth. A violation of this section shall be deemed a misdemeanor.

Code 1950, § 5-10.5; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-18. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 45.

§ 5.1-20. Pilot may restrain or arrest person interfering with operation of aircraft carrying passengers for hire.

The pilot of any aircraft carrying passengers for hire, or any person subject to his direction, may take such action as is reasonably necessary to restrain or arrest any person who interferes with, or threatens to interfere with, the operation of the aircraft in flight over the territory of this Commonwealth or to a destination within this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 5-14.1; 1958, c. 561, § 1; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-21. Powers of conservator of the peace conferred upon pilot.

The pilot of any aircraft carrying passengers for hire while actively engaged in the operation of such aircraft shall be a special policeman and have all the powers of a conservator of the peace in the enforcement of order on such aircraft and while in pursuit of persons for disorder upon such aircraft and until such persons as may be arrested by him shall have been placed in confinement or delivered to the custody of some other conservator of the peace or police officer.

Code 1950, § 5-14.2; 1958, c. 561, § 2; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-21.1. Powers of conservators of the peace conferred upon airport managers or designees.

The airport manager of any licensed Virginia airport or in his absence not more than two employees who are designated by him shall be special policemen and have all the powers of conservators of the peace in the enforcement of this title and its regulations as promulgated by the Board. Persons arrested by them shall be placed in confinement or delivered to the custody of some other conservator of the peace or police officer.

1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272; 1991, c. 339.

§ 5.1-22. Interference with operation of aircraft; penalties; venue.

Any person who interferes with or threatens to interfere with the operation of any aircraft, unless he is authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration or the armed forces of the United States, on or over the territory of the Commonwealth shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Where the act or acts of interference or threatened interference are of such a nature as to endanger the life of the aircraft's operator or the life of any other person, the person interfering or threatening to interfere shall be guilty of a Class 6 felony. Any person who knowingly and intentionally projects a point of light from a laser, laser gun sight, or any other device that simulates a laser at an aircraft is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. Venue for the issuance of a warrant for the arrest and trial of any such person is hereby conferred upon any court having criminal jurisdiction in the political subdivision in the Commonwealth where the aircraft either took off prior to such offense, or where it lands or comes to rest subsequent to such offense, or in or over which the offense occurred.

Code 1950, § 5-14.3; 1958, c. 561, § 3; 1966, c. 576; 1983, c. 560; 2012, c. 398.

§ 5.1-23. Jurisdiction of local and State Police.

The local police authorities of any city, incorporated town or county shall have jurisdiction on the premises of any airport, drop zone or landing field operated hereunder, either individually or jointly and the State Police shall have jurisdiction to investigate any aircraft accident. In the exercise of such jurisdiction the State Police and officers of the department of law enforcement of any city or county with an optional form of government may enter with immunity and without a warrant upon private property for the purpose of conducting such investigations. This section shall not repeal the provisions of any city charter in conflict herewith.

Code 1950, § 5-37; 1966, c. 576; 1968, c. 737; 1979, c. 394; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-24. Penalties.

Any person violating any of the provisions of this chapter, or violating any of the rules or regulations promulgated pursuant thereto by the Board, except as otherwise specifically provided, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not more than $100 or imprisonment in jail not exceeding one month, or both, in the discretion of the judge or jury trying the case; provided, that any person (excepting any government, political subdivision of the Commonwealth, or governmental subdivision or agency) establishing or operating an airport without first obtaining a permit as provided in § 5.1-8 shall, upon conviction, be fined not less than $100 nor more than $500 for each offense, and each day that the airport is operated without such permit shall be construed as a separate offense.

Code 1950, § 5-11; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-25. Operation of aircraft by nonresident.

A nonresident of this Commonwealth may operate aircraft engaged in operations other than for hire or reward in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Board, provided such nonresident and the aircraft to be so operated shall have been certified under federal law and shall have complied with the laws of the state in which such nonresident resides relative to aircraft and the operation thereof. A nonresident-owned aircraft engaged in intrastate operation for hire or reward must be licensed with the Department in accordance with this title and the Board's regulations.

Code 1950, § 5-12; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272; 1988, c. 45.

Article 3. Structures Dangerous to Aircraft

§ 5.1-25.1. Permit required for erection of certain structures.

It shall be unlawful for any person to erect any structure, any part of which penetrates into or through any licensed airport's or United States government or military air facility's clear zone, approach zone, imaginary surface, obstruction clearance surface, obstruction clearance zone, or surface or zone as described in regulations of the Department of Aviation or the Federal Aviation Administration, without securing a permit for its erection from the Board. This section shall not apply to any structure to be erected in a county, city or town which has an ordinance regulating the height of such structures to prevent the penetration of zones and surfaces provided for in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 77 and Rule 19 of the Department of Aviation.

For the purpose of this section, "structure" shall mean any object, including a mobile object, constructed or erected by man, including but not limited to buildings, towers, cranes, smokestacks, earth formations, overhead transmission lines, flag poles, and ship masts.

1968, c. 744; 1979, c. 272; 1981, c. 326; 1989, cc. 202, 255; 1990, c. 384.

§ 5.1-25.2. Application for permit; notice and hearing.

Any person desiring to erect or cause to be erected any such structure shall make application to the Department for the issuance of a permit for such erection. Such application shall be forwarded immediately to the Board. The Department shall undertake an appropriate review of such application and submit its contents in writing to the Board as expeditiously as possible. The Board, after such notice to the public as it deems necessary, shall hold a public hearing not less than thirty days after the giving of such notice at which all interested parties shall be admitted to attend and state any objection which they may have to the erection of such structure.

1968, c. 744; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-25.3. When permit issued or denied; conditions to issuance.

The Board, if it finds that the erection of such structure will not be dangerous to aircraft using the airways of this Commission, shall issue the permit requested; but if it shall find that the erection of such structure will create a hazard to aircraft using such airways, it shall refuse the issuance of such a permit. The Board may, as a condition to the issuance of any permit, require the installation and maintenance of warning lights and any other devices which may be reasonably required to reduce the hazard which might be presented by the erection of such structure.

1968, c. 744.

§ 5.1-25.4. Injunctions.

If any person commences the erection of a structure of the nature described in § 5.1-25.1 without securing the permit therein required, the Department shall have power to apply forthwith to the circuit court of the jurisdiction in which the structure is located or is to be located, for injunctive relief.

1968, c. 744; 1979, c. 272.

Chapter 2. Aviation Advisory Committee [Repealed].

§§ 5.1-26 through 5.1-30. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1979, c. 272.

Chapter 2.1. Virginia Airports Revolving Fund.

§ 5.1-30.1. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise:

"Authority" means the Virginia Resources Authority created in Chapter 21 (§ 62.1-197 et seq.) of Title 62.1.

"Cost," as applied to any project financed under the provisions of this chapter, means the total of all costs incurred by the local government as reasonable and necessary for carrying out all works and undertakings necessary or incident to the accomplishment of any project. It includes, without limitation, all necessary developmental, planning and feasibility studies, surveys, plans and specifications; architectural, engineering, financial, legal or other special services; the cost of acquisition of land and any buildings and improvements thereon, including the discharge of any obligations of the sellers of such land, buildings or improvements; site preparation and development, including demolition or removal of existing structures; construction and reconstruction; labor; materials, machinery and equipment; the reasonable costs of financing incurred by the local government in the course of the development of the project; carrying charges incurred before placing the project in service; interest on funds borrowed to finance the project to a date subsequent to the estimated date the project is to be placed in service; necessary expenses incurred in connection with placing the project in service; the funding of accounts and reserves which the Authority may require; and the cost of other items which the Authority determines to be reasonable and necessary.

"Fund" means the Virginia Airports Revolving Fund created by this chapter.

"Local government" means any county, city, town, municipal corporation, authority, district, commission or political subdivision created by the General Assembly or pursuant to the Constitution or laws of the Commonwealth or any combination of any two or more of the foregoing.

"Project" means all or any part of an airport as defined in § 5.1-1 and may consist of or include any or all facilities related to the needs or convenience of passengers, shipping companies, and airlines, together with any or all buildings or other structures, improvements, additions, extensions, replacements, machinery or equipment, and any or all appurtenances, lands, rights in land, avigation rights, water rights, rights-of-way, franchises, furnishings, landscaping, utilities, approaches, roadways, or other facilities necessary or desirable in connection therewith or incidental thereto.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.2. Creation and management of Virginia Airports Revolving Fund.

There shall be set apart as a permanent and perpetual fund, to be known as the "Virginia Airports Revolving Fund," sums appropriated to the Fund by the General Assembly, all receipts by the Fund from loans made by it to local governments, all income from the investment of moneys held in the Fund, and any other sums designated for deposit to the Fund from any source public or private, including without limitation any federal grants, awards or other forms of assistance received by the Commonwealth that are eligible for deposit therein under federal law. The Authority shall administer and manage the Fund, and establish the interest rates and repayment terms of such loans as provided in this chapter, in accordance with a memorandum of agreement with the Board. The Board shall direct the distribution of loans from the Fund to particular local governments. Consistent with this chapter, the Board shall, after consultation with all interested parties, develop a guidance document governing project eligibility and project priority criteria. In order to carry out the administration and management of the Fund, the Authority, in consultation with the Board, is granted the power to employ officers, employees, agents, advisers and consultants, including, without limitation, attorneys, financial advisers, engineers and other technical advisers and public accountants and, the provisions of any other law to the contrary notwithstanding, to determine their duties and compensation without the approval of any other agency or instrumentality. The Authority may disburse from the Fund its reasonable costs and expenses incurred in the administration and management of the Fund and a reasonable fee to be approved by the Board for its management services.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.3. Deposit of money; expenditures; investments.

All money belonging to the Fund shall be deposited in an account or accounts in banks or trust companies organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or in national banking associations located in Virginia or in savings institutions located in Virginia organized under the laws of the Commonwealth or the United States. The money in these accounts shall be paid by check signed by the Executive Director of the Authority or other officers or employees designated by the Board of Directors of the Authority. All deposits of money shall, if required by the Authority, be secured in a manner determined by the Authority to be prudent, and all banks, trust companies and savings institutions are authorized to give security for the deposits. Money in the Fund shall not be commingled with other money of the Authority. Money in the Fund not needed for immediate use or disbursement may be invested or reinvested by the Authority in obligations or securities which are considered lawful investments for public funds under the laws of the Commonwealth.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.4. Collection of money due Fund.

The Authority is empowered to collect, or to authorize others to collect on its behalf, amounts due to the Fund under any loan to a local government, including, if appropriate, taking the action required by § 15.2-2659 to obtain payment of any amounts in default. Proceedings to recover amounts due to the Fund may be instituted by the Authority in the name of the Fund in the appropriate circuit court.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.5. Loans to local governments.

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, money in the Fund shall be used solely to make loans to local governments to finance or refinance the cost of any project. The local governments to which loans are to be made, the purposes of the loan, and the amount of each such loan, shall be designated in writing by the Board to the Authority following consultation with the Authority. No loan from the Fund shall exceed the total cost of the project to be financed or the outstanding principal amount of the indebtedness to be refinanced plus reasonable financing expenses.

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the Authority shall determine the interest rate and terms and conditions of any loan from the Fund, which may vary between local governments. Each loan shall be evidenced by appropriate bonds or notes of the local government payable to the Fund. The bonds or notes shall have been duly authorized by the local government and executed by its authorized legal representatives. The Authority is authorized to require in connection with any loan from the Fund such documents, instruments, certificates, legal opinions and other information as it may deem necessary or convenient. In addition to any other terms or conditions which the Authority may establish, the Authority may require, as a condition to making any loan from the Fund, that the local government receiving the loan covenant perform any of the following:

1. Establish and collect rents, rates, fees, and charges to produce revenue sufficient to pay all or a specified portion of (i) the costs of operation, maintenance, replacement, renewal, and repairs of the project; (ii) any outstanding indebtedness incurred for the purposes of the project, including the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the loan from the Fund to the local government; and (iii) any amounts necessary to create and maintain any required reserve, including any rate stabilization fund deemed necessary or appropriate by the Authority to offset the need, in whole or in part, for future increases in rents, rates, fees, or charges.

2. Create and maintain a special fund or funds for the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the loan from the Fund to the local government and any other amounts becoming due under any agreement entered into in connection with the loan, or for the operation, maintenance, repair, or replacement of the project or any portions thereof or other property of the local government, and deposit into any fund or funds amounts sufficient to make any payments on the loan as they become due and payable.

3. Create and maintain other special funds as required by the Authority.

4. Perform other acts otherwise permitted by applicable law to secure payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the loan from the Fund to the local government and to provide for the remedies of the Fund in the event of any default by the local government in the payment of the loan, including, without limitation, any of the following:

a. The procurement of insurance, guarantees, letters of credit and other forms of collateral, security, liquidity arrangements or credit supports for the loan from any source, public or private, and the payment therefor of premiums, fees, or other charges;

b. The combination of one or more projects, or the combination of one or more projects with one or more other undertakings, facilities, utilities, or systems, for the purpose of operations and financing, and the pledging of the revenues from such combined projects, undertakings, facilities, utilities, and systems to secure the loan from the Fund to the local government made in connection with such combination or any part or parts thereof;

c. The maintenance, replacement, renewal, and repair of the project; and

d. The procurement of casualty and liability insurance.

5. Obtain a review of the accounting and the internal controls from the Auditor of Public Accounts or his legally authorized representatives. The Authority may request additional reviews at any time during the term of the loan. In addition, anyone receiving a report in accordance with § 5.1-30.9 may request an additional review as set forth in this section.

All local governments borrowing money from the Fund are authorized to perform any acts, take any action, adopt any proceedings and make and carry out any contracts that are contemplated by this chapter. Such contracts need not be identical among all local governments, but may be structured as determined by the Authority according to the needs of the contracting local governments and the Fund.

Subject to the rights, if any, of the registered owners of any of the bonds of the Authority, the Authority may consent to and approve any modification in the terms of any loan to any local government.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.6. Pledge of loans to secure bonds of Authority.

The Authority is empowered at any time and from time to time to pledge, assign or transfer from the Fund to banks or trust companies designated by the Authority any or all of the assets of the Fund to be held in trust as security for the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on any or all of the bonds, as defined in § 62.1-199, issued to finance any project. The interests of the Fund in any assets so transferred shall be subordinate to the rights of the trustee under the pledge, assignment or transfer. To the extent funds are not available from other sources pledged for such purpose, any of the assets or payments of principal and interest received on the assets pledged, assigned or transferred or held in trust may be applied by the trustee thereof to the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on such bonds of the Authority secured thereby, and, if such payments are insufficient for such purpose, the trustee is empowered to sell any or all of such assets and apply the net proceeds from the sale to the payment of the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on such bonds of the Authority. Any assets of the Fund pledged, assigned or transferred in trust as set forth above and any payments of principal, interest or earnings received thereon shall remain part of the Fund but shall be subject to the pledge, assignment or transfer to secure the bonds of the Authority and shall be held by the trustee to which they are pledged, assigned or transferred until no longer required for such purpose by the terms of the pledge, assignment or transfer.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.7. Sale of loans.

The Authority is empowered at any time and from time to time to sell, upon such terms and conditions as the Authority shall deem appropriate, any loan, or interest therein, made pursuant to this chapter. The net proceeds of sale remaining after the payment of the costs and expenses of the sale shall be designated for deposit to, and become part of, the Fund.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.8. Powers of the Authority.

The Authority is authorized to do any act necessary or convenient to the exercise of the powers granted in this chapter or reasonably implied thereby.

1999, c. 897.

§ 5.1-30.9. Report to the General Assembly and Governor.

The Board, in conjunction with the Authority, shall report annually on or before December 1 to the General Assembly and the Governor on all loans made from the Fund.

1999, c. 897; 2005, c. 633.

§ 5.1-30.10. Liberal construction of chapter.

The provisions of this chapter shall be liberally construed to the end that its beneficial purposes may be effectuated. Insofar as the provisions of this chapter are inconsistent with the provisions of any other law, general, special or local, the provisions of this chapter shall be controlling.

1999, c. 897.

Chapter 3. Municipal and County Airports and Other Air Navigation Facilities.

Article 1. Acquisition, Establishment and Operation Generally; Outside Easements

§ 5.1-31. Authority to acquire, construct, maintain and operate; permission of Department required.

All cities, incorporated towns and counties of the Commonwealth may acquire, by purchase, lease, gift, condemnation or otherwise, within or without the limits of any such city, town or county, whatever land may be reasonably necessary for the purpose of establishing, constructing, owning, controlling, leasing, equipping, improving, maintaining and operating airports for the use of airplanes; may acquire, establish, construct, enlarge, improve, maintain, equip, operate and regulate the use of such airports or landing fields, structures, air navigation facilities and other property incident thereto; may make, prior to such acquisition, investigation, surveys and plans and enter upon any lands or waters for such purposes; may construct, install, maintain and operate facilities for the servicing of aircraft, and for the accommodation and comfort of air travelers; may purchase and sell equipment and supplies as an incident to the operation of its airport properties; provided, that in the case of any county, the exercise of such authority beyond its territorial boundaries shall be only with the consent of the governing body of the political subdivision in which the power is sought to be exercised; provided, however, that no such city, town or county shall establish or operate any airport without first obtaining the permission of the Board, as now or hereafter provided by law.

The governing body of a county, city, or town may create an airport authority that shall be empowered on behalf of such county, city, or town to have and exercise the powers and rights set out in this section.

Code 1950, §§ 5-20, 5-29; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 1995, c. 453.

§ 5.1-32. Easements and privileges outside of airport or landing field boundaries.

Where necessary to provide unobstructed airspace for the landing and taking off of aircraft utilizing airports or landing fields acquired or operated by any county, city or town under the provisions of this article, any such county, city or town may acquire, in the same manner as is provided for the acquisition of land for airport purposes, easements through or other interests or privileges with respect to lands or waters outside the boundaries of such airports or landing fields which are necessary to insure safe approaches to such airports or landing fields and the safe and efficient operation thereof; and may also acquire in like manner, for a term of years or perpetually, the right of easement to place and maintain suitable signs or markers or lights to adequately locate and mark objects or structures or uses of lands which are hazardous to aircraft using such airports or landing fields, including the right of ingress and egress to and from such airport hazards for the purpose of maintaining and repairing such signs, markers and lights.

Code 1950, § 5-21; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-33. Public purpose declared.

Any lands, easements or privileges acquired, owned, controlled or occupied by any cities, incorporated towns and counties of the Commonwealth under the provisions of this article are hereby declared to be acquired, owned, controlled or occupied for a public purpose, and as a matter of public necessity; and such lands, easements and privileges so acquired, owned, controlled or occupied are hereby declared to be acquired, owned, controlled or occupied for public, governmental and municipal purposes, and to be within the definition of property acquired for public uses as such term is used in Article I, Section 11 of the Constitution of Virginia.

Code 1950, §§ 5-22, 5-30; 1966, c. 576; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 26.

§ 5.1-34. Acquisition of property; exercise of right of eminent domain.

Private property needed by any city, incorporated town or county for an airport or landing field shall be acquired by purchase, if the city, town or county is able to agree with the owners on the terms thereof. The cities, incorporated towns or counties are hereby granted full power to exercise the right of eminent domain in the acquisition of any lands, easements and privileges that are necessary for airport and landing field purposes. Proceedings for the acquisition of such lands, easements and privileges by condemnation may be instituted and conducted in the name of such county, city or town, and the procedure shall be mutatis mutandis the same as in the acquisition of land by condemnation proceedings instituted by railroads and may acquire in like manner, for a term of years or perpetually, the right of easement to remove and control the growth of any tree or vegetation standing or growing in said land outside the boundaries of any airport or landing field and the right of easement to place and maintain suitable signs or markers or lights to adequately locate and mark objects or structures that are hazardous to aircraft using such airports or landing fields, of ingress and egress to and from such airport hazards for the purpose of maintaining and repairing such signs, markers and lights and cutting of trees or other growing vegetation penetrating the approach and departure slope easement. The right of condemnation granted herein shall be subject to the same provisions as are provided in § 25.1-102 concerning the condemnation of property belonging to a corporation possessing the power of eminent domain by another public service corporation.

Code 1950, §§ 5-23, 5-31; 1966, c. 576; 2003, c. 940.

§ 5.1-35. Powers may be exercised jointly by two or more political subdivisions.

All powers, rights, and authority granted to counties, cities, and towns under this article may be exercised and enjoyed jointly by any two or more of such political subdivisions within or without the territorial limits of either or any of them, or if one or more of such political subdivisions is a county, then within such county or one of such counties, and the political subdivisions so acting jointly may enter into such agreements with each other as may be necessary or proper for the exercise and enjoyment of the joint powers hereby granted, and for joint action in carrying out the general purposes of this article. The powers granted by this section shall include the power to seek and obtain loans for the purpose of capital improvements to any airport or landing field established pursuant to this article.

Code 1950, § 5-24; 1966, c. 576; 1989, c. 234.

§ 5.1-36. Agreement for joint exercise of powers; governing board, etc., to act on behalf of political subdivisions; powers of board, etc.

The agreement provided for in § 5.1-35 may provide for the creation of a governing board, commission, authority or body empowered to have and exercise, on behalf of the several political subdivisions which are parties to such agreement, the powers, rights and authority conferred on such political subdivisions by this article. Members of the governing bodies of the several political subdivisions may serve as a member of a board, commission, authority or body formed pursuant to § 5.1-35. Such agreement shall specify the name of the board, commission, authority or body and its composition and prescribe its powers and duties which may include powers to establish, construct, manage, and operate an airport, acquire, hold and dispose of property but on behalf of the several political subdivisions, including the exercise on their behalf of the power of eminent domain. If any such board, commission, authority or body is created, all proceedings in connection with the establishment, construction, management and operation of the airport, including application for and issuance of any license required therefor, shall be in its name. The intent of § 5.1-35 and this section is that any such board, commission, authority or body established by two or more political subdivisions or through action of the General Assembly may have the same powers granted to a city, town and county but in no case will such powers be greater than those granted to a city, town or county. Any joint airport authority created pursuant to this chapter and in existence on July 1, 1994, shall be continued in lawful existence under the terms and provisions of this chapter even though all the political subdivisions except one withdraw from the joint airport authority.

Code 1950, § 5-24.1; 1958, c. 523; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1993, c. 81; 1995, c. 453.

§ 5.1-36.1. Contributions by counties to construction of certain airports.

The governing body of any county is authorized to make appropriations of public funds to contribute to the initial construction of an airport by a city or town adjoining such county or by a city or town within a county adjoining such county.

Code 1950, § 5-24.2; 1966, c. 415.

§ 5.1-37. Public waters and submerged lands.

The powers herein granted to counties, cities and towns include the power to establish, maintain and operate airports and landing areas and other air navigation facilities in, over and upon any public waters of this Commonwealth, or any submerged land under such public waters, within the limits or jurisdiction of or bordering on such counties, cities or towns.

Code 1950, § 5-26; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-38. Right to zone property not limited.

The rights of any counties, cities or towns to zone property shall not be limited by the provisions of this article.

Code 1950, § 5-27; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-39. Use, disposal and termination of rights acquired.

No easements, rights or privileges acquired under the terms of this article by any county, city or town shall be employed or disposed of except to accomplish the purposes for which they were originally acquired; except that when such easements, rights, or privileges have been transferred to the Virginia Aviation Board, they may be held, used, and disposed of in accordance with §§ 5.1-2.2 and 5.1-2.2:1. Upon the abandonment of any airport or landing field acquired pursuant to this article all easements, rights and privileges which shall have been so acquired over or with respect to adjacent lands shall thereupon terminate and revert back to the person from whom the easement, right or privilege was obtained or his successor in interest.

Code 1950, § 5-28; 1966, c. 576; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-39.1. Use of airport property for industrial development purposes.

Notwithstanding § 5.1-39, any county, city, town, or airport commission may use, lease or convey for any industrial development purposes any airport property described in § 5.1-39 with the written approval of the Director of Aviation on such terms and conditions as the Director may require. When any easement, rights, or privileges have been pledged as a sponsor's share to secure funds from the Federal Aviation Administration, written approval of the Federal Aviation Administration shall also be required.

1980, c. 59.

§ 5.1-40. Lease of land acquired; approval by Department.

Any political subdivision or privately owned, licensed public use airport acquiring land under the provisions of this article may individually, or jointly where so operated, lease the same, or any part thereof, to any individual or corporation desiring to use the same for the purpose of operating an airport or landing field, or for the purpose of landing or starting airplanes therefrom or for other aviation purposes, and on such terms and subject to such conditions and regulations as may be provided; and any political subdivision or privately owned, licensed public use airport may enter into a contract in the form of a lease providing for the use of such land, or any part thereof, by the government of the United States for the use by the government of such land for aviation, mail delivery or other aviation purposes upon nominal or other rental or without consideration, provided the political subdivision or privately owned, licensed public use airport certifies that the lease meets the terms and provisions of any and all state and federal grants.

Code 1950, § 5-38; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 2012, cc. 28, 805, 836.

§ 5.1-41. Operation by local governing body or special officer or board.

The governing body, or other proper authority, of a county, city, or town which has established an airport or landing field and acquired, leased, or set apart property for such purpose, may construct, improve, equip, maintain and operate the same, or may vest jurisdiction for the construction, improvement, equipment, maintenance and operation thereof in any suitable officer, board or body of such county, city, or town. A member of the governing body of any such county, city, or town may also serve as a member of any board or body established to manage an airport or landing field. No such city, town or county, however, shall operate an airport without first obtaining the permission of the Board as now or hereafter provided by law. In addition to other powers conferred by this section, any such governing body or other authority of a county, city, or town shall have the power to seek and obtain loans for the purpose of capital improvements to any airport or landing field established pursuant to this article.

Code 1950, § 5-34; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 1989, c. 234; 1993, c. 81.

§ 5.1-41.1. Local governing bodies authorized to require boarding fee.

The governing body of any county, city or town which operates an airport or an airport authority, after approval of its governing bodies, shall have the power by ordinance or by bylaw to require a boarding fee on passengers boarding aircraft at local airports, where the trip of such passenger originates at such airport. Such fee shall be in such amount and on such terms as the governing body of the locality or airport authority may by ordinance or by bylaw prescribe, not to exceed two dollars per person. Nothing herein contained shall affect any authority heretofore granted to any local government or airport authority to require a boarding fee.

1973, c. 536.

Article 2. Funds for Acquisition, Operation, Etc

§ 5.1-42. Payment of purchase price or award for land acquired; issuance of bonds.

The purchase price or award for real property acquired for an airport or landing field may be paid for by the appropriation of moneys available therefor or wholly or partly paid from the proceeds of the sale of bonds of the city, town or county as the governing body of the city, town or county shall determine. Such city, town or county is hereby authorized to issue bonds for such purpose or purposes, subject, however, to the approval of such bond issue at a referendum thereon, if such approval is a prerequisite to the issuance of bonds by any such political subdivision of the Commonwealth for public purposes generally.

Code 1950, § 5-33; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-43. Expenses of construction, operation, etc., to be paid by political subdivision.

The expenses of such construction, improvement, equipment, maintenance and operation shall be paid by such political subdivision, from available funds, subject to all applicable constitutional provisions.

Code 1950, § 5-35; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-44. Rules and regulations; fees and charges.

The governing body of such city, town or county, or a board, commission, authority or body created under § 5.1-36, may adopt regulations not in conflict with the rules and regulations adopted and promulgated by the Board from time to time and establish fees or other charges for the use of such airport or landing field or may authorize an officer representing such city, town, county, board, commission, authority or body to adopt such regulations and establish such fees and charges.

Code 1950, § 5-36; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-45. Appropriations by local authorities.

The governing body of any city, town or county to which this chapter is applicable may appropriate or cause to be raised by taxation in such city, town or county a sum sufficient to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 5-39; 1966, c. 576.

§ 5.1-46. Receipt and handling of federal and other funds.

Any county, city or town in Virginia may accept, receive and receipt for federal moneys, and other moneys, either public or private, for the acquisition, construction, enlargement, improvement, maintenance and operation of airports and landing fields and other air navigation facilities, and is authorized and empowered to comply with the provisions of the laws of the United States and any rules and regulations made thereunder for the expenditure of federal moneys in connection with such airports, landing fields and air navigation facilities.

Code 1950, § 5-25; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 1988, c. 70.

Article 3. Federal Airport Act

§ 5.1-47. Project and application to be approved by Department.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no county, city or town, whether acting alone or jointly with another county, city or town or with the Commonwealth, shall submit to the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States any project application under the provisions of any act of Congress which provides airport construction, planning and development funds for the expansion and improvement of the airport system insofar as such act shall pertain to the Commonwealth of Virginia, unless the project and the project application have been first approved by the Department.

Code 1950, § 5-39.1; 1966, c. 576; 1972, c. 374; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-48. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 70.

Chapter 4. Commonwealth Transportation Board.

§ 5.1-49. Roads to airports and landing fields; cooperation with Department as to aviation facilities.

The Department of Transportation is authorized to build roads to airports and landing fields open to public use, and may pay out of highway funds, which have been allocated by the Commonwealth Transportation Board, the cost of such roads. The Department of Transportation may, in cooperation with the Department of Aviation and either on an actual cost or contract basis, construct, maintain and improve airports, landing fields and other aviation facilities licensed for public use, the actual cost thereof to the Department of Transportation to be paid by the Department of Aviation.

Code 1950, § 5-40; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272; 2013, cc. 585, 646.

§ 5.1-50. Flight strips, airfields and roads requested by federal agency.

In order to further the interests of national security, the Commonwealth Transportation Board may, at the request of the Army and Navy Departments, Federal Highway Administration or other agency of the United States, construct and maintain, or cooperate with any such federal agency in the construction and maintenance of flight strips, airfields, and roads leading thereto from public highways. To carry out this purpose the Department, acting through the Commissioner of Highways may acquire in the name of the Commonwealth by gift or purchase or by the exercise of the power of eminent domain such real property, or interest therein, including the rights in the air above real property, as may be needed for such flight strips, airfields and roads. The exercise of the power of eminent domain hereby conferred shall be in the same manner and pursuant to the same procedure that is now, or may hereafter be, provided by law for the acquisition of real property by the Commissioner of Highways for highway purposes, and in order that the construction work may proceed without delay, the Department may, in the same manner and under the same conditions and procedure as is provided in the case of real property needed for highway purposes, enter upon and take possession of such real property as may be needed for the purposes of this section, and proceed with the construction work prior to the acquisition of title to the property in condemnation proceedings. In carrying out the purposes of this section, the Department may expend only such funds as may be provided for such purposes by the federal government.

If requested to do so by the federal agency which provided the funds with which the Department acquired the property for any such flight strips, airfields or roads, the Department may authorize and direct the Commissioner of Highways to convey, by deed executed in the name of the Commonwealth, such property to the United States to be used in the interests of national security. If title to such property is retained by the Commonwealth, the Department may authorize any agency of the United States to use such property to further the interest of national security. Whenever the Department finds that property heretofore or hereafter acquired by it for any such flight strips, airfields or roads is no longer needed for the purpose for which it was acquired, it may sell the same for such consideration as it deems adequate to any private person, firm or corporation and may authorize and direct the Commissioner of Highways to execute a deed in the name of the Commonwealth conveying such property to the purchaser. The proceeds from any such sale shall be paid into the treasury of Virginia to the credit of the highway fund unless the terms of any grant to the Department or the Commonwealth provide otherwise, in which case such proceeds shall be disposed of in accordance with the terms of such grant.

Code 1950, § 5-41; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272.

Chapter 5. Special Fund for Administration of Aviation Laws.

§ 5.1-51. Special fund accumulated from taxes, fees, etc.

All funds accumulated from any special sales tax, excise tax or use tax, now or which may hereafter be imposed under the laws of this Commonwealth on aviation motor fuel purchased or used in this Commonwealth in the propulsion of aircraft, and all funds heretofore or hereafter accumulated from any fees for licensing or registering of airmen, aircraft and airports, now or hereafter imposed under the laws of this Commonwealth, and all funds heretofore, and which may hereafter be, appropriated to the Department for the purpose of the promotion and development of aviation and airports, including the expense of the administration by the Department of the laws pertaining to aviation, as now or as may be hereafter enacted, and the jurisdiction for the administration thereof conferred on the Department, are hereby constituted a special fund within the Commonwealth Transportation Fund for the administration of the aviation laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, insofar as the administration has been, or shall be, imposed upon the Department, for the construction, maintenance and improvement of airports and landing fields and for the promotion of aviation in the interest of operators and in the interest of the public. However, of the moneys expended for the construction, maintenance and improvement of airports at least thirty-five percent thereof computed over a period of three years shall be expended on carrier and reliever airports. Beginning July 1, 1998, any balances remaining in this fund at the end of the year shall be available for use in subsequent years for the purposes set forth in this chapter, and any interest income on such fund shall accrue to the fund.

In considering or evaluating the application for or award of any grant of moneys under this section, the Board shall take into account the capacities of all airports within the affected geographic region.

Code 1950, § 5-42; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1974, c. 388; 1979, c. 272; 1997, c. 423; 1998, c. 480.

§ 5.1-52. Expenditure for planning, construction and maintenance of airports and landing fields.

Such special fund shall be expended and disbursed by order of the Department, through the medium of warrants drawn by the Comptroller, for the reasonable and necessary costs of administration of the Department and for the planning, construction, maintenance and improvement of airports and landing fields, to which the public now has, or which it is proposed shall have, access, and for the promotion of aviation in the interest of operators generally. Such expenditures and disbursements may be in the form of grants or loans to such person or persons as may be, in the discretion of the Board, entitled thereto in the interest of the public. Such grants or loans shall be made under such terms and conditions, as may be fixed by the Board and, in the case of loans, the rate of interest and the terms of repayment thereof as may be fixed by the Board.

In considering or evaluating the application for or award of any grant of moneys under this section, the Board shall take into account the capacities of all airports within the affected geographic region.

Code 1950, § 5-43; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717; 1979, c. 272; 1998, c. 480.

§ 5.1-53. Segregation and expenditure of amounts derived from taxes on motor fuel.

The special fund created and provided for in § 5.1-51 shall be so set up on the books of the Comptroller as to segregate the amounts paid into the fund as a direct tax upon aviation motor fuel purchased by operators of airplanes and aircraft, and no portion of such fund, accumulated in the manner hereinbefore provided, shall ever be used for any other purpose than for the administration of the aviation laws and the construction, maintenance and improvement of airports and landing fields, and no portion of the same shall be covered into the general fund of the state treasury, such funds derived in the manner aforesaid being hereby irrevocably appropriated for promotion of aviation in the interest of operators and of the public, as provided in this chapter, and to the extent necessary only, for the administration of this and other aviation laws.

Code 1950, § 5-44; 1966, c. 576; 1970, c. 717.

§ 5.1-54. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-55. Recurring expenditures on airports and landing fields.

No part of such special fund shall be used for recurring expenditures on any airport or landing field under this chapter; except that recurring expenditures may be made where the Department deems such expenditure to be necessary for the preservation of the safety of the public.

Code 1950, § 5-46; 1966, c. 576; 1979, c. 272.

Chapter 6. Virginia Airports Authority [Repealed].

§§ 5.1-56 through 5.1-76. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1980, c. 750.

Chapter 7. Emplaning Service Fee [Repealed].

§§ 5.1-77 through 5.1-82. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1980, c. 721.

Chapter 8. Financial Responsibility [Repealed].

§§ 5.1-83 through 5.1-88. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1970, c. 707.

Chapter 8.1. Financial Responsibility.

§ 5.1-88.1. Proof of financial responsibility to be furnished for each aircraft.

No aircraft, as defined in § 5.1-1 except a public aircraft or a balloon shall be registered by the Department unless and until the applicant thereof furnishes proof of financial responsibility in the amounts required by this chapter for each aircraft for which a registration is applied for.

Code 1950, § 5.1-83; 1968, c. 773; 1970, c. 707; 1979, c. 272; 1988, c. 588; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-88.2. What constitutes proof of financial responsibility.

A. The following shall constitute proof of financial responsibility as required by § 5.1-88.1:

1. The issuance, by an insurance company licensed to write such insurance in this Commonwealth, of a policy or policies of bodily injury and property damage liability insurance, or a policy or policies written pursuant to Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4805.1 et seq.) of Title 38.2 that provide coverage with respect to each such aircraft in the amount of $50,000 because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident, including passenger liability, and $100,000 because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, including passenger liability, and to a limit of $25,000 because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident; or a single limit policy in the sum of $250,000, covering bodily injury and property damage liability in any one accident, including passenger liability of $50,000 per passenger seat; or

2. The execution of a bond by the registrant and by a surety company authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth conditioned for payment in amounts and under the same circumstances as would be required in a policy of bodily injury liability and property damage liability insurance, as required by the provisions of subdivision A 1; or

3. The delivery to the Department of $250,000 in cash or an irrevocable letter of credit in the amount of $250,000 from a depository institution as defined in § 2.2-4701. Such money or securities so delivered to the Department shall be placed by it in the custody of the State Treasurer and shall be subject to execution to satisfy any judgment within the limits on amounts required by this chapter for personal injury and property damage liability insurance.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A of this section, for an aircraft commonly known as an "ultralight," as the same is now and may hereafter be defined by the Federal Aviation Administration, the proof of financial responsibility required by § 5.1-88.1 may be satisfied by the issuance as to that aircraft of a single limit insurance policy in the sum of $100,000 covering bodily injury and property damage liability in any one accident, that is issued by an insurance company licensed to write such insurance in this Commonwealth or written pursuant to Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4805.1 et seq.) of Title 38.2.

Code 1950, § 5.1-84; 1968, c. 773; 1970, c. 707; 1979, c. 272; 1984, c. 169; 1992, c. 810; 2005, c. 451; 2007, c. 207; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-88.3. Certain sections of Code incorporated by reference; definitions.

The provisions of §§ 46.2-424, 46.2-447, 46.2-448, 46.2-449, 46.2-450, 46.2-451, 46.2-452, 46.2-456, 46.2-457, 46.2-458, 46.2-461, and 46.2-463 shall apply to all policies of insurance or other evidence of financial responsibility furnished hereunder except that whenever the word "Commissioner" appears in any of said sections it shall be taken to mean the Director of the Department of Aviation; and whenever the word "Department" or "Department of Motor Vehicles" appears, it shall be taken to mean as well the Department of Aviation.

Code 1950, § 5.1-86; 1968, c. 773; 1970, c. 707; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-88.4. Cancellation of insurance or corporate surety bond.

No policy of insurance or corporate surety bond issued pursuant to this chapter may be canceled or terminated, except for nonpayment of premiums, until at least thirty days after notice of cancellation or termination of said policy of insurance or corporate surety bond has been filed in the office of the Department, except that a subsequent policy or corporate surety bond procured and certified to the Department shall on the effective date thereof terminate the insurance or corporate surety bond previously in effect with respect to any aircraft designated in both policies or corporate surety bonds.

Code 1950, § 5.1-87; 1968, c. 773; 1970, c. 707; 1979, c. 272.

§ 5.1-88.5. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1988, c. 588.

§ 5.1-88.6. Parachute jump training schools; disclosure of liability insurance coverage; penalty.

A. Every person operating a parachute jump training school in the Commonwealth shall disclose to his students whether he has obtained, and is maintaining, personal injury liability insurance, as defined in § 38.2-117, for the benefit and protection of such students during their training.

B. The disclosure required by this section shall be in writing and provided to every student prior to the commencement of any training.

C. Any person failing to provide the disclosure required by this section shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.

1993, c. 46.

Chapter 8.2. Financial Responsibility of Owners of Airports and Landing Areas Required to Be Licensed.

§ 5.1-88.7. Proof of financial responsibility to be furnished for licensed airports or landing areas.

No airport or landing area shall be licensed by the Department unless and until the applicant thereof furnishes proof of financial responsibility at least in the amounts required by this chapter. Private-use airports required to be licensed by virtue of being located within five miles of a licensed public-use airport shall not be required to provide proof of financial responsibility.

1995, cc. 682, 690; 2007, c. 206.

§ 5.1-88.8. What constitutes proof of financial responsibility.

The following shall constitute proof of financial responsibility as required by § 5.1-88.7:

1. The issuance, by an insurance company licensed to write such insurance in the Commonwealth, of a policy of bodily injury and property damage liability insurance or a policy or policies written pursuant to Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4805.1 et seq.) of Title 38.2, which provide coverage with respect to each airport or landing area in the amount of one million dollars covering bodily injury and property damage liability in any one accident; or

2. The delivery to the Department of one million dollars cash or in securities such as fiduciaries may invest in as provided by §§ 64.2-1502 through 64.2-1505. Such money or securities so delivered to the Department shall be placed by it in the custody of the State Treasurer and shall be subject to execution to satisfy any judgment within the limits on amounts required by this chapter for personal injury and property damage liability insurance.

1995, cc. 682, 690.

§ 5.1-88.9. Certain sections of Code incorporated by reference; definitions.

The provisions of §§ 46.2-424, 46.2-447 through 46.2-452, 46.2-456 through 46.2-458, 46.2-461, and 46.2-463 shall apply to all policies of insurance or other evidence of financial responsibility hereunder except that whenever the word "Commissioner" appears in any of said sections it shall be taken to mean the Director of the Department of Aviation; and whenever the word "Department" or "Department of Motor Vehicles" appears, it shall also be taken to mean the Department of Aviation and "vehicle" or "motor vehicle" shall be taken to mean "aircraft."

1995, cc. 682, 690.

§ 5.1-88.10. Cancellation of insurance.

No policy of insurance issued pursuant to this chapter may be canceled or terminated, except for nonpayment of premiums, until at least thirty days after notice of cancellation or termination of said policy of insurance has been filed in the office of the Department, except that a subsequent policy procured and certified to the Department shall on the effective date thereof terminate the insurance previously in effect with respect to any airport designated in both policies. If a policy is canceled for nonpayment of premiums, notice of cancellation shall be filed in the office of the Department.

1995, cc. 682, 690.

Chapter 9. Air Carriers.

Article 1. In General

§ 5.1-89. Definitions.

Whenever used in this chapter unless expressly stated otherwise:

(a) The term "person" means any individual, firm, copartnership, corporation, company, association or joint-stock association, and includes any trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative thereof.

(b) The term "aircraft" means any contrivance, except a contrivance operating twenty-four inches or less above ground or water level, now known or hereafter invented, used, or designed for navigation of, or flight in, the airspace in the transportation of passengers, property or mail.

(c) The term "common carrier by aircraft" means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by a lease or any other arrangement, to transport passengers, property for the general public, or mail by aircrafts for compensation (wholly within the airspace of the Commonwealth), whether over regular or irregular routes, including such aircraft operations of carriers by rail, water or motor vehicle and of express or forwarding companies.

(d) The term "restricted common carrier by aircraft" means any person who undertakes, whether directly or by lease or other arrangement, to transport passengers or property of any restricted class or classes by aircraft for compensation whether over regular or irregular routes.

(e) [Repealed.]

(f) The term "air carrier" includes a common carrier by aircraft, a restricted common carrier by aircraft, and a contract carrier by aircraft.

(g) The term "broker" means any person not included in the term air carrier and not a bona fide employee or agent of any such carrier, who, as principal or agent, sells or offers for sale any transportation subject to this chapter, or negotiates for, or holds himself out by solicitation, advertisement, or otherwise as one who sells, provides, furnishes, contracts, or arranges for such transportation.

(h) The "services" and "transportation" to which this chapter applies include all aircraft operated by, for, or in the interest of, any air carrier irrespective of ownership or contract, express or implied, together with all facilities and property operated or controlled by any such carrier or carriers and used in the transportation of passengers, property or mail or in the performance of any service in connection therewith.

(i) The term "certificate" means a certificate of public convenience and necessity issued by the State Corporation Commission to common carriers by aircraft and restricted common carriers by aircraft under this chapter.

(j) [Repealed.]

(k) The term "airport" means a landing area used regularly by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo, and open to the public for use.

(l) The term "landing area" means any locality, either of land or water, including airports and intermediate landing fields, which is used, or intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of aircraft, whether or not facilities are provided for the shelter, servicing, or repair of aircraft, or for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo, and open to the public for such use.

(m) The term "airspace" means all airspace above the lands and waters within the boundary of this Commonwealth.

(n) For the purposes of this chapter, "Commission" means the State Corporation Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-142; 1952, c. 597; 1970, c. 708; 1979, c. 272; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-90. Exempted aircraft.

This chapter shall not be construed to cover or include aircraft used exclusively in transporting or handling United States mail, or aircraft while used exclusively in interstate commerce; provided, however, that any common carrier of passengers by airplane holding proper authority for and operating in interstate commerce on January 1, 1970, in the transportation of passengers between any licensed airport adjacent to or within three miles of the Virginia State Line on the one hand and any other licensed airport in Virginia on the other, shall, without further proceedings, be issued a certificate by the Commission authorizing such operations as a common carrier of passengers by aircraft in intrastate commerce if application is made to the Commission within 120 days after this section takes effect. Pending the determination of any such application, the continuance of such operation without a certificate shall be lawful.

Code 1950, § 56-143; 1952, c. 597; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-90.1. Incidental transportation of certain passengers and property by motor vehicle.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the transportation of property or guards or other attendants of such property by motor vehicle when such transportation is incidental to transportation by aircraft, provided that such transportation shall not exceed twenty-five miles from airport to destination of such guards or other attendants or property.

1972, c. 281.

§ 5.1-91. Air carriers to comply with chapter; subject to regulation by Commission.

No air carrier shall operate any aircraft for the transportation of passengers or property for compensation in the airspace of this Commonwealth except in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, and every such air carrier is hereby declared to be subject to control, supervision and regulation by the Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-144; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-92. Regulation by Commission; reports; prevention of discrimination.

The Commission shall supervise, regulate and control all air carriers, doing business in this Commonwealth, in all matters relating to the performance of their public duties and their charges therefor, and shall correct abuses therein by such air carriers; and to that end the Commission shall, from time to time, prescribe reasonable rules, regulations, forms and reports for such air carriers in furtherance of the administration and operation of this chapter; and the Commission shall have the right at all times to require from such air carriers special reports and statements under oath, concerning their business.

The Commission shall, from time to time, make and enforce such requirements, rules and regulations as may be necessary to prevent unjust and unreasonable discriminations by any air carrier in favor of, or against, any person, locality, community or connecting carrier in the matter of service, schedule, efficiency of transportation or otherwise, in connection with the public duties of such air carriers; and the Commission shall administer and enforce all provisions of this chapter, and prescribe reasonable rules, regulations and procedure looking to that end.

Code 1950, § 56-145; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-93. Regulation of brokers.

The Commission shall also regulate brokers and make and enforce reasonable requirements respecting their licenses, financial responsibility, accounts, records, reports, operations and practices.

Code 1950, § 56-146; 1970, c. 708.

Article 2. Issuance of Certificates of Convenience and Rights thereunder

§ 5.1-94. Required certificate of public convenience and necessity.

No common carrier by aircraft or restricted common carrier by aircraft (not herein exempted) shall engage in intrastate operation in the airspace of this Commonwealth without first having obtained from the Commission a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing such operation.

Code 1950, § 56-147; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-95. Application for certificate; notices, etc.

The Commission shall prescribe the form of the application for a certificate of convenience and necessity, and such reasonable requirements as to notices, publication, proof of service and information as may in its judgment be necessary.

Code 1950, § 56-148; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-96. Fees in connection with certificates.

Every air carrier, upon filing with the Commission an application for a certificate, shall deposit with the Commission as a filing fee the sum of $100, and for the transfer of such certificate the sum of $100, and for the issuance of a duplicate certificate the sum of $5; provided, however, that an applicant for a certificate in lieu of an existing certificate, as provided by law, shall not be required to pay the fees prescribed in this section.

Code 1950, § 56-149; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-97. Hearing on application; action of Commission.

Upon the filing of an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity, the Commission shall, within a reasonable time, fix a time and place of hearing on such application. If the Commission shall find that the proposed operation justified it, it shall issue a certificate to the applicant, subject to such terms, limitations and restrictions as the Commission may deem proper. If the Commission shall find the proposed operation not justified, the application shall be denied.

Code 1950, § 56-150; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-98. Factors to be considered by the Commission in granting certificates.

In granting certificates of public convenience and necessity pursuant to § 5.1-94, the Commission shall take into consideration, among other things, the business experience of the particular passenger air carrier in the field of air operations, the financial stability of the carrier, the insurance coverage of the carrier, the type of aircraft which the carrier would employ, proposed routes and minimum schedules to be established, whether the carrier could economically give adequate service to the communities involved, the need for the service, and any other factors which may affect the public interest.

Code 1950, § 56-152; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-99. Occasional deviations from authorized routes; emergency landings.

A common carrier by aircraft, or a restricted common carrier by aircraft, operating under a certificate issued by the Commission may occasionally deviate from the route over which it is authorized to operate under the certificate, under such general or special rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe.

No air carrier shall be deemed to have violated any term, condition, or limitation of its certificate by landing or taking off during an emergency at a point not named in its certificate or by operating in an emergency, under regulations which may be prescribed by the Commission, between terminal and intermediate points other than those specified in its certificate.

Code 1950, § 56-153; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-100. Transportation of baggage, mail, etc., with passengers.

A certificate for the transportation of passengers may include, when so authorized by the Commission, authority to transport, in the same aircraft with passengers, the baggage of such passengers, newspapers, express parcels, or United States mail when the transportation thereof is authorized by the government of the United States of America; provided that the total weight of the aircraft and its contents shall not exceed that weight authorized by the "Operations Record" of the individual aircraft.

Code 1950, § 56-154; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-101. Chartered parties covered by common carriers.

Any common carrier by aircraft transporting passengers under a certificate issued by the Commission may operate to any place special or chartered parties, under such reasonable rules and regulations as the Commission may prescribe.

Code 1950, § 56-155; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-102. Schedule changes require Commission approval.

A common carrier by aircraft or a restricted common carrier by aircraft operation under a certificate issued by the Commission shall not make any change in schedules or service without having first received the approval of the Commission for such change in schedules or service.

Code 1950, § 56-156; 1970, c. 708.

Article 3. Contract Carriers and Limited for Hire Service

§ 5.1-103. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 1980, c. 721.

Article 4. Temporary Authority

§ 5.1-107. Issuance of temporary authority by Commission pending hearing on application for certificate.

To enable the provision of service for which there is an immediate and urgent need to a point or between points in Virginia, the Commission, may, pending its determination of an application for such permanent authority, in its discretion and without hearing or other proceeding, grant temporary authority for such service by common carrier by aircraft or restricted common carrier by aircraft, as the case may be. Such temporary authority shall be valid for such time as the Commission shall specify but not for more than an aggregate of 180 days, and shall create no presumption that corresponding permanent authority will be granted thereafter.

1970, c. 708.

Article 5. Regulation of Brokers

§ 5.1-108. When broker's license required.

No person shall for compensation sell or offer for sale transportation subject to this chapter or shall make any contract, agreement, or arrangement to provide, procure, furnish, or arrange for such transportation or shall hold himself or itself out by advertisement, solicitation, or otherwise as one who sells, provides, procures, contracts, or arranges for such transportation, unless such person holds a broker's license issued by the Commission to engage in such transactions; provided that the provisions of this section shall not apply to any carrier holding a certificate or permit under the provisions of this chapter or to any bona fide employee or agent of such carrier so far as concerns transportation to be furnished wholly by such carrier or jointly with other air carriers holding like certificates or permits, or with a common carrier by railroad, motor vehicle, express or water; nor shall they apply to any air carrier not engaged in intrastate operations or to any bona fide employee of such carrier.

Code 1950, § 56-162; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-109. Application for broker's license.

The Commission shall prescribe the form of application for a broker's license and such reasonable requirements and information as may in its judgment be necessary, and may assess a fee of ten dollars for filing.

Code 1950, § 56-163; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-110. Hearing on such application and action thereon.

Upon the filing of an application for a broker's license the Commission may fix a time and place for the hearing of the application and require such notices, publication, or other service as may, in its judgment, be necessary. If the Commission finds the application proper and in the public interest it shall issue a license, subject to such terms, limitations and restrictions as the Commission may deem proper.

Code 1950, § 56-164; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-111. Authority over brokers; bond.

The Commission shall have the same authority over persons operating under and holding a brokerage license as it has over air carriers under this chapter and shall require a broker to furnish bond or other security approved by the Commission and sufficient for the protection of travelers or shippers by aircraft.

Code 1950, § 56-165; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-112. Broker's license not substitute for other certificates or permits required.

No person who holds a broker's license under this chapter shall engage in transportation subject to this chapter unless he holds a certificate or permit as provided in this chapter. In the execution of any contract, agreement, or arrangement to sell, provide, procure, furnish, or arrange for such transportation, it shall be unlawful for such person to employ any aircraft which is not the lawful holder of an effective certificate or permit issued as provided in this chapter.

Code 1950, § 56-166; 1970, c. 708.

Article 6. Duration, Revocation, Transfer and Value of Certificates, Etc.; Penalties

§ 5.1-113. Duration of certificates, registrations, etc.; suspension, revocation, or amendment; penalties.

Certificates, permits, registrations, and licenses issued under the provisions of this chapter shall be effective from the dates specified therein and shall remain in effect until terminated as herein provided. The Commission may at any time, by its order duly entered after hearing held after notice to the holder of any such certificate, permit, registration, or license and an opportunity to such holder to be heard at which it shall be proved that such holder has willfully made any misrepresentation of a material fact in obtaining such certificate, permit, registration, or license, or has willfully violated or refused to observe the laws of this Commonwealth touching such certificate, permit, registration, or license, or any of the terms of his certificate, permit, registration, or license, or any of the Commission's proper orders, rules, or regulations, impose a penalty not exceeding $1,000, which may be collected by the process of the Commission as provided by law; or the Commission may suspend, revoke, alter, or amend any such certificate, permit, registration, or license for any of the causes set forth above. But no such certificate, permit, registration, or license shall be revoked, altered, or amended (except upon application of the holder thereof) unless the holder thereof shall willfully fail to comply, within a reasonable time to be fixed by the Commission, with the lawful order of the Commission or with the lawful rule or regulation of the Commission, or with the term, condition, or limitation of such certificate, permit, registration, or license, found by the Commission to have been violated by such holder.

Proceedings for the imposition of any penalty provided for in this section may be commenced upon the complaint of any person or upon the Commission's own initiative.

From any order of the Commission suspending, revoking, altering or amending any certificate, permit, registration, or license, the holder thereof shall have the right of appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia, as a matter of right, as in other cases of appeals from the Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-167; 1970, c. 708; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-114. Transfer or lease of certificate.

Any certificate issued under this chapter may be transferred or leased, subject to the approval of the Commission and under such reasonable rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Commission. An application for such approval shall be made jointly by the transferor and transferee, or lessor and lessee.

No certificate shall be transferred, leased or otherwise disposed of when any consideration is paid or promised which exceeds the then value of the tangible property sold in connection with the transfer or lease of such certificate.

Code 1950, § 56-168; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-115. No value allowed for certificates.

No value shall be allowed for any purpose for any certificate issued under this chapter.

Code 1950, § 56-169; 1970, c. 708.

Article 7. Bonds or Insurance

§ 5.1-116. Bonds, insurance or certificate of insurance required prior to issuance of certificate or permit.

No certificate or permit shall be issued by the Commission to any air carrier until and after such air carrier shall have filed with, and the same has been approved by, the Commission, an insurance policy, bond or certificate of insurance in lieu thereof, certifying that such policy or bond covers the liability of such air carrier in accordance with the provisions of this article, issued by an insurance company or association or other insurer authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth, or bonds, to an amount approved by the Commission, of the Commonwealth of Virginia, of the United States of America, or of any municipality in this Commonwealth. Such state, federal, or municipal bonds shall be deposited with the State Treasurer, and such surety shall not be reduced during the life of such certificate or permit, except in accordance with an order of the Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-170; 1970, c. 708; 1975, c. 211.

§ 5.1-117. Bonds or insurance to be kept in force.

Each holder of a certificate or permit issued by the Commission shall also keep in force at all times insurance or a bond underwritten by an insurer approved or authorized to do business in Virginia, or by one who is eligible as a surplus lines insurer in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 48 (§ 38.2-4805.1 et seq.) of Title 38.2 in amounts of not less than the following minimum limits: (a) liability for bodily injury to or death to any one person, passenger or other, aboard the aircraft, $75,000; and a limit for each occurrence in any one aircraft of at least an amount equal to the sum produced by multiplying $75,000 by seventy-five percent of the total number of passenger seats installed in the aircraft; and for the loss or damage to cargo owned by other than the insured, at least $10,000 for each occurrence; provided, however, that a holder of a permit issued by the Commission shall not be required to file any cargo insurance, bond or bonds for cargo liability for the hauling of property transported under contract. However, in no event shall the limits required herein for air common carriers be less than those prescribed for like carriers by the Civil Aeronautics Board or the Federal Aviation Administration.

Code 1950, § 56-171; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-118. Policies, bonds or certificates to be filed with Commission; securities deposited in lieu thereof.

Each holder of a certificate or permit issued by the Commission shall keep on file with the Commission an insurance policy, bond or certificate of insurance in lieu thereof, certifying that such policy or bond covers the liability of such air carrier in accordance with the provisions of this article, issued by an insurance company or association or other insurer authorized to transact business in this Commonwealth, and such insurance, bond or certificate of insurance filed with the Commission shall be kept in full force at all times. The policy, bond or certificate of insurance shall remain in the files of the Commission six months after the insurance or bond has expired or has been cancelled for any cause. If federal, state or municipal bonds are deposited with the State Treasurer in lieu thereof, such bonds shall remain so deposited until six months after the authority for use of equipment insured has expired or is cancelled for any cause, unless otherwise ordered by the Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-172; 1970, c. 708; 1975, c. 211.

§ 5.1-119. Condition of bond, etc.

The insurance bond, or other security, shall obligate the insurer or surety to pay any final judgment for damages sustained by the passengers, shippers, or consignees for injury to any passenger or passengers, or for loss or damage to property entrusted to such air carrier when a cargo policy is required, and for any and all injuries to persons and loss of, or damage to, property resulting from the negligent operation of any aircraft.

Code 1950, § 56-173; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-120. Effect of failure to give security.

Failure of any holder of a certificate or permit issued by and under the authority of the Commission to comply with any of the requirements of §§ 5.1-116, 5.1-117 or 5.1-118 shall be cause without further proceedings for the revocation or suspension of the certificate or permit, and upon further proceedings for the imposition of a fine not exceeding $1,000.

Code 1950, § 56-174; 1970, c. 708.

Article 8. Through Routes, Service, Rates, Etc

§ 5.1-121. Duties of carriers of passengers as to through routes, equipment, rates, regulations, etc.

Every common carrier or restricted common carrier of passengers by aircraft shall establish reasonable through routes with other such common carriers and provide safe and adequate service, equipment, and facilities for the transportation of passengers; shall establish, observe, and enforce just and reasonable individual and joint rates, fares and charges and just and reasonable regulations and practices relating thereto, and to the issuance, form, and substance of tickets, the carrying of personal, sample, and excess baggage, the facilities for transportation, and all other matters relating to or connected with the transportation of passengers; and in case of such joint rates, fares, and charges shall establish just, reasonable and equitable divisions thereof as between the carriers participating therein which shall not unduly prefer or prejudice any of such participating carriers.

Code 1950, § 56-176; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-122. Duties of carriers of property as to service, rates and regulations.

Every common carrier or restricted common carrier of property by aircraft shall provide safe and adequate service, equipment, and facilities for the transportation of property; and shall establish, observe, and enforce just and reasonable rates, charges, and classifications, and just and reasonable regulations and practices relating thereto and to the manner and method of presenting, marking, packing, and delivering property for transportation, the facilities for transportation, and all other matters relating to or connected with the transportation of property.

Code 1950, § 56-177; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-123. Through routes, joint rates, etc., not required may be established.

Common carriers or restricted common carriers of property by aircraft may establish reasonable routes and joint rates, charges, and classifications with other such carriers or with common carriers by railroad, motor vehicle, express and/or water; and common carriers or restricted common carriers of passengers by aircraft may establish reasonable through routes and joint rates, fares, or charges with common carriers by railroad, motor vehicle, and/or water. In case of such joint rates, fares or charges it shall be the duty of the carriers parties thereto to establish just and reasonable regulations and practices in connection therewith, and just, reasonable and equitable divisions thereof as between the carriers participating therein which shall not unduly prefer or prejudice any of such participating carriers.

Code 1950, § 56-178; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-124. Undue preference not permitted.

It shall be unlawful for any common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft to make, give, or cause any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage to any particular person, port, gateway, locality, or description of traffic in any respect whatsoever, or to subject any particular person, port, gateway, locality, or description of traffic to any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever; provided, however, that this section shall not be construed to apply to discriminations, prejudices or disadvantages to the traffic of any other carrier of whatever description.

Code 1950, § 56-179; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-125. Complaints; action of Commission thereon or on own initiative.

Any person, state board, organization, or body politic may make complaint in writing to the Commission that any rate, fare, charge, classification, rule, regulation, or practice of any common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft, in effect or proposed to be put into effect, is or will be in violation of §§ 5.1-121 to 5.1-124, or § 5.1-133. Whenever after hearing, upon complaint or in an investigation on its own initiative, the Commission shall be of the opinion that any individual or joint rate, fare, or charge, demanded, charged, or collected by any common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft or by any common or restricted common carrier by aircraft in conjunction with any common carrier by railroad, motor vehicle, express and/or water, or any classification, rule, regulation or practice whatsoever of such carrier affecting such rate, fare, or charge or the value of the service thereunder, is or will be unjust or unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory or unduly preferential or unduly prejudicial, it shall determine and prescribe the lawful rate, fare, or charge or the maximum or minimum rate, fare, or charge thereafter to be observed, or the lawful classification, rule, regulation, or practice thereafter to be made effective.

Code 1950, § 56-180; 1970, c. 708; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 1.

§ 5.1-126. Establishment of through routes, etc., by Commission.

The Commission shall, whenever deemed by it to be necessary or desirable in the public interest, after hearing, upon complaint or upon its own initiative without a complaint, establish through routes, and joint rates, fares, charges, regulations, or practices, applicable to the transportation of passengers by common or restricted common carriers by aircraft, or the maximum or minimum to be charged, and the terms and conditions under which such through routes shall be operated.

Code 1950, § 56-181; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-127. Prescribing divisions of joint rates.

Whenever, after hearing, upon complaint or upon its own initiative, the Commission is of opinion that the divisions of joint rates, fares or charges, applicable to the transportation of passengers or property by common or restricted common carriers by aircraft or by such carriers in conjunction with common carriers by railroad, motor vehicle, express and/or water are or will be unjust, unreasonable, inequitable, or unduly preferential or prejudicial as between the carriers parties thereto (whether agreed upon by such carriers, or any of them, or otherwise established), the Commission shall by order prescribe the just, reasonable, and equitable divisions thereof to be received by the several carriers. In cases where the joint rate, fare, or charge was established pursuant to a finding or order of the Commission and the divisions thereof are found by it to have been unjust, unreasonable, or inequitable, or unduly preferential or prejudicial, the Commission may also by order determine what would have been the just, reasonable, and equitable divisions thereof to be received by the several carriers, and require adjustment to be made in accordance therewith. The order of the Commission may require the adjustment of divisions between the carriers, in accordance with the order, from the date of filing the complaint or entry of order of investigation or such other date subsequent as the Commission finds justified and, in the case of joint rates prescribed by the Commission, the order as to divisions may be made effective as a part of the original order.

Code 1950, § 56-182; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-128. New rate schedule; hearing; suspension; action thereon.

Whenever there shall be filed with the Commission any schedule stating a new individual or joint rate, fare, charge, or classification for the transportation of passengers or property by a common or restricted common carrier by aircraft, or by any such carrier in conjunction with a common carrier by railroad, motor vehicle, express and/or water, or any rule, regulation, or practice affecting such rate, fare, or charge, or the value of the service thereunder, the Commission, upon complaint of any interested party or upon its own initiative, if it so orders, without answer or other formal pleading by the interested carrier or carriers, but upon reasonable notice, may enter upon a hearing concerning the lawfulness of such rate, fare or charge, or such rule, regulations or practice.

Pending such hearing and the decision thereon the Commission, by filing with such schedule and delivering to the carrier or carriers affected thereby a statement in writing of its reasons for such suspension, may suspend the operation of such schedule and defer the use of such rate, fare, or charge, or such rule, regulation, or practice, for a period of 90 days and if the proceeding has not been concluded and a final order made within such period the Commission may, from time to time, extend the period of suspension by order, but not for a longer period in the aggregate than 180 days beyond the time when such rate, fare, charge, rule, regulation or practice would otherwise go into effect.

After such hearing, whether completed before or after the rate, fare, charge, classification, rule, regulation, or practice goes into effect, the Commission may make such order with reference thereto as would be proper in a proceeding instituted after it had become effective. If the proceeding has not been concluded and an order made within the period of suspension, the proposed change of rate, fare or charge, or classification, rule, regulation, or practice, shall go into effect at the end of such period.

Code 1950, § 56-183; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-129. Goodwill, certificate, etc., not element of value in rate making.

In any proceeding to determine the justness or reasonableness of any rate, fare, or charge of any common or restricted common carrier by aircraft there shall not be taken into consideration or allowed as evidence or elements of value of the property of such carrier either goodwill, earning power, or the certificate under which such carrier is operating; and in applying for and receiving a certificate under this chapter any such carrier shall be deemed to have agreed to the provisions of this section, on its own behalf and on behalf of all transferees or lessees of such certificate.

Code 1950, § 56-184; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-130. Criteria for establishment of rates.

In the exercise of its power to prescribe just and reasonable rates for the transportation of passengers or property by common or restricted common carriers by aircraft the Commission shall give due consideration, among other factors, to the inherent advantages of transportation by such carriers; to the effect of rates upon the movement of traffic by such carriers; to the need, in the public interest, of adequate and efficient transportation service by such carriers at the lowest cost consistent with the furnishing of such service; and to the need of such carriers for revenues sufficient to enable them, under honest, economical, and efficient management, to provide such service.

Code 1950, § 56-185; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-131. Other remedies not extinguished.

Nothing in the preceding nine sections (§§ 5.1-122 through 5.1-130) shall be held to extinguish any remedy or right of action not inconsistent therewith.

Code 1950, § 56-186; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-132. Tariffs showing rates, fares and charges, etc.

Every common carrier and restricted common carrier by aircraft shall file with the Commission, and print, and keep open to public inspection, tariffs showing all the rates, fares and charges for transportation, and all services in connection therewith, of passengers or property between points on its own route and between points on its own route and points on the route of any other such carrier, or on the route of any common carrier by railroad, motor vehicle, express and/or water, when a through route and joint rate shall have been established. Such rates, fares, and charges shall be stated in terms of lawful money of the United States. The tariffs required by this section shall be published, filed, and posted in such form and manner, and shall contain such information, as the Commission by regulations shall prescribe; and the Commission is authorized to reject any tariff filed with it which is not in consonance with this section and with such regulations. Any tariff so rejected by the Commission shall be void and its use shall be unlawful.

Code 1950, § 56-187; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-133. Unlawful to charge other than published tariff.

No common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft shall charge or demand or collect or receive a greater or less or different compensation for transportation or for any service in connection therewith between the points enumerated in such tariff than the rates, fares, and charges specified in the tariff in effect at the time; and no such carrier shall refund or remit in any manner or by any device, directly or indirectly, or through any agent or broker or otherwise, any portion of the rates, fares, or charges so specified, or extend to any person any privileges or facilities for transportation except such as specified in its tariffs.

Code 1950, § 56-188; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-134. Changes in tariffs, etc.

No change shall be made in any rate, fare, charge, or classification, or any rule, regulation, or practice affecting such rate, fare, charge, or classification, or the value of the service thereunder, specified in any effective tariff of a common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft, except after thirty days' notice of the proposed change, filed and posted in accordance with § 5.1-132. Such notice shall plainly state the change proposed to be made and the time when such change will take effect. The Commission may, in its discretion and for good cause shown, allow such change upon notice less than that herein specified or modify the requirements of this section and § 5.1-132 with respect to posting and filing of tariffs either in particular instances or by general order applicable to special or peculiar circumstances or conditions.

Code 1950, § 56-189; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-135. No transportation except when rates have been filed and published.

No common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft, unless otherwise provided by this chapter, shall engage in the transportation of passengers or property unless the rates, fares, and charges upon which the same are transported by such carrier have been filed and published in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 56-190; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-136. Free passes or reduced rates.

No air carrier subject to the provisions of this chapter shall, directly or indirectly, issue or give any free ticket, free pass or free transportation for passengers, but nothing in this section shall apply (1) to the carriage, storage or handling of property free or at reduced rates, when such rates have been authorized or prescribed by the Commission for the United States, state or municipal governments, or for charitable purposes or to or from fairs and expositions for exhibition thereat, or (2) to the free carriage of homeless and destitute persons and the necessary agents employed in such transportation, or (3) to mileage, excursion or commutation passenger tickets.

Nor shall anything in this section be construed to prohibit any air carrier from giving reduced rates or free passage to ministers of religion, or regular traveling secretaries of the Young Men's Christian Association or Young Women's Christian Association, whose duties require regular travel in supervising and directing Young Men's Christian or Young Women's Christian Association work, secretaries of duly organized religious work, or to indigent persons, or to inmates of the Confederate homes or State homes for disabled soldiers and sailors, or to disabled soldiers and sailors, including those about to enter, and those returning home after discharge; nor from giving free carriage to its own officers, employees, and members of their families, representatives of the press and members of the Department of State Police or to any other person or persons to whom the giving of such free carriage is not otherwise prohibited by the law; nor to prevent the principal officers of any air carrier from exchanging passes or tickets with other air carriers of any air, motor vehicle, steamship, or electric railway companies for their officers, employees and members of their families.

Code 1950, § 56-191; 1970, c. 708; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 17.

§ 5.1-137. Payment of rates and charges before delivery of freight.

No common carrier or restricted common carrier by aircraft shall deliver or relinquish possession at destination of any freight transported by it until all tariff rates and charges thereon have been paid, except under such rules and regulations as the Commission may from time to time prescribe to govern the settlement of all such rates and charges, including rules and regulations for weekly or monthly settlement, and to prevent unjust discrimination or undue preference or prejudice; provided, that the provisions of this section shall not be construed to prohibit any such carrier from extending credit in connection with rates and charges on freight transported for the United States, for any department, bureau, or agency thereof, or for any state or territory or political subdivision thereof, or for the District of Columbia.

Code 1950, § 56-192; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-138. Liability for additional charges.

When any common carrier by aircraft is instructed by a shipper or consignor to deliver property transported by such carrier to a consignee other than the shipper or consignor, such consignee shall not be legally liable for transportation charges in respect of the transportation of such property (beyond those billed against him at the time of delivery for which he is otherwise liable) which may be found to be due after the property has been delivered to him, if the consignee (a) is an agent only and had no beneficial title in the property, and (b) prior to delivery of the property has notified the delivering carrier in writing of the fact of such agency and absence of beneficial title, and, in the case of a shipment reconsigned or diverted to a point other than that specified in the original bill of lading, has also notified the delivering carrier in writing of the name and address of the beneficial owner of the property. In such cases the shipper or consignor, or, in the case of a shipment so reconsigned or diverted, the beneficial owner shall be liable for such additional charges, irrespective of any provisions to the contrary in the bill of lading or in the contract under which the shipment was made. If the consignee has given to the carrier erroneous information as to who is the beneficial owner, such consignee shall himself be liable for such additional charges, notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section. On shipments reconsigned or diverted by any agent who has furnished the carrier with a notice of agency and the proper name and address of the beneficial owner, and when such shipments are refused or abandoned at ultimate destination, the beneficial owner shall be liable for all legally applicable charges in connection therewith.

Code 1950, § 56-193; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-139. Commission may enter judgment for refunds due public and collect and distribute same.

If any air carrier or broker, upon the final decision of an appeal from the action of the Commission prescribing rates, charges, or classification of traffic, confirming or modifying the action of the Commission, shall fail to refund in the manner and within the time prescribed in the notice of the Commission all amounts which the appealing air carrier or broker may have collected pending the appeal, in excess of that authorized by such final decision, upon notice to such air carrier or broker by the Commission of such final decision, then the Commission, after thirty days' notice to any such air carrier or broker, may, unless the amount required by such order be paid to the clerk of the Commission, render and enter judgment in the name of the Commonwealth, for the use of the persons, firms and corporations entitled to the same, against any such air carrier or broker for the aggregate amount of such collections and for the costs, and may enforce the amount of such judgment and costs by process of execution, as hereinbefore provided as to the enforcement of the judgments of the Commission. The Commission shall, upon the collection of such judgment, forthwith distribute the amount thereof, through its clerk, among the parties entitled thereto, respectively, in such manner as it may by its rules or orders prescribe, and shall, upon the payment or collection of any such judgment enter the same satisfied upon its records, and have the same satisfied on the judgment lien docket of the court of any city or county where the same may have been docketed, and the satisfaction of any such judgment shall be a bar to any further action or recovery against any such air carrier or broker to the extent of such recovery.

Code 1950, § 56-194; 1970, c. 708.

Article 9. Miscellaneous

§ 5.1-140. Unlawful to disclose certain information.

It shall be unlawful for any air carrier or broker or any officer, receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee of such carrier, broker, or person, or for any other person authorized by such carrier, broker, or person to receive information, knowingly to disclose to, or permit to be acquired by any person other than the shipper or consignee, without the consent of such shipper or consignee, any information concerning the nature, kind, quantity, destination, consignee, or routing of any property tendered or delivered to such air carrier or broker for such transportation, which information may be used to the detriment or prejudice of such shipper or consignee, or which may improperly disclose his business transactions to a competitor; and it shall also be unlawful for any person to solicit or receive knowingly any such information which may be so used.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the giving of such information in response to any legal process issued under the authority of any court, or to any officer or agent of the government of the United States or of any state, territory, or district thereof, in the exercise of his power, or to any officer or other duly authorized person seeking such information for the prosecution of persons charged with or suspected of crimes or to another carrier or broker, or its duly authorized agent, for the purpose of adjusting mutual traffic accounts in the ordinary course of business of such carriers or brokers.

Code 1950, § 56-195; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-141. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2001, c. 137.

§ 5.1-142. Reports, records, etc.

(a) The Commission is hereby authorized to require annual, periodic, or special reports from all air carriers except such as are exempted from the operation of the provisions of this chapter, to prescribe the manner and form in which such reports shall be made, and to require from such carriers specific answers to all questions upon which the Commission may deem information to be necessary. Such reports shall be under oath whenever the Commission so requires. The Commission may also require any air carrier to file with it a true copy of any contract, agreement, or arrangement between such carrier and any other carrier or person in relation to any traffic affected by the provisions of this chapter.

(b) The Commission may, in its discretion, prescribe the forms of any and all accounts, records, and memoranda to be kept by air carriers and the length of time such accounts, records and memoranda shall be preserved, including the accounts, records, and memoranda of the movement of traffic, as well as of the receipts and expenditures of money. The Commission or its employees shall at all times have access to all lands, buildings, and equipment of air carriers used in connection with their operation and also all accounts, records, and memoranda, including all documents, papers, and correspondence now existing, and kept, or required to be kept, by air carriers. The Commission and its employees shall have authority to inspect and examine any and all such lands, buildings, equipment, accounts, records, and memoranda, including all documents, papers, and correspondence now or hereafter existing and kept or required to be kept by such carriers. This provision shall apply to receivers of carriers and to operating trustees and, to the extent deemed necessary by the Commission, to persons having control, direct or indirect, over or affiliated with any air carrier.

(c) As used in this section the term "air carriers" includes brokers.

Code 1950, § 56-197; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-143. Reports of accidents.

It shall be the duty of the manager, agent or other proper officer of every air carrier doing business or operating in this Commonwealth to make to the Commission such report or reports as may be required by it, under oath, of all accidents in this Commonwealth resulting in injury to persons, equipment, or property of any kind, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Commission.

Code 1950, § 56-198; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-144. Certificate or permit holder not relieved of liability for negligence.

Nothing in this chapter shall relieve any holder of a certificate or permit by and under the authority of the Commission from any liability resulting from his negligence, whether or not he has complied with the requirements of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 56-199; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-145. Enforcement under Department of State Police or Commission; concurrent jurisdiction for investigations of accidents.

The enforcement of any provision of this chapter requiring the use of police officers shall be under the Department of State Police or under the Commission; except the department of law enforcement of any city or county with an optional form of government shall have concurrent jurisdiction for the investigations of aircraft accidents occurring within such city or county.

Code 1950, § 56-200; 1964, c. 342; 1970, c. 708; 1979, c. 394; 1980, c. 721.

§ 5.1-146. Violations and penalties.

(a) Any person knowingly and willfully violating any provision of this chapter, or any rule, regulation, requirement, or order thereunder for which a penalty is not otherwise herein provided, shall, after proper proceeding before the Commission, and upon conviction thereof, be fined not more than $100 for the first offense and not more than $500 for any subsequent offense. Each day of such violation shall constitute a separate offense.

(b) Any person, whether carrier, shipper, consignee, or broker, or any officer, employee, agent, or representative thereof, who shall knowingly offer, grant, or give, or solicit, accept, or receive any rebate, concession, or discrimination in violation of any provision of this chapter, or who, by means of any false statement or representation, or by the use of any false or fictitious bill, bill of lading, receipt, voucher, roll, account, claim, certificate, affidavit, deposition, lease, or bill of sale or by any other means or device, shall knowingly and willfully assist, suffer or permit any person, natural or artificial, to obtain transportation of passengers or property subject to this chapter for less than the applicable rate, fare, or charge, or who shall knowingly and willfully by any such means or otherwise fraudulently seek to evade or defeat regulation as in this chapter provided for air carriers or brokers, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof be fined not more than $500 for the first offense and not more than $2,000 for any subsequent offense.

(c) Any air carrier, or broker, or any officer, agent, employee, or representative thereof who shall willfully fail or refuse to make a report to the Commission as required by this chapter, or to keep accounts, records and memoranda in the form and manner approved or prescribed by the Commission, or shall knowingly and willfully falsify, destroy, mutilate, or alter any such report, account, record, or memorandum, or shall knowingly and willfully file any false report, account, record, or memorandum, shall, after proper proceeding before the Commission and upon conviction thereof, be subject for each offense to a fine of not less than $100 and not more than $5,000.

Code 1950, § 56-201; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-147. Disposition of fees or sums collected.

All fees or sums collected by the Commission under the provisions of this chapter shall be deposited with the State Treasurer, and shall be set aside by him for the use of the Commission for the administration and enforcement of this chapter.

Code 1950, § 56-202; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-148. Employees of Commission not to have interest in carriers.

No employee of the Commission appointed or employed in the administration of this chapter shall in any manner have any pecuniary interest in, own any securities of, or hold any position with any air carrier, motor carrier, railroad, steamboat or canal company.

Code 1950, § 56-203; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-149. No property rights in airspace conferred by chapter.

Nothing in this chapter shall confer any proprietary or property rights in the use of the airspace of this Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 56-204; 1970, c. 708.

§ 5.1-150. Licenses, registrations, taxes, etc., not affected.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to relieve any person from the payment of any licenses, registration fees, taxes, or levies now or hereafter imposed by law.

Code 1950, § 56-205; 1970, c. 708; 2017, c. 793.

§ 5.1-151. Right to amend, revoke, etc., rights, certificates or franchises.

The right and power of the General Assembly to amend, alter, revoke or repeal any and all rights, certificates, or franchises granted pursuant to the provisions of this chapter is hereby reserved.

Code 1950, § 56-206; 1970, c. 708.

Chapter 10. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority.

§ 5.1-152. Definitions.

For the purposes of this act, the following terms and phrases shall mean:

"Authority" shall mean the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority created by this act and by similar enactment by the District of Columbia or, if the Authority shall be abolished, the board, body, or commission or agency succeeding to the principal functions thereof or upon whom the powers given by this act to the Authority shall be conferred by law;

"Authority Facilities" shall mean any or all airport facilities now existing or hereafter acquired or constructed or caused to be constructed by the Authority under this act, and together with any or all buildings, improvements, additions, extensions, replacements, appurtenances, lands, rights in land, water rights, air rights, franchises, machinery, equipment, furnishings, landscaping, easements, utilities, approaches, roadways and other facilities necessary or desirable in connection therewith or incidental thereto, including the existing Dulles Airport Access Road and its right-of-way, acquired or constructed by the Authority;

"Bonds" or "revenue bonds" shall mean bonds and notes or refunding bonds and notes or bond anticipation notes or other obligations of the Authority issued under the provisions of this act.

"Cost" shall mean, as applied to Authority Facilities, the cost of acquisition of all lands, structures, rights-of-way, franchises, easements and other property rights and interests, the cost of lease payments, the cost of construction, the cost of demolishing, removing or relocating any buildings or structures on lands acquired, including the cost of acquiring any lands to which such buildings or structures may be moved or relocated, the cost of any extensions, enlargements, additions and improvements, the cost of all labor, materials, machinery and equipment, financing charges, interest on all bonds prior to and during construction and, if deemed advisable by the Authority, for a period not exceeding one year after completion of such construction, the cost of engineering, financial and legal services, plans, specifications, studies, surveys, estimates of cost and of revenues, other expenses necessary or incident to determining the feasibility or practicability of constructing the Authority Facilities, administrative expenses, provisions for working capital, reserves for interest and for extensions, enlargements, additions and improvements, the cost of bond issuance and other devices designed to enhance the creditworthiness of the bonds, and such other expenses as may be necessary or incidental to the construction of the Authority Facilities, the financing of such construction and the placing of the Authority Facilities in operation. Any obligation or expenses incurred by the Commonwealth or any agency thereof, with the approval of the Authority, for studies, surveys, borings, preparation of plans and specifications or other work or materials in connection with the construction of the Authority Facilities may be regarded as part of the cost of the Authority Facilities and may be reimbursed to the Commonwealth or such agency out of any funds available therefor or the proceeds of the revenue bonds issued for such Authority Facilities as hereinafter authorized.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-153. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority created.

There is hereby created the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, hereafter referred to as the Authority, a public body corporate and politic and independent of all other bodies, having the powers and jurisdiction hereinafter enumerated, and such other and additional powers as shall be conferred upon it by the legislative authorities of both the Commonwealth of Virginia and the District of Columbia.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-154. Acquisition of airports; approval.

The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority created by this act is hereby authorized, when similarly authorized by the District of Columbia, to acquire from the United States of America, by lease or otherwise, the two airports known as Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport and all related properties now administered by the Metropolitan Washington Airports, an agency of the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States Department of Transportation, but only with the approval of the Governor of Virginia. Subject to such gubernatorial approval, general consent is hereby given to conditions imposed by the Congress of the United States on such acquisitions that are not inconsistent with this act.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-155. Membership; terms; officers.

A. The Authority shall consist of 17 members: seven appointed by the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, four appointed by the Mayor of the District of Columbia, three appointed by the Governor of the State of Maryland, and three appointed by the President of the United States. Members representing the Commonwealth of Virginia shall be subject to confirmation by the Virginia General Assembly. For the purposes of doing business, nine members shall constitute a quorum. The failure of a single appointing official to appoint one or more members, as herein provided, shall not impair the Authority's creation when the other conditions thereof have been met.

B. Members shall (i) not hold elective or appointive public office, (ii) serve without compensation, and (iii) reside within the Washington Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, except that the members appointed by the President of the United States shall be registered voters of states other than Maryland, Virginia, or the District of Columbia. The members of the Authority shall be entitled to reimbursement for their expenses incurred in attendance upon the meetings of the Authority or while otherwise engaged in the discharge of their duties.

C. Appointments to the Authority shall be for a period of six years. However, initial appointments shall be made as follows: each jurisdiction shall appoint one member for a full six-year term, a second member for a four-year term, and, in the case of the Commonwealth and the District of Columbia, a third member for a two-year term. The Governor of Virginia shall make the final two Virginia initial appointments for one two-year and one four-year term. The President shall make subsequent appointments for six-year terms. The President shall make one of the initial appointments pursuant to the Metropolitan Washington Airports Amendments Act of 1996 for a four-year term.

D. Ten affirmative votes shall be required to approve bond issues and the annual budget of the Authority.

E. Each member may be removed or suspended from office only for cause, and in accordance with the laws of the jurisdiction from which he is appointed.

F. The Authority shall annually elect one of its members as chairman and another as vice-chairman and shall also elect annually a secretary and a treasurer, or a secretary-treasurer, who may or may not be members of the Authority, and prescribe their powers and duties. The Authority may also appoint from its staff an assistant secretary and an assistant treasurer, or an assistant secretary-treasurer, who shall, in addition to other duties, discharge such functions of the secretary and the treasurer.

G. Any person appointed to fill a vacancy shall serve for the unexpired term. Any member of the Authority shall be eligible for reappointment for one term. A member shall not serve after the expiration of the member's term or terms.

H. The members of the Authority, including any nonvoting members, shall not be personally liable for any act done or action taken in their capacities as members of the Authority, nor shall they be personally liable for any bond, note or other evidence of indebtedness issued by the Authority.

2001, c. 342; 2012, cc. 549, 712.

§ 5.1-156. Powers and duties of the Authority.

A. For the purpose of acquiring, operating, maintaining, developing, promoting and protecting Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport together as primary airports for public purposes serving the metropolitan Washington area, the Authority shall have all necessary or convenient powers including, but not limited to, the power:

1. To adopt and amend bylaws for the regulation of its affairs and the conduct of its business;

2. To plan, establish, operate, develop, construct, enlarge, maintain, equip and protect the airports;

3. To adopt and amend regulations to carry out the powers granted by this section;

4. To adopt an official seal and alter the same at its pleasure;

5. To appoint one or more advisory committees;

6. To issue revenue bonds of the Authority for any of its purposes, payable solely from the fees and revenues pledged for their payment, and to refund its bonds, all as provided in this act;

7. To borrow money on a short-term basis and issue from time to time its notes therefor payable on such terms, conditions or provisions as it may deem advisable;

8. To fix, revise, charge, and collect rates, fees, rentals and other charges for the use of the airports;

9. To acquire, hold and dispose of real and personal property in the exercise of its powers and the performance of its duties under this act;

10. To employ, in its discretion, consulting engineers, attorneys, accountants, construction and financial experts, superintendents, managers, and such other employees and agents as may be necessary, and to fix their compensation and benefits. Employees of the Authority shall not participate in any strike or assert any right to strike against the Authority, and any employment agreement entered into by the Authority shall contain an explicit prohibition against strikes by the employee or employees covered by such agreement. The Authority shall comply with any act of Congress concerning former employees of the Federal Aviation Administration and Metropolitan Washington Airports;

11. To sue and be sued in its own name, plead and be impleaded;

12. To construct or permit the construction of commercial and other facilities consistent with the purposes of this act upon the airport property on terms established by the Authority;

13. To make and enter into all contracts and agreements necessary or desirable to the performance of its duties, the proper operation of the airports and the furnishing of services to the travelling public and airport users, including contracts for normal governmental services on a reimbursable basis with local political subdivisions where the Authority Facilities are situated and with the District of Columbia government; and any such contracts shall be exclusive or limited when it is necessary to further the public safety, improve the quality of service, avoid duplication of services, or conserve airport property and the airport environment;

14. To apply for, receive and accept such payments, appropriations, grants, gifts, loans, advances, and other funds, properties, and services as may be transferred or made available to it by the United States government or any other public or private entity or individual;

15. To make payments to reimburse the local political subdivisions where the Authority Facilities are situated for extraordinary law-enforcement costs incurred by such localities; and

16. To do all acts and things necessary or convenient to carry out the powers expressly granted in this act.

B. Pursuant to Section 6007 (b) of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986, the Authority is established solely to operate and improve both metropolitan Washington airports as primary airports serving the metropolitan Washington area and shall be independent of the Commonwealth and its local political subdivisions, the District of Columbia and the federal government in the performance and exercise of the airport-related duties and powers enumerated in subdivisions 1 through 16 of subsection A of this section. Any conflict between the exercise of these enumerated powers by the Authority and the powers of any local political subdivision within which Authority Facilities are situated shall be resolved in favor of the Authority.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-157. Authority rules and regulations; penalty.

A. The Authority shall have the power to adopt, amend, and repeal rules and regulations pertaining to use, maintenance and operation of its facilities and governing the conduct of persons and organizations using its facilities.

B. Unless the Authority shall by unanimous vote of all members present determine that an emergency exists, the Authority shall, prior to the adoption of any rule or regulation or alteration, amendment or modification thereof:

1. Make such rule, regulation, alteration, amendment, or modification in convenient form available for public inspection in the office of the Authority for at least ten days;

2. Publish a notice in a newspaper or newspapers of general circulation in the District of Columbia and in the local political subdivisions of the Commonwealth where the Authority Facilities are located declaring the Authority's intention to consider adopting such rule, regulation, alteration, amendment, or modification and informing the public that the Authority will hold a public hearing at which any person may appear and be heard for or against the adoption of such rule or regulation or such alteration, amendment, or modification, on a day and at a time to be specified in the notice, after the expiration of at least ten days from the day of the publication thereof; and

3. Hold the public hearing on the day and at the time specified in such notice or any adjournment thereof, and hear persons appearing for or against such rule, regulation, alteration, amendment or modification.

C. The Authority's rules and regulations shall be available for public inspection in the Authority's principal office.

D. The Authority's rules and regulations relating to:

(i) Air operations and motor vehicle traffic, including but not limited to, motor vehicle speed limits and the location of and payment for public parking;

(ii) Access to and use of Authority Facilities, including but not limited to, solicitation, handbilling, picketing and the conduct of commercial activities; and

(iii) Aircraft operation and maintenance; shall have the force and effect of law, as shall any other rule or regulation of the Authority which shall contain a determination by the Authority that it is necessary to accord the same force and effect of law in the public interest; provided, however, that with respect to motor vehicle traffic rules and regulations, the Authority shall obtain the approval of the traffic engineer or comparable official of the local political subdivision in which such rules or regulations are to be enforced.

E. The violation of any rule or regulation of the Authority establishing a noise limitation on aircraft that operate at the Authority Facilities shall subject the violator, in the discretion of the circuit court of any political subdivision where the facility is located, to a civil penalty not to exceed $5,000 for each violation. Such penalty shall be paid to the Authority. With the consent of the violator or the accused violator of a rule establishing aircraft noise limits, the Authority may provide, in an order issued against the violator or accused violator, for the payment of civil charges in specific sums not to exceed the limit that could be imposed by the court. Such civil charge when paid shall be in lieu of any civil penalty which could be imposed by the court. Any court proceeding shall be within the exclusive jurisdiction of the circuit court and shall be a civil proceeding at law brought by the Authority.

F. The violation of any Authority rule or regulation, having the force and effect of law, shall be a Class 1 misdemeanor unless otherwise specified by this chapter or unless a lesser penalty is set by the Authority in the rule or regulation. The rules of criminal procedure and evidence that apply throughout the Commonwealth shall apply to the adjudication of any case involving the violation of any Authority rule or regulation having the force and effect of law.

G. The courts of this Commonwealth shall take judicial notice of the Authority's regularly adopted rules and regulations. For the convenience of the courts which may regularly hear cases arising under the Authority's rules and regulations, the Authority may certify to the clerk of such court a copy of its rules and regulations. Any such certification, when signed by the chairman of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, shall be accepted as evidence of the facts therein stated.

H. With respect to the violation of any statute of the Commonwealth, local ordinance or Authority rule or regulation having the force and effect of law occurring at the Authority Facilities:

1. The matter shall be within the jurisdiction of the state courts of the political subdivision where the violation occurred; violations occurring at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport shall be within the jurisdiction of the courts for Arlington County;

2. The attorney for the Commonwealth shall have authority to prosecute those offenses in the name of the Commonwealth or local government as appropriate; and the county or city attorney, if otherwise authorized to prosecute offenses in the name of the county or city, shall have authority to prosecute those offenses in the name of the county or city; and

3. Sheriffs and clerks of the court shall provide those same services and exercise those same powers with respect to the Authority Facilities within their jurisdiction as for their political subdivisions.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-158. Police.

A. The Commonwealth hereby grants, accepts and agrees to concurrent police power authority over the Metropolitan Washington Airports as provided in Section 6009 (c) of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986.

B. The Authority is authorized to establish and maintain a regular police force and to confer police powers to be exercised with respect to offenses occurring on the Authority Facilities upon its employees meeting the minimum requirements of the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

Such police officers shall have all powers vested in police officers under Chapter 17 of Title 15.2, Chapter 11 of Title 16.1, Title 18.2, Title 19.2, and Title 46.2 of the Code of Virginia as those titles may be amended from time to time and shall be responsible upon the Authority Facilities and within 300 yards of the Facilities for enforcing the laws of the Commonwealth, the Authority's rules and regulations and all other applicable ordinances, rules, and regulations.

Such police officers may issue summons to appear, or arrest on view or on information without warrant as permitted by law, and conduct before any judicial officer of competent jurisdiction any person violating, upon Authority Facilities, any rule or regulation of the Authority, any ordinance or regulation of any local political subdivision, or any other law of the Commonwealth.

C. The Department of State Police shall exercise the same powers upon Authority Facilities as elsewhere in the Commonwealth.

D. The Authority may enter into reciprocal or mutual aid agreements with the local political subdivisions in the National Capital Region as defined in § 2674(f)(2) of title 10 of the United States Code, those counties with a border abutting that area, and any municipalities therein; any agency of the Commonwealth, the District of Columbia, the State of Maryland; the federal government; or any combination of the foregoing for cooperation in the furnishing of services during a public service event, an emergency, or planned training, including law-enforcement, fire, rescue, emergency health, and medical services, transportation, communications, public works and engineering, mass care, and resource support. When responding to a request under such an agreement, Authority employees may go outside Authority facilities, and the Authority and its employees shall enjoy the same immunities from liability as localities and their employees do in responding under similar circumstances.

E. The police force of Arlington County shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the police force established herein at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. The Authority shall enter into an agreement with Arlington County regarding the exercise of police authority.

F. The sheriffs and police forces of Loudoun and Fairfax Counties shall continue to exercise concurrent jurisdiction with the police force established herein over the Authority Facilities situated within their respective counties.

2001, c. 342; 2007, cc. 729, 742.

§ 5.1-159. Operation of foreign trade zone.

The Authority is authorized and empowered to establish, operate and maintain a foreign trade zone and otherwise to expedite and encourage foreign commerce.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-160. Acquisition of property; eminent domain.

A. The Authority is hereby authorized to acquire by purchase, lease or grant such additional lands, structures, property, rights, rights-of-way, franchises, easements and other interests in lands as it may deem necessary or convenient for construction and operation of the airports, upon such terms and at such prices as may be considered by it to be reasonable and can be agreed upon between it and the owner thereof.

B. Any political subdivision of the Commonwealth, all or a part of which is located within 60 miles of Authority Facilities, is authorized to provide services, to donate real or personal property and to make appropriations to the Authority for the acquisition, construction, maintenance, and operation of the Authority Facilities. Any such political subdivision is hereby authorized to issue its bonds in the manner provided in the Public Finance Act or in any applicable municipal charter for the purpose of providing funds to be appropriated to the Authority. The Authority may agree to assume, or reimburse such a political subdivision for, any indebtedness incurred by such political subdivision with respect to facilities conveyed by it to the Authority. With the consent of the governing body of the political subdivision, any such agreement may be made subordinate to the Authority's indebtedness to others.

C. The Authority established hereunder is hereby granted full power to exercise the right of eminent domain in the acquisition of any lands, easements, privileges or other property interests that are necessary for airport and landing field purposes, including the right to acquire, by eminent domain, aviation easements over lands or water outside the boundaries of its airports or landing fields where necessary in the interests of safety for aircraft to provide unobstructed air space for the landing and taking off of aircraft utilizing its airports and landing fields even though such aviation easement be inconsistent with the continued use of such land, or inconsistent with the maintenance, preservation and renewal of any structure or any tree or other vegetation standing or growing on the land at the time of such acquisition. Proceedings for the acquisition of such lands, easements and privileges by condemnation may be instituted and conducted in the name of the Authority in accordance with Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1.

2001, c. 342; 2003, c. 940.

§ 5.1-161. Revenue bonds.

The Authority is hereby authorized to provide by resolution for the issuance, at one time or from time to time, of revenue bonds of the Authority for the purpose of paying all or any part of the cost of Authority Facilities, including the refunding of federal appropriations not reimbursed to the United States Treasury by the Metropolitan Washington Airports. The principal of and the interest on such bonds shall be payable solely from the funds herein provided for such payment. The bonds of each issue shall be dated, shall mature at such time or times not exceeding forty years from their date or dates, as may be determined by the Authority, and may be subject to redemption or repurchase before maturity, at the option of the Authority, at such price or prices and under such terms and conditions as may be fixed by the Authority prior to the issuance of the bonds. The bonds may bear interest payable at such time or times and at such rate or rates as determined by the Authority or as determined in such manner as the Authority may provide, including the determination by agents designated by the Authority under guidelines established by it. The Authority shall determine the form and the manner of execution of the bonds, including any interest coupons to be attached thereto, and shall fix the denomination or denominations of the bonds and the place or places of payment of principal and interest, which may be at any bank or trust company within or without the Commonwealth of Virginia. In case any officer whose signature or a facsimile of whose signature shall appear on any bonds or coupons shall cease to be such officer before the delivery of such bonds, such signature or such facsimile shall nevertheless be valid and sufficient for all purposes the same as if he had remained in office until such delivery. Notwithstanding any other provision of this act or any recitals in any bonds issued under the provisions of this section, all such bonds shall be deemed to be negotiable instruments under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The bonds may be issued in coupon or in registered form, or both, as the Authority may determine, and provision may be made for the registration of any coupon bonds as to principal alone and also as to both principal and interest, for the reconversion into coupon bonds of any bonds registered as to both principal and interest, and for the interchange of registered and coupon bonds. The Authority may sell such bonds in such manner, either at public or negotiated sale, and for such price, as it may determine will best effect the purposes of this section.

The proceeds of the bonds shall be used solely for the payment of the cost of Authority Facilities, including improvements, and shall be disbursed in such manner and under such restrictions, if any, as the Authority may provide in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement hereinafter mentioned securing the same. If the proceeds of the bonds of any issue, by error of estimates or otherwise, shall be less than such cost, additional bonds may in like manner be issued to provide the amount of such deficit, and, unless otherwise provided in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement securing the same, shall be deemed to be of the same issue and shall be entitled to payment from the same fund without preference or priority of the bonds first issued. If the proceeds of the bonds of any issue shall exceed such cost, the surplus shall be deposited to the credit of the sinking fund for such bonds.

Prior to the preparation of definitive bonds, the Authority may, under like restrictions, issue interim receipts or temporary bonds, with or without coupons, exchangeable for definitive bonds when such bonds shall have been executed and are available for delivery. The Authority may also provide for the replacement of any bonds which shall become mutilated or shall be destroyed or lost. Bonds may be issued under the provisions of this section without obtaining the consent of any agency of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and without any other proceedings, conditions or things not specifically required by this section.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-162. Refunding bonds.

The Authority is hereby authorized to provide by resolution for the issuance of its revenue refunding bonds for the purpose of refunding any bonds then outstanding which shall have been issued under the provisions of this act, including the payment of any redemption premium thereon and any interest accrued or to accrue to the date of redemption of such bonds, and if deemed advisable by the Authority, for either or both of the following additional purposes: constructing improvements, extensions or enlargement of the Authority Facilities in connection with which the bonds to be refunded shall have been issued, and paying all or any part of the cost of any additional Authority Facilities. The issuance of such bonds, the maturities and other details thereof, the rights of the holders thereof, and the rights, duties and obligations of the Authority in respect to the same, shall be governed by the provisions of this act insofar as the same may be applicable. Revenue refunding bonds issued under this section may be sold or exchanged for outstanding bonds issued under this act and, if sold, the proceeds thereof may be applied to the purchase, redemption or payment of such outstanding bonds.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-163. Pledge of funds.

All moneys received pursuant to the provisions of this act, whether as proceeds from the sale of bonds, as revenues, or as grants, appropriations or other funds provided by federal, state or local governments, may be pledged to the payment of bonds issued by the Authority and, if so pledged, shall be deemed to be trust funds to be held and applied solely as provided in this act.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-164. Marketability of bonds.

The Authority is authorized and empowered to exercise all or any part or combination of the powers herein granted; to make covenants other than and in addition to the covenants herein expressly authorized, of like or different character; and to make such covenants and to do any and all such acts and things as may be necessary or convenient or desirable in order to secure its bonds or, in the absolute discretion of the Authority, as will tend to make the bonds more marketable, notwithstanding that such covenants, acts or things may not be enumerated herein.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-165. Bonds as legal investments and security for public deposits.

Bonds issued by the Authority under the provisions of this act are hereby made securities in which all public officers and public bodies of the Commonwealth and its political subdivisions, all insurance companies, trust companies, banking associations, investment companies, executors, administrators, trustees and other fiduciaries may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them. Such bonds are hereby made securities which may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state or municipal officer or any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds or obligations is now or may hereafter be authorized by law.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-166. Credit of Commonwealth and political subdivisions not pledged.

Revenue bonds issued under the provisions of this act shall not constitute a debt of the Commonwealth of Virginia or of any other political subdivision thereof nor a pledge of the faith and credit of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision thereof. Such bonds shall be payable solely from funds provided therefor from revenues. The issuance of revenue bonds under the provisions of this act shall not directly, indirectly, or contingently obligate the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof to the payment thereof or to the levy or pledge of any form of taxation whatever therefor. All such revenue bonds shall contain a statement on their face substantially to this effect.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-167. Trust agreement.

In the discretion of the Authority, any bonds issued under the provisions of this act may be secured by a trust agreement by and between the Authority and a corporate trustee, which may be any trust company or bank having the power of a trust company within or without the Commonwealth of Virginia. Such trust agreement or the resolution providing for the issuance of such bonds may pledge or assign the fees and other revenues to be received, but shall not convey or mortgage the airports or any part thereof. Such trust agreement or resolution providing for the issuance of such bonds may contain such provisions for protecting and enforcing the rights and remedies of the bondholders as may be reasonable and proper and not in violation of law, including covenants setting forth the duties of the Authority in relation to the acquisition of property and the construction, improvement, maintenance, repair, operation and insurance of the airports, the rates or fees or other charges to be charged, and the custody, safeguarding and application of all moneys. It shall be lawful for any bank or trust company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia which may act as depositary of the proceeds of bonds or of revenues to furnish such indemnifying bonds or to pledge such securities as may be required by the Authority. Any such trust agreement may set forth the rights and remedies of the bondholders. In addition to the foregoing, any such trust agreement or resolution may contain such other provisions as the Authority may deem reasonable and proper for the security of the bondholders. All expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of such trust agreement or resolution may be treated as a part of the cost of the operation of the airports.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-168. Revenues.

The Authority is hereby authorized to fix, revise, charge and collect fees or other charges for the use of the airports and to contract with any person, partnership, association or corporation desiring the use of any part thereof, including the right-of-way adjoining the airports for placing thereon telephone, telegraph, electric light or power lines, and to fix the terms, conditions, rents and fees or other charges for such use. Such fees or other charges shall be so fixed and adjusted in respect of the aggregate of fees or other charges from the airports as to provide a fund sufficient with other revenues, if any, (i) to pay the cost of maintaining, repairing and operating the airports, (ii) to pay the principal of and interest on such bonds as the same shall become due and payable, and (iii) to create reserves for such purposes. The fees and other charges and all other revenues derived from the airports, except such part thereof as may be necessary to pay such cost of maintenance, repair and operation and provide such reserves as may be provided for in the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or in the trust agreement securing the same, shall be set aside at such regular intervals as may be provided in such resolution or such trust agreement in a sinking fund which is hereby pledged to, and charged with, the payment of the principal of and the interest on such bonds as the same shall become due, and the redemption price or the purchase price of bonds retired by call or purchase as therein provided. Such pledge shall be valid and binding from the time when the pledge is made. The fees and other charges and other revenues or other moneys so pledged and thereafter received by the Authority shall immediately be subject to the lien of such pledge without any physical delivery thereof or further act, and the lien of any such pledge shall be valid and binding as against all parties having claims of any kind in tort, contract or otherwise against the Authority, irrespective of whether such parties have notice thereof. Neither the resolution nor any trust agreement by which a pledge is created need be filed or recorded except in the records of the Authority. The use and disposition of moneys to the credit of such sinking fund shall be subject to the provisions of the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or of such trust agreement. Except as may otherwise be provided in such resolution or such trust agreement, such sinking fund shall be a fund for all such bonds without distinction or priority of one over another.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-169. Trust funds.

All proceeds from the sale of bonds and revenues derived therefrom received pursuant to the provisions of this act shall be deemed to be trust funds to be held and applied solely as provided in this act. The Authority may, in the resolution authorizing the bonds or in the trust agreement securing such bonds, provide for the payment of the proceeds of the sale of the bonds and the revenues of the Authority to a trustee, which may be any trust company or bank having the powers of a trust company within or without the Commonwealth of Virginia, which shall act as trustee of the funds, and hold and apply the same to the purposes of this act, subject to such regulations as this act and such resolution or trust agreement may provide. The trustee may invest and reinvest such funds in such securities as may be provided in the resolution authorizing the bonds or in the trust agreement securing such bonds.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-170. Annual audit.

The Authority shall keep suitable records of all its financial transactions and shall have the same audited annually. Copies of such audit shall be furnished to the Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia and to the Mayor of the District of Columbia and shall be open to public inspection.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-171. Remedies.

Any holder of bonds issued under the provisions of this act or of any of the coupons appertaining thereto, and the trustee under any trust agreement, except to the extent the rights herein given may be restricted by such trust agreement, may either at law or in equity, by suit, action, injunction, mandamus or other proceedings, protect and enforce any and all rights under the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia, or granted by this act or under such trust agreement or the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds and may enforce and compel the performance of all duties required by this act or by such agreement or resolution to be performed by the Authority or by any officer or agent thereof including the fixing, charging and collection of fees or other charges.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-172. Exemption from taxation.

The exercise of the powers granted by this act shall be in all respects for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Commonwealth of Virginia, for the increase of their commerce, and for the promotion of their safety, health, welfare, convenience and prosperity, and as the operation and maintenance of the airports by the Authority will constitute the performance of essential governmental functions, the Authority shall not be required to pay any taxes or assessments upon the airports or any property acquired or used by the Authority under the provisions of this act or upon the income therefrom; and the bonds issued under the provisions of this act, their transfer and the income therefrom, including any profit made on the sale thereof, shall at all times be free and exempt from taxation by the Commonwealth of Virginia and by any municipality, county or other political subdivision thereof.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-173. Jurisdiction of courts; liability for contracts and torts.

A. The courts of the Commonwealth of Virginia shall have original jurisdiction of all actions brought by or against the Authority, which courts shall in all cases apply the law of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

B. The Authority shall be liable for its contracts and for its torts and those of its members, officers, employees, and agents committed in the conduct of any proprietary function, in accordance with the law of the Commonwealth of Virginia but shall not be liable for any torts occurring in the performance of a governmental function. The exclusive remedy for such breach of contracts and torts for which the Authority shall be liable, as herein provided, shall be by suit against the Authority. Nothing in this act shall be construed as a waiver by the Commonwealth of Virginia or the District of Columbia or of their political subdivisions of any immunity from suit.

C. The Authority shall be responsible for all executory contracts entered into by the United States with respect to the former Metropolitan Washington Airports before the date of acquisition of those airports, except that the procedure for disputes resolution contained in any such contract shall continue to govern the performance of the contract unless otherwise agreed to by the parties to the contract.

D. The Authority shall not be responsible for any tort claims arising before the date of transfer.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-174. Procurement Act exemption.

In light of the multijurisdictional nature of the Authority, an exemption is hereby provided to the Authority from the provisions of the Virginia Public Procurement Act.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-175. Act liberally construed.

This act, being necessary for the welfare of the Commonwealth of Virginia and its inhabitants, shall be liberally construed to effect the purposes thereof.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-176. Repealed.

Repealed by Acts 2015, c. 709, cl. 2.

§ 5.1-177. Inconsistent laws inapplicable.

All other general or special laws inconsistent with any provision of this act are hereby declared to be inapplicable to the provisions of this act.

2001, c. 342.

§ 5.1-178. Not Set Out.

Not set out.

2001, c. 342.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

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