Code of Virginia

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Code of Virginia
Title 11. Contracts
Chapter 1. General Provisions

§ 11-2. When written evidence required to maintain action.

Unless a promise, contract, agreement, representation, assurance, or ratification, or some memorandum or note thereof, is in writing and signed by the party to be charged or his agent, no action shall be brought in any of the following cases:

1. To charge any person upon or by reason of a representation or assurance concerning the character, conduct, credit, ability, trade, or dealings of another, to the intent or purpose that such other may obtain thereby, credit, money, or goods;

2. To charge any person upon a promise made after attaining the age of majority, to pay a debt contracted during infancy, or upon a ratification after attaining the age of majority, of a promise or simple contract made during infancy;

3. To charge a personal representative upon a promise to answer any debt or damages out of his own estate;

4. To charge any person upon a promise to answer for the debt, default, or misdoings of another;

5. Upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage;

6. Upon any contract for the sale of real estate, or for the lease thereof for more than a year;

7. Upon any agreement or contract for services to be performed in the sale of real estate by a party defined in § 54.1-2100 or § 54.1-2101;

8. Upon any agreement that is not to be performed within a year; or

9. Upon any agreement or promise to lend money or extend credit in an aggregate amount of $25,000 or more.

The consideration need not be set forth or expressed in the writing, and it may be proved (where a consideration is necessary) by other evidence.

Code 1919, § 5561; 1976, c. 157; 1990, c. 570 .

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.