Code of Virginia

Creating a Report: Check the sections you'd like to appear in the report, then use the "Create Report" button at the bottom of the page to generate your report. Once the report is generated you'll then have the option to download it as a pdf, print or email the report.

Code of Virginia
Title 58.1. Taxation
Chapter 39. Enforcement, Collection, Refunds, Remedies and Review of Local Taxes
5/24/2017

§ 58.1-3983.1. Appeals and rulings of local taxes.

A. Definitions. For purposes of this section:

"Amount in dispute," when used with respect to taxes due or assessed, means the amount specifically identified in the administrative appeal or application for judicial review as disputed by the party filing such appeal or application.

"Frivolous" means a finding, based upon specific facts, that the party asserting the appeal is unlikely to prevail upon the merits because the appeal is (i) not well grounded in fact; (ii) not warranted by existing law or a good faith argument for the extension, modification, or reversal of existing law; (iii) interposed for an improper purpose, such as to harass, to cause unnecessary delay in the payment of tax or a refund, or to create needless cost from the litigation; or (iv) otherwise frivolous.

"Jeopardized by delay" means a finding, based upon specific facts, that a taxpayer designs to (i) depart quickly from the locality, (ii) remove his property therefrom, (iii) conceal himself or his property therein, or (iv) do any other act tending to prejudice, or to render wholly or partially ineffectual, proceedings to collect the tax for the period in question.

"Local business tax" means machinery and tools tax, business tangible personal property tax (including, without limitation, computer equipment), merchant's capital tax, and a consumer utility tax where the amount in dispute exceeds $2,500 other than the tax collected on mobile telecommunication service as defined in § 58.1-3812.

"Local mobile property tax" means the tangible personal property tax on airplanes, boats, campers, recreational vehicles, and trailers.

"Taxpayer" includes a business required to collect a local consumer utility tax to the extent that the business is charged or assessed with such tax.

B. Administrative appeal to commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official.

1. Any person assessed with any local mobile property tax or local business tax as defined in this section may appeal such assessment within one year from the last day of the tax year for which such assessment is made, or within one year from the date of such assessment, whichever is later, to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official.

2. The appeal shall be filed in good faith and sufficiently identify the taxpayer, the tax period covered by the challenged assessment, the amount in dispute, the remedy sought, each alleged error in the assessment, the grounds upon which the taxpayer relies, and any other facts relevant to the taxpayer's contention.

3. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official may hold a conference with the taxpayer if requested by the taxpayer, or require submission of additional information and documents, an audit or further audits, or other evidence deemed necessary for a proper and equitable determination of the application.

4. The assessment shall be deemed prima facie correct.

5. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall undertake a full review of the taxpayer's claims and issue a written determination to the taxpayer setting forth the facts and arguments in support of his decision within 90 days after such appeal is filed. Such determination shall be accompanied by a written explanation of the taxpayer's right to file an administrative appeal of the determination to the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D.

6. Any taxpayer whose administrative appeal to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official pursuant to this subsection has been pending for more than one year without the issuance of a final determination may, upon not less than 30 days' written notice to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official, elect to treat the application as denied and appeal the assessment to the Tax Commissioner in accordance with the provisions of subsection D. The Tax Commissioner shall not consider an appeal filed pursuant to the provisions of this subsection if he finds that the absence of a final determination on the part of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official was caused by the willful failure or refusal of the taxpayer to provide information requested and reasonably needed by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to make his determination.

C. Suspension of collection activity pending administrative appeal to commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Provided a timely and complete appeal is filed pursuant to subsection B, collection activity shall be suspended by the treasurer or other official responsible for the collection of such tax until a final determination is issued by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official, unless the treasurer or other collection official (i) determines that collection would be jeopardized by delay as defined in this section; or (ii) is advised by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official that the taxpayer has not responded to a request for relevant information after a reasonable time. Interest shall accrue in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 2 e of § 58.1-3703.1, but no further penalty shall be imposed while collection action is suspended.

D. Administrative appeal to Tax Commissioner.

1. Any person whose administrative appeal to the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official pursuant to subsection B has been denied in whole or in part may appeal the determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official by filing an appeal with the Tax Commissioner and serving a copy of the appeal upon the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official within 90 days of the date of the determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. The appeal shall include a copy of the written determination of the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official that is challenged, together with a statement of the facts and grounds upon which the taxpayer relies.

2. The Tax Commissioner shall determine whether he has jurisdiction to hear the appeal within 30 days of receipt of the taxpayer's appeal.

3. If the Tax Commissioner determines that he has jurisdiction, he shall provide the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official with an opportunity to respond to the appeal and permit the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to participate in the proceedings. The Tax Commissioner shall issue a determination to the taxpayer within 90 days of receipt of the taxpayer's appeal, unless the taxpayer and the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official are notified that a longer period will be required. Such longer period of time shall not exceed 60 days, and the Tax Commissioner shall notify the affected parties of the reason necessitating the longer period of time. If the Tax Commissioner is unable to issue a determination within the 60-day extension period due to the failure of an affected party to supply the Tax Commissioner with necessary information, the Tax Commissioner shall certify this fact in writing prior to the expiration of the extension period. The Tax Commissioner shall then issue his determination within 60 days of receipt of such necessary information.

4. The appeal shall be treated as an application pursuant to § 58.1-1821, and the Tax Commissioner may issue an order correcting such assessment of such property pursuant to § 58.1-1822, if the taxpayer has met the burden of proof provided in § 58.1-3987.

5. The Tax Commissioner shall not make a determination regarding the valuation or the method of valuation of property subject to any local tax other than a local business tax.

E. Suspension of collection activity during administrative appeal to Tax Commissioner. On receipt of a notice of intent to file an appeal to the Tax Commissioner under subsection D, the treasurer or other official responsible for the collection of such tax shall further suspend collection activity until a final determination is issued by the Tax Commissioner, unless the treasurer or other collection official (i) determines that collection would be jeopardized by delay as defined in this section; or (ii) is advised by the commissioner or other assessing official that the taxpayer has not responded to a request for relevant information after a reasonable time. Interest shall accrue in accordance with the provisions of subdivision A 2 e of § 58.1-3703.1, but no further penalty shall be imposed while collection action is suspended. The requirement that collection activity be suspended shall cease unless an appeal pursuant to subsection D is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such appeal.

F. Implementation of determination of Tax Commissioner. Promptly upon receipt of a final determination of the Tax Commissioner, the commissioner of the revenue or other local assessing official shall take those steps necessary to calculate the amount of tax owed by or refund due to the taxpayer consistent with the Tax Commissioner's determination and shall provide that information to the taxpayer and to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

1. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner sets forth a specific amount of tax due, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify this amount to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a bill to the taxpayer for such amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner.

2. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner sets forth a specific amount of refund due, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify this amount to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a payment to the taxpayer for such amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner.

3. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner does not set forth a specific amount of tax due, or otherwise requires the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to undertake a new or revised assessment that will result in the determination of a tax due that has not previously been paid in full, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall promptly commence the steps necessary to undertake such new or revised assessment, and provide the same to the taxpayer within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or within 60 days after receipt from the taxpayer of any additional information requested or reasonably required under the determination of the Tax Commissioner, whichever is later. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify the new assessment to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a bill to the taxpayer for the amount due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the new assessment.

4. If the determination of the Tax Commissioner does not set forth a specific amount of refund due, or otherwise requires the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to undertake a new or revised assessment that will result in the determination of a refund of taxes previously paid, the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall promptly commence the steps necessary to undertake such new or revised assessment, and provide the same to the taxpayer within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or within 60 days after receipt from the taxpayer of any additional information requested or reasonably required under the determination of the Tax Commissioner, whichever is later. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall certify the new assessment to the treasurer or other official responsible for collection, and the treasurer or other official responsible for collection shall issue a refund to the taxpayer for the amount of tax due, together with interest accrued, within 30 days of the date of the new assessment.

G. Judicial review of determination of Tax Commissioner. Following the issuance of a final determination of the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D, the taxpayer or commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official may apply to the appropriate circuit court for judicial review of the determination, or any part thereof, pursuant to § 58.1-3984. In any such proceeding for judicial review of a determination of the Tax Commissioner, the burden shall be on the party challenging the determination of the Tax Commissioner, or any part thereof, to show that the ruling of the Tax Commissioner is erroneous with respect to the part challenged. Neither the Tax Commissioner nor the Department of Taxation shall be made a party to an application to correct an assessment merely because the Tax Commissioner has ruled on it.

H. Suspension of payment of disputed amount of tax due upon taxpayer's notice of intent to initiate judicial review.

1. On receipt of a notice of intent to file an application for judicial review, pursuant to § 58.1-3984, of a determination of the Tax Commissioner pursuant to subsection D, and upon payment of the amount of the tax that is not in dispute together with any penalty and interest then due with respect to such undisputed portion of the tax, the treasurer or other collection official shall further suspend collection activity while the court retains jurisdiction unless the court, upon appropriate motion after notice and an opportunity to be heard, determines that (i) the taxpayer's application for judicial review is frivolous, as defined in this section; (ii) collection would be jeopardized by delay, as defined in this section; or (iii) suspension of collection would cause substantial economic hardship to the locality. For purposes of determining whether substantial economic hardship to the locality would arise from a suspension of collection activity, the court shall consider the cumulative effect of then-pending appeals filed within the locality by different taxpayers that allege common claims or theories of relief.

2. Upon a determination that the appeal is frivolous, that collection may be jeopardized by delay, or that suspension of collection would result in substantial economic hardship to the locality, the court may require the taxpayer to pay the amount in dispute or a portion thereof, or to provide surety for payment of the amount in dispute in a form acceptable to the court.

3. No suspension of collection activity shall be required if the application for judicial review fails to identify with particularity the amount in dispute.

4. The requirement that collection activity be suspended shall cease unless an application for judicial review pursuant to § 58.1-3984 is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such application.

5. The suspension of collection activity authorized by this subdivision shall not be applicable to any appeal of a local business tax or local mobile property tax that is initiated by the direct filing of an action pursuant to § 58.1-3984 without prior exhaustion of the appeals provided by subsections B and D.

I. Suspension of payment of disputed amount of refund due upon locality's notice of intent to initiate judicial review.

1. Payment of any refund determined to be due pursuant to the determination of the Tax Commissioner shall be suspended if the locality assessing the tax serves upon the taxpayer, within 60 days of the date of the determination of the Tax Commissioner, a notice of intent to file an application for judicial review of the Tax Commissioner's determination pursuant to § 58.1-3984 and pays the amount of the refund not in dispute, including tax and accrued interest. Payment of such refund shall remain suspended while the court retains jurisdiction unless the court, upon appropriate motion after notice and an opportunity to be heard, determines that the locality's application for judicial review is frivolous, as defined in this section.

2. No suspension of refund activity shall be permitted if the locality's application for judicial review fails to identify with particularity the amount in dispute.

3. The requirement that the obligation to make a refund be suspended shall cease unless an application for judicial review pursuant to § 58.1-3984 is filed and served on the necessary parties within 30 days of the service of the notice of intent to file such application.

J. Rulings and advisory opinions.

1. Written rulings from commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Any taxpayer or authorized representative of a taxpayer may request a written ruling regarding the application of a local mobile property tax or a local business tax to a specific situation from the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official. Any taxpayer requesting such a ruling shall provide all facts relevant to the situation and may present a rationale for the basis of an interpretation of the law most favorable to the taxpayer. Any misrepresentation or change in the applicable law or the factual situation as presented in the ruling request shall invalidate any such ruling issued. A written ruling may be revoked or amended prospectively if (i) there is a change in the law, a court decision, or the guidelines issued by the Department of Taxation upon which the ruling was based or (ii) the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official notifies the taxpayer of a change in the policy or interpretation upon which the ruling was based. However, any taxpayer who acts on a written ruling which later becomes invalid shall be deemed to have acted in good faith during the period in which such ruling was in effect.

2. Advisory opinions of the Tax Commissioner. The Tax Commissioner shall have the authority to issue advisory written opinions in specific cases as requested to interpret a local business tax and matters related to the administration thereof when an assessment of that tax is subject to appeal to the Tax Commissioner under this chapter. Opinions issued pursuant to this section shall not be applicable as an interpretation of any other tax law.

K. Record-keeping and audits. Every person who is assessable with a local mobile property tax or a local business tax shall keep sufficient records to enable the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to verify the correctness of the tax paid for the taxable years assessable and to enable the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official to ascertain the correct amount of tax assessable for each of those years. All such records, books of accounts and other information shall be open to inspection and examination by the commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official in order to allow him to establish whether the tax is due within this jurisdiction. The commissioner of the revenue or other assessing official shall provide the taxpayer with the option to conduct the audit in the taxpayer's local business office, if the records are maintained there. In the event the records are maintained outside this jurisdiction, copies of the appropriate books and records shall be sent to the commissioner's or assessor's office upon demand.

1999, cc. 202, 470; 2002, c. 525; 2003, c. 196; 2004, cc. 527, 534; 2005, c. 927; 2006, c. 611.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.