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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 30. Department of Medical Assistance Services
Chapter 130. Amount, Duration and Scope of Selected Services

12VAC30-130-5020. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this part shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Abstinence" means the intentional and consistent restraint from the pathological pursuit of reward or relief, or both, that involves the use of substances.

"Addiction" means a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory, and related circuitry. Addiction is defined as the inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavioral control, persistence of cravings, diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death.

"Addiction-credentialed physician" means a physician who holds a board certification in addiction medicine from the American Board of Addiction Medicine, a subspecialty board certification in addition to certification in psychiatry from the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, or subspecialty board certification in addiction medicine from the American Osteopathic Association. DMAS also recognizes physicians with the DATA 2000 buprenorphine waiver and physicians treating addiction who have specialty training or experience in addiction medicine or addiction psychiatry. If treating adolescents, "addiction-credentialed physician" means an addiction-credentialed physician who also has experience and specialty training with adolescent medicine.

"Adherence" means the individual receiving treatment has demonstrated his ability to cooperate with, follow, and take personal responsibility for the implementation of his treatment plans.

"Adolescent" means an individual from 12 years of age to 20 years of age.

"Allied health professional" means counselor aides or group living workers who meet the DBHDS licensing requirements for unlicensed staff in residential settings.

"ARTS" means addiction and recovery treatment services.

"ARTS care coordinator" means an employee of DMAS, its contractor, or an MCO who is a licensed practitioner of the healing arts, including a physician or medical director, licensed clinical psychologist, licensed clinical social worker, licensed professional counselor, licensed substance abuse treatment practitioner, licensed marriage and family therapist, nurse practitioner, or registered nurse with two years of clinical experience in the treatment of substance use disorders. The ARTS care coordinator performs independent assessments of requests for all ARTS intensive outpatient programs (ASAM Level 2.1); partial hospitalization programs (ASAM Level 2.5); residential treatment services (ASAM Levels 3.1, 3.3, 3.5, and 3.7); and inpatient services (ASAM Levels 3.7 and 4.0).

"ASAM" means the American Society of Addiction Medicine.

"ASAM criteria" means the six different life areas used by the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria to develop a holistic biopsychosocial assessment of an individual that is used for service planning, level of care, and length of stay treatment decisions.

"BHA" means behavioral health authority.

"Biomedical" means biological or physical aspects of a member's condition that require assessment and services that are delivered by appropriately credentialed medical staff, who are available to assess and treat co-occurring biomedical disorders that may be the result of, or independent of, a substance use disorder.

"Buprenorphine-waivered practitioner" means a health care provider licensed under Virginia law and registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to prescribe Schedule III, IV, or V medications for treatment of pain. More specifically, a buprenorphine-waivered physician has obtained the buprenorphine waiver through the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA 2000), while a buprenorphine-waivered nurse practitioner or physician assistant has obtained the buprenorphine waiver through DATA 2000. A buprenorphine-waivered practitioner meets all federal and state requirements and is supervised by or works in collaboration with a qualifying physician in accordance with the applicable regulatory board. In accordance with § 54.1-2957 of the Code of Virginia, a nurse practitioner may practice without a written or electronic practice agreement with a qualifying physician. All buprenorphine-waivered practitioners have a DEA-X number to prescribe buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid use disorder.

"Care coordination" means collaboration and sharing of information among health care providers who are involved with an individual's health care to assist in improving the care of the individual. This includes e-consultations from primary care providers to specialists.

"Certified substance abuse counselor" or "CSAC" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-3507.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Certified substance abuse counseling assistant" or "CSAC-A" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-3507.2 of the Code of Virginia.

"Certified substance abuse counselor-supervisee" means an individual who has completed the educational requirements described in clause (i) of § 54.1-3507.1 C of the Code of Virginia, but who has not completed the practice hours described in clause (ii) of § 54.1-3507.1 C of the Code of Virginia.

"Child" means an individual from birth up to 12 years of age.

"Clinical experience" means, for the purpose of these ARTS requirements, practical experience in providing direct services to individuals with diagnoses of substance use disorder. Clinical experience shall include supervised internships, supervised practicums, or supervised field experience. Clinical experience shall not include unsupervised internships, unsupervised practicums, and unsupervised field experience.

"Counseling" means the same as that term is defined in § 54.1-3500 of the Code of Virginia.

"Credentialed addiction treatment professional" or "CATP" means an individual licensed or registered with the appropriate board in the following roles: (i) an addiction-credentialed physician or physician with experience or training in addiction medicine; (ii) physician extenders with experience or training in addiction medicine; (iii) a licensed psychiatrist; (iv) a licensed clinical psychologist; (v) a licensed clinical social worker; (vi) a licensed professional counselor; (vii) a certified psychiatric clinical nurse specialist; (viii) a licensed psychiatric nurse practitioner; (ix) a licensed marriage and family therapist; (x) a licensed substance abuse treatment practitioner; (xi) a resident who is under the supervision of a licensed professional counselor (18VAC115-20-10), licensed marriage and family therapist (18VAC115-50-10), or licensed substance abuse treatment practitioner (18VAC115-60-10) and is registered with the Virginia Board of Counseling; (xii) a resident in psychology who is under supervision of a licensed clinical psychologist and is registered with the Virginia Board of Psychology (18VAC125-20-10); or (xiii) a supervisee in social work who is under the supervision of a licensed clinical social worker and is registered with the Virginia Board of Social Work (18VAC140-20-10).

"CSB" means community services board.

"DBHDS" means the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services consistent with Chapter 3 (§ 37.2-300 et seq.) of Title 37.2 of the Code of Virginia.

"DMAS" means the Department of Medical Assistance Services and its contractors consistent with Chapter 10 (§ 32.1-323 et seq.) of Title 32.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"DSM-5" means the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, copyright 2013, American Psychiatric Association.

"Evidence-based" means an empirically-supported clinical practice or intervention with a proven ability to produce positive outcomes.

"Face-to-face" means encounters that occur in person or through telemedicine.

"FQHC" means federally qualified health center.

"Individual" means the patient, client, beneficiary, or member who receives services set out in 12VAC30-130-5000 et seq. These terms are used interchangeably.

"Individual service plan" or "ISP" means an initial and comprehensive treatment plan that is regularly updated and specific to an individual's unique treatment needs as identified in the assessment. An ISP contains an individual's treatment or training needs, the individual's goals and measureable objectives to meet the identified needs, services to be provided with the recommended frequency to accomplish the measurable goals and objectives, and an individualized discharge plan that describes transition to other appropriate services. An individual is included in the development of the ISP, and the ISP is signed by the individual. If the individual is a minor, the ISP is also signed by the individual's parent or legal guardian. An ISP includes documentation if the individual is a minor child or an adult who lacks legal capacity and is unable or unwilling to sign the ISP.

"Induction phase" means the medically monitored initiation of buprenorphine, buprenorphine and naloxone, naltrexone, or methadone treatment performed in a qualified practitioner's office or licensed OTP. The goal of the induction phase is to find the individual's ideal dose of buprenorphine, buprenorphine and naloxone, naltrexone, or methadone. The ideal dose minimizes both side effects and drug craving.

"Licensed practical nurse" means a professional who is licensed by the Commonwealth as a practical nurse or holds a multistate licensure privilege to practice practical nursing according to 18VAC90-19-80.

"Managed care organization" or "MCO" means an organization that offers managed care health insurance plans (MCHIP), as defined by § 38.2-5800 of the Code of Virginia, which means an arrangement for the delivery of health care in which a health carrier undertakes to provide, arrange for, pay for, or reimburse any of the costs of health care services for a covered person on a prepaid or insured basis that (i) contains one or more incentive arrangements, including any credentialing requirements intended to influence the cost or level of health care services between the health carrier and one or more providers with respect to the delivery of health care services and (ii) requires or creates benefit payment differential incentives for covered persons to use providers that are directly or indirectly managed, owned, under contract with, or employed by the health carrier.

"Medication assisted treatment" or "MAT" means the same as that term is defined in 42 CFR 8.2.

"Multidimensional assessment" or "assessment" means the individualized, person-centered biopsychosocial assessment performed face-to-face, in which the provider obtains comprehensive information from the individual, and family members and significant others as needed, including history of the present illness; family history; developmental history; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use or addictive behavior history; personal or social history; legal history; psychiatric history; medical history; spiritual history as appropriate; review of systems; mental status exam; physical examination; formulation and diagnoses; survey of assets, vulnerabilities and supports; and treatment recommendations. The ASAM multidimensional assessment is a theoretical framework for this individualized, person-centered assessment that includes the following dimensions: (i) acute intoxication or likelihood of withdrawal, or both; (ii) medical conditions and complications, both historical and current; (iii) emotional, behavioral, or cognitive status and any identified issues; (iv) an individual's readiness to change; (v) risks for relapse or continued use; and (vi) home environment. The level of care determination, ISP, and recovery strategies development may be based upon this multidimensional assessment.

"Opioid" means any psychoactive chemical that resembles morphine in pharmacological effects, including opiates and synthetic or semisynthetic agents that exert their effects by binding to highly selective receptors in the brain where morphine and endogenous opioids affect their actions.

"Opioid treatment program" or "OTP" means the same as that term is defined in 42 CFR 8.2.

"Opioid treatment services" or "OTS" means preferred office-based opioid treatment (OBOT) and OTPs that encompass a variety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment modalities, including substance use disorder counseling and psychotherapy.

"Overdose" means the inadvertent or deliberate consumption of a dose of a chemical substance much larger than either habitually used by the individual or ordinarily used for treatment of an illness that is likely to result in a serious toxic reaction or death.

"Physician extenders" means licensed nurse practitioners as defined in § 54.1-3000 of the Code of Virginia and licensed physician assistants as defined in § 54.1-2900 of the Code of Virginia.

"Preferred office-based opioid treatment" or "preferred OBOT" means addiction treatment services for individuals with a primary opioid use disorder provided by buprenorphine-waivered practitioners working in collaboration with CATPs providing psychotherapy and substance use disorder counseling in public and private practice settings.

"Program of assertive community treatment" or "PACT" means the same as that term is defined in 12VAC35-105-20.

"Psychoeducation" means (i) a specific form of education aimed at helping individuals who have a substance use disorder or mental illness and their family members or caregivers to access clear and concise information about substance use disorders or mental illness and (ii) a way of accessing and learning strategies to deal with substance use disorders or mental illness and its effects in order to design effective treatment plans and strategies.

"Psychotherapy" or "therapy" means the use of psychological methods in a professional relationship to assist a person to acquire great human effectiveness or to modify feelings, conditions, attitudes, and behaviors that are emotionally, intellectually, or socially ineffectual or maladaptive.

"Recovery" means a process of sustained effort that addresses the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual disturbances inherent in addiction and consistently pursues abstinence, behavior control, dealing with cravings, recognizing problems in one's behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and more effective coping with emotional responses leading to reversal of negative, self-defeating internal processes and behaviors and allowing healing of relationships with self and others. The concepts of humility, acceptance, and surrender are useful in this process.

"Registered nurse" or "RN" means the same as "professional nurse" is defined in § 54.1-3000 of the Code of Virginia.

"Relapse" means a process in which an individual who has established abstinence or sobriety experiences recurrence of signs and symptoms of active addiction, often including resumption of the pathological pursuit of reward or relief through the use of substances and other behaviors often leading to disengagement from recovery activities. Relapse can be triggered by exposure to (i) rewarding substances and behaviors, (ii) environmental cues to use, and (iii) emotional stressors that trigger heightened activity in brain stress circuits. The event of using or acting out is the latter part of the process, which can be prevented by early intervention.

"RHC" means rural health clinic.

"SBIRT" means screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment. SBIRT services are an evidence-based and community-based practice designed to identify, reduce, and prevent problematic substance use disorders.

"Service authorization" means the process to approve specific services for an enrolled Medicaid, FAMIS Plus, or FAMIS individual by DMAS or its contractor, or an MCO prior to service delivery and reimbursement in order to validate that the service requested is medically necessary and meets DMAS and DMAS contractor criteria for reimbursement. Service authorization does not guarantee payment for the service.

"Substance use care coordinator" means staff in an OTP or preferred OBOT setting who have:

1. At least a bachelor's degree in one of the following fields: social work, psychology, psychiatric rehabilitation, sociology, counseling, vocational rehabilitation, or human services counseling, and at least either (i) one year of substance use disorder related direct experience or training or a combination of experience or training in providing services to individuals with a diagnosis of substance use disorder or (ii) a minimum of one year of clinical experience or training in working with individuals with co-occurring diagnoses of substance use disorder and mental illness; or

2. Licensure by the Commonwealth as a registered nurse with at least either (i) one year of direct experience or training or a combination of experience and training in providing services to individuals with a diagnosis of substance use disorder or (ii) a minimum of one year of clinical experience or training or a combination of experience and training in working with individuals with co-occurring diagnoses of substance use disorder and mental illness; or

3. Certification as a CSAC or a CSAC-A.

"Substance use case management" means the same as set out in 12VAC30-50-491.

"Substance use disorder" or "SUD" means a substance-related addictive disorder, as defined in the DSM-5 with the exception of tobacco-related disorders and non-substance-related disorders, marked by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues to use, is seeking treatment for the use of, or is in active recovery from the use of alcohol or other drugs despite significant related problems.

"Substance use disorder counseling" means the same as "substance abuse counseling" is defined in 18VAC115-30-10.

"Telemedicine" means the real-time, two-way transfer of medical data and information using an interactive audio-video connection for the purposes of medical diagnosis and treatment. The member is located at the originating site, while the provider renders services from a remote location via the audio-video connection. Equipment utilized for telemedicine shall be of sufficient audio quality and visual clarity as to be functionally equivalent to a face-to-face encounter for professional medical services.

"Tolerance" or "tolerate" means a state of adaptation in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in diminution of one or more of the drug's effects over time.

"Withdrawal management" means services to assist an individual's withdrawal from the use of substances.

Statutory Authority

§ 32.1-325 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 1396 et seq.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 33, Issue 12, eff. April 1, 2017; amended, Virginia Register Volume 36, Issue 11, eff. March 5, 2020.

Website addresses provided in the Virginia Administrative Code to documents incorporated by reference are for the reader's convenience only, may not necessarily be active or current, and should not be relied upon. To ensure the information incorporated by reference is accurate, the reader is encouraged to use the source document described in the regulation.

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