Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department Of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
1/19/2021

12VAC5-590-420. Treatment technique requirement.

This section establishes treatment technique requirements in lieu of maximum contaminant levels for specified contaminants. Failure to meet any requirement of this section after the applicable date specified is a treatment technique violation.

A. The filtration and disinfection provisions of this section are required treatment techniques for any waterworks supplied by a surface water source and waterworks supplied by a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water. This section establishes treatment technique requirements in lieu of PMCL's for the following contaminants: Giardia lamblia, viruses, heterotrophic bacteria (HPC), Legionella, Cryptosporidium and turbidity. Each waterworks with a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water shall provide treatment of that source water that complies with these treatment technique requirements. The treatment technique requirements consist of installing and properly operating water treatment processes which reliably achieve:

1. At least 99.9% (3-log) removal and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts between a point where the raw water is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer; and

2. At least 99.99% (4-log) removal and/or inactivation of viruses between a point where the raw water is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer; and

3. At least 99% (2-log) removal of Cryptosporidium between a point where the raw water is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff and a point downstream before or at the first customer.

B. A waterworks using a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water is considered to be in compliance with the requirements of subsection A of this section if it meets the following disinfection filtration and enhanced filtration and disinfection for Cryptosporidium requirements:

1. Disinfection. Waterworks with a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water shall provide disinfection treatment in accordance with this section.

a. The disinfection treatment shall be sufficient to ensure that the total treatment processes of that waterworks achieve at least 99.9% (3-log) inactivation and/or removal of Giardia lamblia cysts and at least 99.99% (4-log) inactivation and/or removal of viruses.

b. The residual disinfectant concentration in the water entering the distribution system cannot be less than 0.2 mg/L for more than four hours.

c. The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system, measured as total chlorine, combined chlorine, or chlorine dioxide cannot be undetectable in more than 5.0% of the samples each month, for any two consecutive months that the waterworks serves water to the public. Water in the distribution system with a heterotrophic bacteria concentration less than or equal to 500/mL, measured as heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is deemed to have a detectable disinfectant residual for purposes of determining compliance with this requirement. Thus, the value "V" in percent in the following formula cannot exceed 5.0% in one month, for any two consecutive months.

V = (c + d + e) / (a + b) X 100

a = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured;

b = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is not measured but HPC is measured;

c = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration is measured but not detected and no HPC is measured;

d = number of instances where no residual disinfectant concentration is detected and where the HPC is greater than 500/mL; and

e = number of instances where the residual disinfectant concentration s not measured and HPC is greater than 500/mL.

d. The commissioner may determine, based on site-specific considerations, that an owner has no means for having a sample transported and analyzed for HPC by a certified laboratory under the requisite time and temperature conditions and the waterworks is providing adequate disinfection in the distribution system, that the requirements of subdivision B 1 c of this section does not apply.

2. Filtration. (Also see 12VAC5-590-880.) All waterworks that use a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water shall provide filtration treatment by using one of the following methods:

a. Conventional filtration or direct filtration.

(1) Achieve a filtered water turbidity of less than or equal to 0.3 NTU in at least 95% of the measurements taken each month. Samples shall be representative of the waterworks' filtered water.

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a system's filtered water shall at no time exceed 1 NTU, measured as specified in 12VAC5-590-440.

(3) A system that uses lime softening may acidify representative samples prior to analysis using a protocol approved by the commissioner.

b. Slow sand filtration.

(1) The turbidity level of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water shall be less than or equal to one NTU in at least 95% of the measurements taken each month, except that if the commissioner determines there is no significant interference with disinfection at a higher turbidity level, the commissioner may substitute this higher turbidity limit for that waterworks.

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water shall at no time exceed five NTU.

c. Diatomaceous earth filtration.

(1) The turbidity level of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water shall be less than or equal to one NTU in at least 95% of the measurements taken each month.

(2) The turbidity level of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water shall at no time exceed five NTU.

d. Other filtration technologies. An owner may use a filtration technology not listed in subdivisions 2 a through c of this subsection if the owner demonstrates to the commissioner (by pilot plant studies or other means) that the alternative filtration technology, in combination with disinfection treatment, achieves 99.9% removal (3-log) and/or inactivation of Giardia lamblia cysts, 99.99% removal (4-log) and/or inactivation of viruses, and 99% removal (2-log) of Cryptosporidium oocysts. For an owner that makes this demonstration, a turbidity limit of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water, not to exceed 0.3 NTU, shall be established by the commissioner, which the waterworks must meet at least 95% of the time. In addition, the commissioner shall establish a maximum turbidity limit of representative samples of a waterworks' filtered water, not to exceed 1 NTU that the waterworks must not exceed at any time. These turbidity limits shall consistently achieve the removal rates and/or inactivation rates stated in this subdivision.

e. Each waterworks using a surface water source or groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water shall be operated by licensed operators of the appropriate classification as per the Virginia Board for Waterworks and Wastewater Works Operators Regulations (18VAC155-20).

f. If the commissioner has determined that a waterworks has a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water, filtration is required. The waterworks shall provide disinfection during the interim before filtration is installed as follows:

(1) The residual disinfectant concentration in the distribution system shall not be less than 2.0 mg/L for more than four hours.

(2) The owner shall issue continuing boil water notices through the public notification procedure in 12VAC5-590-540 until such time as the required filtration equipment is installed.

(3) As an alternative to subdivisions B f 2 (1) and (2) of this section, the owner may demonstrate that the source can meet the appropriate C-T values shown in Appendix L and be considered to satisfy the requirements for 99.9% removal of Giardia cysts and virus, respectively. In addition, the waterworks owner shall comply with the following:

(a) Justify that other alternative sources of supply meeting these regulations are not immediately available.

(b) Analysis of the source is performed quarterly for the contaminants listed in Tables 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. The primary maximum contaminant levels shall not be exceeded.

(c) Daily turbidity monitoring and maintenance of the turbidity level not to exceed five NTU.

(d) MPN analysis of the raw water based on the minimum sample frequency chart below:

Population Served

Coliform Samples/Week

≤500

1

501 - 3,300

2

3,301 - 10,000

3

10,001 - 25,000

4

>25,000

5

Note: Shall be taken on separate days.

(e) Bacteriological sampling of the distribution system at a frequency of twice that required by Table 2.1.

3. Enhanced filtration and disinfection for Cryptosporidium – All waterworks using a surface water source or a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water shall comply with the following requirements based on their population or if the waterworks is a wholesaler, based on the population of the largest waterworks in the combined distribution system:

a. Owners shall conduct an initial and a second round of source water monitoring for each plant that treats a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source. This monitoring may include sampling for Cryptosporidium, E. coli, and turbidity to determine what level, if any, of additional Cryptosporidium treatment is required.

(1) Initial round of source water monitoring. Owners shall conduct the following monitoring on the schedule in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section unless they meet the monitoring avoidance criteria in subdivision B 3 a (4) of this section.

(a) Owners of waterworks serving at least 10,000 people shall sample their source water for Cryptosporidium, E. coli, and turbidity at least monthly for 24 months.

(b) Owners of waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people:

(i) shall sample their source water for E. coli at least once every two weeks for 12 months, or

(ii) may avoid E. coli monitoring if the waterworks notifies the commissioner that it will monitor for Cryptosporidium as described in paragraph (c) of this section. The owner shall notify the commissioner no later than three months prior to the date the waterworks is otherwise required to start E. coli monitoring.

(c) Owners of waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people shall sample their source water for Cryptosporidium at least twice per month for 12 months or at least monthly for 24 months if they meet one of the following, based on monitoring conducted under subdivision B 3 a (1) (b) of this section:

(i) For waterworks using lake/reservoir sources, the annual mean E. coli concentration is greater than 10 E. coli/100 mL.

(ii) For waterworks using flowing stream sources, the annual mean E. coli concentration is greater than 50 E. coli/100 mL.

(iii) The waterworks does not conduct E. coli monitoring as described in paragraph (1) (b) of this section.

(iv) Waterworks using ground water under the direct influence of surface water shall comply with the requirements of subdivision B 3 a (1) (c) of this section based on the E. coli level that applies to the nearest surface water body. If no surface water body is nearby, the waterworks shall comply based on the requirements that apply to waterworks using lake/reservoir sources.

(d) For waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people, the commissioner may approve monitoring for an indicator other than E. coli under subdivision B 3 a (1) (b) (i) of this section. The commissioner also may approve an alternative to the E. coli concentration in subdivision B 3 a (1) (c) (i), (ii) or (iv) of this section to trigger Cryptosporidium monitoring. This approval by the commissioner shall be provided to the waterworks in writing and shall include the basis for the commissioner's determination that the alternative indicator and/or trigger level will provide a more accurate identification of whether a waterworks will exceed the Bin 1 Cryptosporidium level in subdivision B 3 c (1) (a) of this section.

(e) Waterworks may sample more frequently than required under this section if the sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period.

(2) Second round of source water monitoring: Owners shall conduct a second round of source water monitoring that meets the requirements for monitoring parameters, frequency, and duration described in subdivision B 3 a (1) of this section, unless they meet the monitoring exemption criteria in subdivision B 3 a (4) of this section. Owners shall conduct this monitoring on the schedule in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section.

(3) Monitoring schedule. Owners shall begin the monitoring required in subdivisions B 3 a (1) and (2) of this section no later than the month beginning with the date listed in the following table:

Source Water Monitoring Starting Dates Table

Owners of waterworks that serve...

Shall begin the first round of source water monitoring no later than the month beginning...

And shall begin the second round of source water monitoring no later than the month beginning...

At least 100,000 people

October 1, 2006

April 1, 2015

From 50,000 to 99,999 people

April 1, 2007

October 1, 2015

From 10,000 to 49,999 people

April 1, 2008

October 1, 2016

Fewer than 10,000 and monitor for E. coli

October 1, 2008

October 1, 2017

Fewer than 10,000 and monitor for Cryptosporidium1

April 1, 2010

April 1, 2019

1Applies to waterworks that meet the conditions of subdivision B 3 a (1) (c) of this section.

(4) Monitoring avoidance.

(a) Owners are not required to conduct source water monitoring under subdivision C 3 a of this section if the waterworks will provide a total of at least 5.5-log of treatment for Cryptosporidium, equivalent to meeting the treatment requirements of Bin 4 in subdivision B 3 c (2) of this section.

(b) If an owner chooses to provide the level of treatment in subdivision B 3 a (4) (a) of this section, rather than start source water monitoring, the owners shall notify the commissioner in writing no later than the date the owner is otherwise required to submit a sampling schedule for monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (5) of this section. Alternatively, an owner may choose to stop sampling at any point after the owner has initiated monitoring if the owner notifies the commissioner in writing that it will provide this level of treatment. Owners shall install and operate technologies to provide this level of treatment by the applicable treatment compliance date in subdivision B 3 c (3).

(5) Sampling schedules.

(a) Owners of waterworks required to conduct source water monitoring in accordance with subdivision B 3 a shall submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the owner shall collect each required sample.

(i) Owners shall submit sampling schedules to the commissioner no later than three months prior to the applicable date listed in subdivision B 3 a (3) for each round of required monitoring.

(ii) If the commissioner does not respond to an owner regarding the sampling schedule, the owner shall sample at the reported schedule.

(b) Owners shall collect samples within two days before or two days after the dates indicated in their sampling schedule (i.e., within a five-day period around the schedule date) unless one of the conditions of the following paragraphs apply.

(i) If an extreme condition or situation exists that may pose danger to the sample collector, or that cannot be avoided and causes the owner to be unable to sample in the scheduled five-day period, the owner shall sample as close to the scheduled date as is feasible unless the commissioner approves an alternative sampling date. The owner shall submit an explanation for the delayed sampling date to the commissioner concurrent with the shipment of the sample to the laboratory.

(ii) If an owner is unable to report a valid analytical result for a scheduled sampling date due to equipment failure, loss of or damage to the sample, failure to comply with the analytical method requirements, including the quality control requirements of 12VAC5-590-440, or the failure of an approved laboratory to analyze the sample, then the owner shall collect a replacement sample. The owner shall collect the replacement sample not later than 21 days after receiving information that an analytical result cannot be reported for the scheduled date unless the owner demonstrates that collecting a replacement sample within this time frame is not feasible or the commissioner approves an alternative resampling date. The owner shall submit an explanation for the delayed sampling date to the commissioner concurrent with the shipment of the sample to the laboratory.

(c) Owners of waterworks that fail to meet the criteria of subdivision B 3 a (5) (b) of this section for any source water sample required under subdivision B 3 a shall revise their sampling schedules to add dates for collecting all missed samples. Owners shall submit the revised schedule to the commissioner for approval prior to when the owner begins collecting the missed samples.

(6) Sampling locations.

(a) Owners of waterworks required to conduct source water monitoring under subdivision B 3 a shall collect samples for each plant that treats a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source. Where multiple plants draw water from the same influent, such as the same pipe or intake, the commissioner may approve one set of monitoring results to be used to satisfy the requirements subdivision B 3 a for all plants.

(b) Owners shall collect source water samples prior to chemical treatment, such as coagulants, oxidants and disinfectants. However, the commissioner may approve the collection of a source water sample after chemical treatment. To grant this approval, the commissioner shall determine that collecting a sample prior to chemical treatment is not feasible for the waterworks and that the chemical treatment is unlikely to have a significant adverse effect on the analysis of the sample.

(c) Owners of waterworks that recycle filter backwash water shall collect source water samples prior to the point of filter backwash water addition.

(d) Bank filtration.

(i) Waterworks that receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration under 12VAC5-590-420 B 2 d, shall collect source water samples in the surface water prior to bank filtration.

(ii) Waterworks that use bank filtration as pretreatment to a filtration plant shall collect source water samples from the well (i.e., after bank filtration). Use of bank filtration during monitoring shall be consistent with routine operational practice. Waterworks collecting samples after a bank filtration process may not receive treatment credit for the bank filtration under subdivision B 3 d (4) (c) of this section.

(e) Multiple sources. Owners of waterworks with plants that use multiple water sources, including multiple surface water sources and blended surface water and ground water sources shall collect samples as specified in subdivision B 3 a (6) (e) (i) or (ii) of this section. The use of multiple sources during monitoring shall be consistent with routine operational practice.

(i) If a sampling tap is available where the sources are combined prior to treatment, waterworks shall collect samples from the tap.

(ii) If a sampling tap where the sources are combined prior to treatment is not available, owners shall collect samples at each source near the intake on the same day and shall follow either subdivision B 3 a (6) (e) (ii) ((a)) or ((b)) of this section for sample analysis.

((a)) Owners may composite samples from each source into one sample prior to analysis. The volume of sample from each source shall be weighted according to the proportion of the source in the total plant flow at the time the sample is collected.

((b)) Owners may analyze samples from each source separately and calculate a weighted average of the analysis results for each sampling date. The weighted average shall be calculated by multiplying the analysis result for each source by the fraction the source contributed to total plant flow at the time the sample was collected and then summing these values.

(f) Additional Requirements. Owners shall submit a description of their sampling location(s) to the commissioner at the same time as the sampling schedule required in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section. This description shall address the position of the sampling location in relation to the waterworks water source(s) and treatment processes, including pretreatment, points of chemical treatment, and filter backwash recycle. If the commissioner does not respond to an owner regarding sampling location(s), the owner shall sample at the reported location(s).

(7) Analytical methods. All analytical methods shall be conducted in accordance with 12VAC5-590-440.

(8) Approved laboratories.

(a) Cryptosporidium. Owners shall have Cryptosporidium samples analyzed by a laboratory that is approved under EPA's Laboratory Quality Assurance Evaluation Program for Analysis of Cryptosporidium in Water or a laboratory that has been certified for Cryptosporidium analysis by an equivalent state laboratory certification program.

(b) E. coli. Any laboratory certified by the state for total coliform or fecal coliform analysis under 12VAC5-590-440 is approved for E. coli analysis when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses under 12VAC5-590-440. Laboratories shall use methods for enumeration of E. coli in source water approved in 12VAC5-590-440.

(c) Turbidity. Measurements of turbidity shall be made by a party approved by the commissioner.

(9) Reporting of the source water results shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-530.

(10) Plants operating only part of the year. Owners of waterworks treating surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water that operates for only part of the year shall conduct source water monitoring in accordance with this section, but with the following modifications:

(a) Owners shall sample their source water only during the months that the plant operates unless the commissioner specifies another monitoring period based on plant operating practices.

(b) Owners of waterworks with plants that operate less than six months per year and that monitor for Cryptosporidium shall collect at least six Cryptosporidium samples per year during each of two years of monitoring. Samples shall be evenly spaced throughout the period the plant operates.

(11) New sources;

(a) Owners of waterworks that begin using a new source of surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water after the waterworks is required to begin monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section shall monitor the new source on a schedule the commissioner approves. Source water monitoring shall meet the requirements of this section. The owner shall also meet the bin classification and Cryptosporidium treatment requirements of subdivision B 3 c (1) and (2) of this section, for the new source on a schedule the commissioner approves.

(b) The requirements of this section apply to waterworks using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water that begin operation after the monitoring start date applicable to the waterworks size under subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section.

(c) The owner shall begin a second round of source water monitoring no later than six years following initial bin classification under in subdivision B 3 c (1) of this section.

(12) Failure to collect any source water sample required under this section in accordance with the sampling schedule, sampling location, analytical method, approved laboratory, and reporting requirements of subdivision B 3 a (5), (6), (7), (8), or (9) of this section is a monitoring violation.

(13) Grandfathering monitoring data. Owners may use (grandfather) monitoring data collected prior to the applicable monitoring start date in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section to meet the initial source water monitoring requirements in subdivision B 3 a (1) of this section. Grandfathered data may substitute for an equivalent number of months at the end of the monitoring period. All data submitted under this paragraph shall meet the requirements in (13) (a) through (h) listed below and be approved by the commissioner:

(a) An owner may grandfather Cryptosporidium samples to meet the requirements of this section when the owner does not have corresponding E. coli and turbidity samples. A waterworks that grandfathers Cryptosporidium samples without E. coli and turbidity samples is not required to collect E. coli and turbidity samples when the system completes the requirements for Cryptosporidium monitoring under this section.

(b) E. coli sample analysis. The analysis of E. coli samples shall meet the analytical method and approved laboratory requirements of subdivision B 3 a (7) and (8) of this section.

(c) Cryptosporidium sample analysis. The analysis of Cryptosporidium samples shall meet the requirements of subdivision B 3 a (8) of this section.

(d) Sampling location. The sampling location shall meet the conditions in subdivision B 3 a (6) of this section.

(e) Sampling frequency. Cryptosporidium samples were collected no less frequently than each calendar month on a regular schedule, beginning no earlier than January 1999. Sample collection intervals may vary for the conditions specified in subdivision B 3 a (5) (b) (i) and (ii) of this section, if the owner provides documentation of the condition when reporting monitoring results.

(i) The commissioner may approve grandfathering of previously collected data where there are time gaps in the sampling frequency if the owner conducts additional monitoring the commissioner specifies to ensure that the data used to comply with the initial source water monitoring requirements of subdivision B 3 a of this section are seasonally representative and unbiased.

(ii) Owners may grandfather previously collected data where the sampling frequency within each month varied. If the Cryptosporidium sampling frequency varied, owners shall follow the monthly averaging procedure in subdivision B 3 c (1) (a) (v) of this section, when calculating the bin classification for filtered systems.

(f) Reporting monitoring results for grandfathering. Owners that request to grandfather previously collected monitoring results shall report the following information by the applicable dates listed in the following paragraphs. Owners shall report this information to the commissioner.

(i) Owners shall report that they intend to submit previously collected monitoring results for grandfathering. This report shall specify the number of previously collected results the owner shall submit, the dates of the first and last sample, and whether an owner shall conduct additional source water monitoring to meet the requirements in subdivision B 3 a of this section. Owners shall report this information no later than the date the sampling schedule listed in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section is required.

(ii) Owners shall report previously collected monitoring results for grandfathering, along with the associated documentation listed in paragraphs ((a)) through ((d)) listed below, no later than two months after the applicable date listed in subdivision B 3 a (3) of this section.

((a)) For each sample result, owners shall report the applicable data elements in 12VAC5-590-530 E 1 c.

((b)) Owners shall certify that the reported monitoring results include all results the waterworks generated during the time period beginning with the first reported result and ending with the final reported result. This applies to samples that were collected from the sampling location specified for source water monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (13) (f) of this section, not spiked, and analyzed using the laboratory's routine process for the analytical methods listed in this section.

((c)) Owners shall certify that the samples were representative of a plant's source water(s) and the source water(s) have not changed. Owners shall report a description of the sampling location(s), which shall address the position of the sampling location in relation to the waterworks' water source(s) and treatment processes, including points of chemical addition and filter backwash recycle.

((d)) For Cryptosporidium samples, the laboratory or laboratories that analyzed the samples shall provide a letter certifying that the quality control criteria specified in the methods listed in subdivision B 3 a (8) of this section were met for each sample batch associated with the reported results. Alternatively, the laboratory may provide bench sheets and sample examination report forms for each field, matrix spike, IPR, OPR, and method blank sample associated with the reported results.

(g) If the commissioner determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandfathering was generated during source water conditions that were not normal for the waterworks, such as a drought, the commissioner may disapprove the data. Alternatively, the commissioner may approve the previously collected data if the owner reports additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the commissioner, to ensure that the data set used under subdivision B 3 c (1) of this section represents average source water conditions for the waterworks.

(h) If an owner submits previously collected data that fully meets the number of samples required for initial source water monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (1) of this section and some of the data are rejected due to not meeting the requirements of this section, the owner shall conduct additional monitoring to replace rejected data on a schedule the commissioner approves. Owners are not required to begin this additional monitoring until two months after notification that data have been rejected and additional monitoring is necessary.

b. Owners of waterworks that plan to make a significant change to their disinfection practice shall develop disinfection profiles and calculate disinfection benchmarks, as described in subdivision B 3 a (1) and (2) below.

(1) Requirements when making a significant change in disinfection practice.

(a) Following the completion of initial source water monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (1) of this section, owners of waterworks that plan to make a significant change to its disinfection practice, as defined in subdivision B 3 b (1) (b) of this section, shall develop disinfection profiles and calculate disinfection benchmarks for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in subdivision B 3 b (2) of this section. Prior to changing the disinfection practice, the owner shall notify the commissioner and shall include in this notice the information in subdivision B 3 b (1) a) (i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) A completed disinfection profile and disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses as described in subdivision B 3 b (2) of this section.

(ii) A description of the proposed change in disinfection practice.

(iii) An analysis of how the proposed change will affect the current level of disinfection.

(b) Significant changes to disinfection practice are defined as follows:

(i) Changes to the point of disinfection;

(ii) Changes to the disinfectant(s) used in the treatment plant;

(iii) Changes to the disinfection process; or

(iv) Any other modification identified by the commissioner as a significant change to disinfection practice.

(2) Developing the disinfection profile and benchmark.

(a) Owners of waterworks required to develop disinfection profiles in accordance with subdivision B 3 b (1) of this section shall follow the requirements of this section. Owners shall monitor at least weekly for a period of 12 consecutive months to determine the total log inactivation for Giardia lamblia and viruses. If owners monitor more frequently, the monitoring frequency shall be evenly spaced. Owners of waterworks that operate for fewer than 12 months per year shall monitor weekly during the period of operation. Owners shall determine log inactivation for Giardia lamblia through the entire plant, based on CT99.9 values in Appendix L. Owners shall determine log inactivation for viruses through the entire treatment plant based on a protocol approved by the commissioner.

(b) Owners of waterworks with a single point of disinfectant application prior to the entrance to the distribution system shall conduct the monitoring in subdivision B 3 b (2) (b) (i) through (iv) of this section. Owners of waterworks with more than one point of disinfectant application shall conduct the monitoring in subdivision B 3 b (2) (b) (i) through (iv) of this section for each disinfection segment. Owners shall monitor the parameters necessary to determine the total inactivation ratio, using analytical methods in Appendix L.

(i) For waterworks using a disinfectant other than UV, the temperature of the disinfected water shall be measured at each residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly flow or at an alternative location approved by the commissioner.

(ii) For waterworks using chlorine, the pH of the disinfected water shall be measured at each chlorine residual disinfectant concentration sampling point during peak hourly flow or at an alternative location approved by the commissioner.

(iii) The disinfectant contact time(s) (t) shall be determined during peak hourly flow.

(iv) The residual disinfectant concentration(s) (C) of the water before or at the first customer and prior to each additional point of disinfectant application shall be measured during peak hourly flow.

(c) In lieu of conducting new monitoring under subdivision B 3 b (2) (b) of this section, owners may elect to meet the requirements of subdivision B 3 b (2) (c) (i) or (ii) of this section.

(i) Owners of waterworks that have at least one year of existing data that are substantially equivalent to data collected under the provisions of subdivision B 3 b (2) (b) of this section may use these data to develop disinfection profiles as specified in this section if the owner has neither made a significant change to its treatment practice nor changed sources since the data were collected. Owners may develop disinfection profiles using up to three years of existing data.

(ii) Owners may use disinfection profile(s) developed under 12VAC5-590-500 E 2 in lieu of developing a new profile if the owner has neither made a significant change to its treatment practice nor changed sources since the profile was developed. Owners that have not developed a virus profile under 12VAC5-590-500 E 2 shall develop a virus profile using the same monitoring data on which the Giardia lamblia profile is based.

(d) Owners of waterworks shall calculate the total inactivation ratio for Giardia lamblia as specified in subdivision B 3 b (2) (d) (i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Owners of waterworks using only one point of disinfectant application may determine the total inactivation ratio for the disinfection segment based on either of the methods in subdivision B 3 b (2) (d) (i) ((a)) or ((b)) of this section.

((a)) Determine one inactivation ratio (CTcalc/CT99.9) before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow.

((b)) Determine successive CTcalc/CT99.9 values, representing sequential inactivation ratios, between the point of disinfectant application and a point before or at the first customer during peak hourly flow. The owner shall calculate the total inactivation ratio by determining (CTcalc/CT99.9) for each sequence and then adding the (CTcalc/CT99.9) values together to determine (Σ (CTcalc/CT99.9)).

(ii) Owners of waterworks using more than one point of disinfectant application before the first customer shall determine the CT value of each disinfection segment immediately prior to the next point of disinfectant application, or for the final segment, before or at the first customer, during peak hourly flow. The (CTcalc/CT99.9) value of each segment and (Σ (CTcalc/CT99.9)) shall be calculated using the method in paragraph (i) ((b)) of this section.

(iii) The owner shall determine the total logs of inactivation by multiplying the value calculated in subdivision B 3 b (2) (d) (i) or (ii) of this section by 3.0.

(iv) Owners shall calculate the log of inactivation for viruses using a protocol approved by the commissioner.

(e) Owners shall use the procedures specified in (i) and (ii) listed below to calculate a disinfection benchmark.

(i) For each year of profiling data collected and calculated under subdivision B 3 b (2) (a) through (d) of this section, owners shall determine the lowest mean monthly level of both Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation. Owners shall determine the mean Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation for each calendar month for each year of profiling data by dividing the sum of daily or weekly Giardia lamblia and virus log inactivation by the number of values calculated for that month.

(ii) The disinfection benchmark is the lowest monthly mean value (for waterworks with one year of profiling data) or the mean of the lowest monthly mean values (for waterworks with more than one year of profiling data) of Giardia lamblia and virus log inactivation in each year of profiling data.

c. Owners shall determine their Cryptosporidium treatment bin classification as described in subdivision B 3 c (1) and provide additional treatment for Cryptosporidium, if required, as described in subdivision B 3 c (2). Owners shall implement Cryptosporidium treatment according to the schedule in subdivision B 3 c (3).

(1) Bin classification for waterworks.

(a) Following completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under subdivision B 3 a (1), owners shall calculate an initial Cryptosporidium bin concentration for each plant for which monitoring was required. Calculation of the bin concentration shall use the Cryptosporidium results reported under subdivision B 3 a (1) and shall follow these procedures:

(i) For waterworks that collect a total of at least 48 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations.

(ii) For waterworks that collect a total of at least 24 samples, but not more than 47 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the highest arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations in any 12 consecutive months during which Cryptosporidium samples were collected.

(iii) For waterworks that serve fewer than 10,000 people and monitor for Cryptosporidium for only one year (i.e., collect 24 samples in 12 months), the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations.

(iv) For waterworks with plants operating only part of the year that monitor fewer than 12 months per year under subdivision B 3 a (1), the bin concentration is equal to the highest arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations during any year of Cryptosporidium monitoring.

(v) If the monthly Cryptosporidium sampling frequency varies, owners shall first calculate a monthly average for each month of monitoring. Owners shall then use these monthly average concentrations, rather than individual sample concentrations, in the applicable calculation for bin classification in subdivision B 3 c (1) (a) (i) through (iv) of this section.

(b) Owners shall determine their initial bin classification from the following table and using the Cryptosporidium bin concentration calculated under subdivision B 3 c (1) (a) of this section:

Bin Classification Table for Filtered Systems

For owners of waterworks that are:

with a Cryptosporidium bin concentration of1...

The bin classification is...

...required to monitor for Cryptosporidium under subdivision B 3 a (1)

Cryptosporidium less than 0.075 oocysts/L

Bin 1

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 0.075 oocysts/L but less than 1.0 oocysts/L

Bin 2

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 1.0 oocysts/L but less than 3.0 oocysts/L

Bin 3

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 3.0 oocysts/L

Bin 4

...serving fewer than 10,000 people and NOT required to monitor for Cryptosporidium under B 3 a (1)(c)

NA

Bin 1

1Based on calculations in subdivision B 3 c (1) (a) or (c) of this section, as applicable

(c) Following completion of the second round of source water monitoring required under subdivision B 3 a (2), owners shall recalculate their Cryptosporidium bin concentration using the Cryptosporidium results reported under subdivision B 3 a (2) and following the procedures in subdivision B 3 c (1) (a)(i) through (iv) of this section. Owners shall then redetermine their bin classification using this bin concentration and the table in subdivision B 3 c (1) (b) of this section.

(d) Reporting of bin classifications

(i) Owners shall report their initial bin classification under subdivision B 3 c (1) (b) of this section to the commissioner for approval no later than six months after the waterworks is required to complete initial source water monitoring based on the schedule in subdivision B 3 a (3).

(ii) Owners shall report their bin classification under subdivision B 3 c (1) (c) of this section to the commissioner for approval no later than six months after the owner is required to complete the second round of source water monitoring based on the schedule in subdivision B 3 c (1) 3 a (3) of this section.

(iii) The bin classification report to the commissioner shall include a summary of source water monitoring data and the calculation procedure used to determine bin classification.

(e) Failure to comply with the conditions of subdivision B 3 c (1) (d) of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement.

(2) Waterworks additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

(a) Waterworks shall provide the level of additional treatment for Cryptosporidium specified in this paragraph based on their bin classification as determined under subdivision B 3 c (1) of this section and according to the schedule in subdivision B 3 c (3) (b) of this section.

If the waterworks bin classification is...

And the waterworks uses the following filtration treatment in full compliance with 12VAC5-590-420 A and B, then the additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements are...

Conventional filtration treatment (including softening)

Direct filtration

Slow sand or diatomaceous earth filtration

Alternative filtration technologies

Bin 1

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

Bin 2

1-log treatment

1.5-log treatment

1-log treatment

(1)

Bin 3

2-log treatment

2.5-log treatment

2-log treatment

(2)

Bin 4

2.5-log treatment

3-log treatment

2.5-log treatment

(3)

1As determined by the commissioner such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log

2As determined by the commissioner such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 5.0-log

3As determined by the commissioner such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 5.5-log

(b) Additional treatment

(i) Owners shall use one or more of the treatment and management options listed in subdivision B 3 d, termed the microbial toolbox, to comply with the additional Cryptosporidium treatment required in subdivision B 3 c (2) (a) of this section.

(ii) Waterworks classified in Bin 3 and Bin 4 shall achieve at least 1-log of the additional Cryptosporidium treatment required under subdivision B 3 c (2) (a) of this section using either one or a combination of the following: bag filters, bank filtration, cartridge filters, chlorine dioxide, membranes, ozone, or UV, as described in subdivision B 3 d (3) through (7) of this section.

(c) Failure by a waterworks in any month to achieve treatment credit by meeting criteria in subdivision B 3 d (3) through (7) of this section for microbial toolbox options that is at least equal to the level of treatment required in subdivision B 3 c (2) (a) of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement.

(d) If the commissioner determines during a sanitary survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after a waterworks completed the monitoring conducted under subdivision B 3 a (1) or (2) of this section, significant changes occurred in the waterworks' watershed that could lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, the owner shall take actions specified by the commissioner to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source water monitoring and/or implementing microbial toolbox options listed in subdivision B 3 d (2) of this section.

(3) Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

(a) Following initial bin classification in accordance with subdivision B 3 c (1) (b) of this section, waterworks shall provide the level of treatment for Cryptosporidium required under subdivision B 3 c (2) of this section according to the schedule in subdivision B 3 c (3) (b) of this section.

(b) Cryptosporidium treatment compliance dates.

Cryptosporidium Treatment Compliance Dates Table

Waterworks that serve....

Shall comply with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements no later than1...

At least 100,000 people

April 1, 2012

From 50,000 to 99,999 people

October 1, 2012

From 10,000 to 49,999 people

October 1, 2013

Fewer than 10,000 people

October 1, 2014

1The commissioner may allow up to an additional two years for complying with the treatment requirement for waterworks making capital improvements.

(c) If the bin classification for a filtered system changes following the second round of source water monitoring, as determined under subdivision B 3 c (1) (c) of this section, the waterworks shall provide the level of treatment for Cryptosporidium required under subdivision B 3 c (2) of this section on a schedule the commissioner approves.

d. Owners of waterworks required to provide additional treatment for Cryptosporidium shall implement microbial toolbox options that are designed and operated as described in subdivision B 3 d (1) through (7) of this section.

(1) Waterworks receive the treatment credits listed in the table in subdivision B 3 d (2) of this section by meeting the conditions for microbial toolbox options described in subdivision B 3 d (3) through (7) of this section. Waterworks apply these treatment credits to meet the treatment requirements in subdivision B 3 c (2) of this section.

(2) Microbial Toolbox Summary Table: Options, Treatment Credits and Criteria

Microbial Toolbox Summary Table: Options, Treatment Credits and Criteria

Toolbox Option

Cryptosporidium treatment credit with design and implementation criteria

Source Protection and Management Toolbox Options

Alternative source/ intake management

No prescribed credit. Owners may conduct simultaneous monitoring for treatment bin classification at alternative intake locations or under alternative intake management strategies. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (3) (b).

Pre Filtration Toolbox Options

Presedimentation basin with coagulation

0.5-log credit during any month that presedimentation basins achieve a monthly mean reduction of 0.5-log or greater in turbidity or alternative performance criteria approved by the commissioner. To be eligible, basins shall be operated continuously with coagulant addition and all plant flow shall pass through basins. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (4) (a)

Two-stage lime softening

0.5-log credit for two-stage softening where chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in both stages. All plant flow shall pass through both stages. Single-stage softening is credited as equivalent to conventional treatment. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (4) (b).

Bank filtration

0.5-log credit for 25-foot setback; 1.0-log credit for 50-foot setback; aquifer shall be unconsolidated sand containing at least 10% fines; average turbidity in wells shall be less than 1 NTU. Waterworks using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water monitoring shall sample the well to determine bin classification and are not eligible for additional credit. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (4) (c).

Treatment Performance Toolbox Options

Combined filter performance

0.5-log credit for combined filter effluent turbidity less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of measurements each month. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (5) (a).

Individual filter performance

0.5-log credit (in addition to 0.5-log combined filter performance credit) if individual filter effluent turbidity is less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of samples each month in each filter and is never greater than 0.3 NTU in two consecutive measurements in any filter. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (5) (b).

Additional Filtration Toolbox Options

Bag or cartridge filters (individual filters)

Up to 2-log credit based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing with a 1.0-log factor of safety. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (6) (a).

Bag or cartridge filters (in series)

Up to 2.5-log credit based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing with a 0.5-log factor of safety. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (6) (a).

Membrane filtration

Log credit equivalent to removal efficiency demonstrated in challenge test for device if supported by direct integrity testing. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (6) (b).

Second stage filtration

0.5-log credit for second separate granular media filtration stage if treatment train includes coagulation prior to first filter. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (6) (c).

Slow sand filters

2.5-log credit as a secondary filtration step; 3.0-log credit as a primary filtration process. No prior chlorination for either option. Specific criteria are in subdivision B 3 d (6) (d).

Inactivation Toolbox Options

Chlorine dioxide

Log credit based on measured CT in relation to CT table. Specific criteria in subdivision B 3 d (7) (b).

Ozone

Log credit based on measured CT in relation to CT table. Specific criteria in subdivision B 3 d (7) (b).

UV

Log credit based on validated UV dose in relation to UV dose table; reactor validation testing required to establish UV dose and associated operating conditions. Specific criteria in subdivision B 3 d (7) (d).

(3) Source toolbox components.

(a) Reserved.

(b) Alternative source.

(i) An owner may conduct source water monitoring that reflects a different intake location (either in the same source or for an alternate source) or a different procedure for the timing or level of withdrawal from the source (alternative source monitoring). If the commissioner approves, an owner may determine the bin classification under subdivision B 3 c (1) of this section based on the alternative source monitoring results.

(ii) If an owner conducts alternative source monitoring under subdivision B 3 d (3) (b) (i) of this section, the owner shall also monitor their current plant intake concurrently as described in subdivision B 3 a of this section.

(iii) Alternative source monitoring under subdivision B 3 d (3) (b) (i) of this section shall meet the requirements for source monitoring to determine bin classification, as described in subdivision B 3 a (1) through (13) of this section. Owners shall report the alternative source monitoring results to the commissioner, along with supporting information documenting the operating conditions under which the samples were collected.

(iv) If an owner determines the bin classification under subdivision B 3 c (1) of this section using alternative source monitoring results that reflect a different intake location or a different procedure for managing the timing or level of withdrawal from the source, the owner shall relocate the intake or permanently adopt the withdrawal procedure, as applicable, no later than the applicable treatment compliance date in subdivision B 3 c (3) of this section.

(4) Pre-filtration treatment toolbox components.

(a) Presedimentation. Waterworks receive 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a presedimentation basin during any month the process meets the following criteria:

(i) The presedimentation basin shall be in continuous operation and shall treat the entire plant flow taken from a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source.

(ii) The waterworks shall continuously add a coagulant to the presedimentation basin.

(iii) The presedimentation basin shall achieve the performance criteria in either of the following.

((a)) Demonstrates at least 0.5-log mean reduction of influent turbidity. This reduction shall be determined using daily turbidity measurements in the presedimentation process influent and effluent and shall be calculated as follows: log10(monthly mean of daily influent turbidity) - log10(monthly mean of daily effluent turbidity).

((b)) Complies with performance criteria approved by the commissioner that demonstrate at least 0.5-log mean removal of micron-sized particulate material through the presedimentation process.

(b) Two-stage lime softening. Waterworks receive an additional 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a two-stage lime softening plant if chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in two separate and sequential softening stages prior to filtration. Both softening stages shall treat the entire plant flow taken from a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source.

(c) Bank filtration. Waterworks receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration that serves as pretreatment to a filtration plant by meeting the criteria in this paragraph. Waterworks using bank filtration when they begin source water monitoring under subdivision B 3 a (1) of this section shall collect samples as described in subdivision B 3 a (6) (d) of this section and are not eligible for this credit.

(i) Wells with a ground water flow path of at least 25 feet receive 0.5-log treatment credit; wells with a ground water flow path of at least 50 feet receive 1.0-log treatment credit. The ground water flow path shall be determined as specified in subdivision B 3 d (c) (iv) of this section.

(ii) Only wells in granular aquifers are eligible for treatment credit. Granular aquifers are those comprised of sand, clay, silt, rock fragments, pebbles or larger particles, and minor cement. A waterworks shall characterize the aquifer at the well site to determine aquifer properties. Owners shall extract a core from the aquifer and demonstrate that in at least 90% of the core length, grains less than 1.0 mm in diameter constitute at least 10% of the core material.

(iii) Only horizontal and vertical wells are eligible for treatment credit.

(iv) For vertical wells, the ground water flow path is the measured distance from the edge of the surface water body under high flow conditions (determined by the 100-year floodplain elevation boundary or by the floodway, as defined in Federal Emergency Management Agency flood hazard maps) to the well screen. For horizontal wells, the ground water flow path is the measured distance from the bed of the river under normal flow conditions to the closest horizontal well lateral screen.

(v) Owners shall monitor each wellhead for turbidity at least once every four hours while the bank filtration process is in operation. If monthly average turbidity levels, based on daily maximum values in the well, exceed 1 NTU, the owner shall report this result to the commissioner and conduct an assessment within 30 days to determine the cause of the high turbidity levels in the well. If the commissioner determines that microbial removal has been compromised, the commissioner may revoke treatment credit until the owner implements corrective actions approved by the commissioner to remediate the problem.

(vi) Springs and infiltration galleries are not eligible for treatment credit under this section.

(vii) Bank filtration demonstration of performance. The commissioner may approve Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration based on a demonstration of performance study that meets the criteria in this paragraph. This treatment credit may be greater than 1.0-log and may be awarded to bank filtration that does not meet the criteria in subdivision B 3 d (4) (c) (i) through (v) of this section.

((a)) The study shall follow a protocol approved by the commissioner and shall involve the collection of data on the removal of Cryptosporidium or a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and related hydrogeologic and water quality parameters during the full range of operating conditions.

((b)) The study shall include sampling both from the production well(s) and from monitoring wells that are screened and located along the shortest flow path between the surface water source and the production well(s).

(5) Treatment performance toolbox components.

(a) Combined filter performance. Waterworks using conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration treatment receive an additional 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit during any month the waterworks meets the criteria in this paragraph. Combined filter effluent (CFE) turbidity shall be less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of the measurements. Turbidity shall be measured as described in 12VAC5-590-370 B 7 b and 12VAC5-590-370 E.

(b) Individual filter performance. Waterworks using conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration treatment receive 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit, which can be in addition to the 0.5-log credit under subdivision B 3 d (5) (a) of this section, during any month the waterworks meets the criteria in this paragraph. Compliance with these criteria shall be based on individual filter turbidity monitoring as described in 12VAC5-590-370 B 7 b (1).

(i) The filtered water turbidity for each individual filter shall be less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of the measurements recorded each month.

(ii) No individual filter may have a measured turbidity greater than 0.3 NTU in two consecutive measurements taken 15 minutes apart.

(iii) Any waterworks that has received treatment credit for individual filter performance and fails to meet the requirements of subdivision B 3 d (5) (b) (i) or (ii) of this section during any month does not receive a treatment technique violation under subdivision B 3 c (2) (c) if the commissioner determines the following:

((a)) The failure was due to unusual and short-term circumstances that could not reasonably be prevented through optimizing treatment plant design, operation, and maintenance.

((b)) The waterworks has experienced no more than two such failures in any calendar year.

(6) Additional filtration toolbox components.

(a) Bag and cartridge filters. Waterworks receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit of up to 2.0-log for individual bag or cartridge filters and up to 2.5-log for bag or cartridge filters operated in series by meeting the criteria in subdivision B 3 d (6) (a) (i) through (x) of this section. To be eligible for this credit, owners shall report the results of challenge testing that meets the requirements of subdivision B 3 d (6) (a)(ii) through (ix) of this section to the commissioner. The filters shall treat the entire plant flow taken from a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source.

(i) The Cryptosporidium treatment credit awarded to bag or cartridge filters shall be based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing that is conducted according to the criteria in subdivision B 3 d (6) (a) (ii) through (ix) of this section. A factor of safety equal to 1-log for individual bag or cartridge filters and 0.5-log for bag or cartridge filters in series shall be applied to challenge testing results to determine removal credit. Owners may use results from challenge testing conducted prior to January 5, 2006, if the prior testing was consistent with the criteria specified in subdivision B 3 d (6) (a) (ii) through (ix) of this section.

(ii) Challenge testing shall be performed on full-scale bag or cartridge filters, and the associated filter housing or pressure vessel, that are identical in material and construction to the filters and housings the waterworks will use for removal of Cryptosporidium. Bag or cartridge filters shall be challenge tested in the same configuration that the waterworks will use, either as individual filters or as a series configuration of filters.

(iii) Challenge testing shall be conducted using Cryptosporidium or a surrogate that is removed no more efficiently than Cryptosporidium. The microorganism or surrogate used during challenge testing is referred to as the challenge particulate. The concentration of the challenge particulate shall be determined using a method capable of discreetly quantifying the specific microorganism or surrogate used in the test; gross measurements such as turbidity shall not be used.

(iv) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test shall be based on the detection limit of the challenge particulate in the filtrate (i.e., filtrate detection limit) and shall be calculated using the following equation:

Maximum Feed Concentration = 1 x 104 x (Filtrate Detection Limit)

(v) Challenge testing shall be conducted at the maximum design flow rate for the filter as specified by the manufacturer.

(vi) Each filter evaluated shall be tested for a duration sufficient to reach 100% of the terminal pressure drop, which establishes the maximum pressure drop under which the filter may be used to comply with the requirements of subdivision B 3 d (6) (a) of this section.

(vii) Removal efficiency of a filter shall be determined from the results of the challenge test and expressed in terms of log removal values using the following equation:

LRV = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp)

where LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the filtrate concentration measured during the challenge test. In applying this equation, the same units shall be used for the feed and filtrate concentrations. If the challenge particulate is not detected in the filtrate, then the term Cp shall be set equal to the detection limit.

(viii) Each filter tested shall be challenged with the challenge particulate during three periods over the filtration cycle: within two hours of start-up of a new filter; when the pressure drop is between 45 and 55% of the terminal pressure drop; and at the end of the cycle after the pressure drop has reached 100% of the terminal pressure drop. An LRV shall be calculated for each of these challenge periods for each filter tested. The LRV for the filter (LRVfilter) shall be assigned the value of the minimum LRV observed during the three challenge periods for that filter.

(ix) If fewer than 20 filters are tested, the overall removal efficiency for the filter product line shall be set equal to the lowest LRV filter among the filters tested. If 20 or more filters are tested, the overall removal efficiency for the filter product line shall be set equal to the 10th percentile of the set of LRVfilter values for the various filters tested. The percentile is defined by (i/(n+1)) where i is the rank of n individual data points ordered lowest to highest. If necessary, the 10th percentile may be calculated using linear interpolation.

(x) If a previously tested filter is modified in a manner that could change the removal efficiency of the filter product line, challenge testing to demonstrate the removal efficiency of the modified filter shall be conducted and submitted to the commissioner.

(b) Membrane filtration.

(i) Waterworks receive Cryptosporidium treatment credit for membrane filtration that meets the criteria of this paragraph. Membrane cartridge filters that meet the definition of membrane filtration in 12VAC5-590-10 are eligible for this credit. The level of treatment credit a waterworks receives is equal to the lower of the values determined as follows:

((a)) The removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing conducted under the conditions in subdivision B 3 d (6) (b) (ii) of this section.

((b)) The maximum removal efficiency that can be verified through direct integrity testing used with the membrane filtration process under the conditions in subdivision B 3 d (6) (b) (iii) of this section.

(ii) Challenge Testing. The membrane used by the waterworks shall undergo challenge testing to evaluate removal efficiency, and the owner shall report the results of challenge testing to the commissioner. Challenge testing shall be conducted according to the criteria in paragraphs ((a)) through ((g)) of this section as follows (owners may use data from challenge testing conducted prior to January 5, 2006, if the prior testing was consistent with the criteria):

((a)) Challenge testing shall be conducted on either a full-scale membrane module, identical in material and construction to the membrane modules used in the waterworks' treatment facility, or a smaller-scale membrane module, identical in material and similar in construction to the full-scale module. A module is defined as the smallest component of a membrane unit in which a specific membrane surface area is housed in a device with a filtrate outlet structure.

((b)) Challenge testing shall be conducted using Cryptosporidium oocysts or a surrogate that is removed no more efficiently than Cryptosporidium oocysts. The organism or surrogate used during challenge testing is referred to as the challenge particulate. The concentration of the challenge particulate, in both the feed and filtrate water, shall be determined using a method capable of discretely quantifying the specific challenge particulate used in the test; gross measurements such as turbidity shall not be used.

((c)) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test is based on the detection limit of the challenge particulate in the filtrate and shall be determined according to the following equation:

Maximum Feed Concentration = 3.16 x 106 x (Filtrate Detection Limit)

((d)) Challenge testing shall be conducted under representative hydraulic conditions at the maximum design flux and maximum design process recovery specified by the manufacturer for the membrane module. Flux is defined as the throughput of a pressure driven membrane process expressed as flow per unit of membrane area. Recovery is defined as the volumetric percent of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by events such as chemical cleaning or a solids removal process (i.e., backwashing).

((e)) Removal efficiency of a membrane module shall be calculated from the challenge test results and expressed as a log removal value according to the following equation:

LRV = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp)

where LRV = log removal value demonstrated during the challenge test; Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and Cp = the filtrate concentration measured during the challenge test. Equivalent units shall be used for the feed and filtrate concentrations. If the challenge particulate is not detected in the filtrate, the term Cp is set equal to the detection limit for the purpose of calculating the LRV. An LRV shall be calculated for each membrane module evaluated during the challenge test.

((f)) The removal efficiency of a membrane filtration process demonstrated during challenge testing shall be expressed as a log removal value (LRVC-Test). If fewer than 20 modules are tested, then LRVC-Test is equal to the lowest of the representative LRVs among the modules tested. If 20 or more modules are tested, then LRVC-Test is equal to the 10th percentile of the representative LRVs among the modules tested. The percentile is defined by (i/(n+1)) where i is the rank of n individual data points ordered lowest to highest. If necessary, the 10th percentile may be calculated using linear interpolation.

((g)) The challenge test shall establish a quality control release value (QCRV) for a nondestructive performance test that demonstrates the Cryptosporidium removal capability of the membrane filtration module. This performance test shall be applied to each production membrane module used by the waterworks that was not directly challenge tested in order to verify Cryptosporidium removal capability. Production modules that do not meet the established QCRV are not eligible for the treatment credit demonstrated during the challenge test.

((h)) If a previously tested membrane is modified in a manner that could change the removal efficiency of the membrane or the applicability of the non-destructive performance test and associated QCRV, additional challenge testing to demonstrate the removal efficiency of, and determine a new QCRV for, the modified membrane shall be conducted and submitted to the commissioner.

(iii) Direct integrity testing. Owners shall conduct direct integrity testing in a manner that demonstrates a removal efficiency equal to or greater than the removal credit awarded to the membrane filtration process and meets the requirements described in subdivision B 3 d 6 (b) (iii) ((a)) through ((f)) of this section. A direct integrity test is defined as a physical test applied to a membrane unit in order to identify and isolate integrity breaches (i.e., one or more leaks that could result in contamination of the filtrate).

((a)) The direct integrity test shall be independently applied to each membrane unit in service. A membrane unit is defined as a group of membrane modules that share common valving that allows the unit to be isolated from the rest of the system for the purpose of integrity testing or other maintenance.

((b)) The direct integrity method shall have a resolution of three micrometers or less, where resolution is defined as the size of the smallest integrity breach that contributes to a response from the direct integrity test.

((c)) The direct integrity test shall have a sensitivity sufficient to verify the log treatment credit awarded to the membrane filtration process by the commissioner, where sensitivity is defined as the maximum log removal value that can be reliably verified by a direct integrity test. Sensitivity shall be determined using the approach in either of the following as applicable to the type of direct integrity test the waterworks uses:

((i)) For direct integrity tests that use an applied pressure or vacuum, the direct integrity test sensitivity shall be calculated according to the following equation:

LRVDIT = LOG10(Qp /(VCF x Qbreach))

where LRVDIT = the sensitivity of the direct integrity test;

Qp = total design filtrate flow from the membrane unit;

Qbreach = flow of water from an integrity breach associated with the smallest integrity test response that can be reliably measured, and

VCF = volumetric concentration factor. The volumetric concentration factor is the ratio of the suspended solids concentration on the high pressure side of the membrane relative to that in the feed water.

((ii)) For direct integrity tests that use a particulate or molecular marker, the direct integrity test sensitivity shall be calculated according to the following equation:

LRVDIT = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp)

where LRVDIT = the sensitivity of the direct integrity test;

Cf = the typical feed concentration of the marker used in the test; and

Cp = the filtrate concentration of the marker from an integral membrane unit.

((d)) Owners shall establish a control limit within the sensitivity limits of the direct integrity test that is indicative of an integral membrane unit capable of meeting the removal credit awarded by the commissioner.

((e)) If the result of a direct integrity test exceeds the control limit established under subdivision B 3 d (6) (b) (iii) ((d)) of this section, the owners shall remove the membrane unit from service. Owners shall conduct a direct integrity test to verify any repairs, and may return the membrane unit to service only if the direct integrity test is within the established control limit.

((f)) Owners shall conduct direct integrity testing on each membrane unit at a frequency of not less than once each day that the membrane unit is in operation. The commissioner may approve less frequent testing, based on demonstrated process reliability, the use of multiple barriers effective for Cryptosporidium, or reliable process safeguards.

(iv) Indirect integrity monitoring. Owners shall conduct continuous indirect integrity monitoring on each membrane unit according to the criteria in ((a)) through ((e)). Indirect integrity monitoring is defined as monitoring some aspect of filtrate water quality that is indicative of the removal of particulate matter. A waterworks that implements continuous direct integrity testing of membrane units in accordance with the criteria in B 3 d (6) (b) (iv) (iii) ((a)) through ((f)) of this section is not subject to the requirements for continuous indirect integrity monitoring. Owners shall submit a monthly report to the commissioner summarizing all continuous indirect integrity monitoring results triggering direct integrity testing and the corrective action that was taken in each case.

((a)) Unless the commissioner approves an alternative parameter, continuous indirect integrity monitoring shall include continuous filtrate turbidity monitoring.

((b)) Continuous monitoring shall be conducted at a frequency of no less than once every 15 minutes.

((c)) Continuous monitoring shall be separately conducted on each membrane unit.

((d)) If indirect integrity monitoring includes turbidity and if the filtrate turbidity readings are above 0.15 NTU for a period greater than 15 minutes (i.e., two consecutive 15-minute readings above 0.15 NTU), direct integrity testing shall immediately be performed on the associated membrane unit as specified in subdivision B 3 d (6) (b) (iii) ((a)) through ((f)) of this section.

((e)) If indirect integrity monitoring includes an alternative parameter approved by the commissioner and if the alternative parameter exceeds a control limit approved by the commissioner for a period greater than 15 minutes, direct integrity testing shall immediately be performed on the associated membrane units as specified in subdivision B 3 d (6) (b) (iii) ((a)) through ((f)) of this section.

(c) Second stage filtration. Waterworks receive 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a separate second stage of filtration that consists of sand, dual media, GAC, or other fine grain media following granular media filtration if the commissioner approves. To be eligible for this credit, the first stage of filtration shall be preceded by a coagulation step and both filtration stages shall treat the entire plant flow taken from a surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water source. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not eligible for this credit. The commissioner shall approve the treatment credit based on an assessment of the design characteristics of the filtration process.

(d) Slow sand filtration (as secondary filter). Waterworks are eligible to receive 2.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a slow sand filtration process that follows a separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat entire plant flow taken from a surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water source and no disinfectant residual is present in the influent water to the slow sand filtration process. The commissioner shall approve the treatment credit based on an assessment of the design characteristics of the filtration process. This paragraph does not apply to treatment credit awarded to slow sand filtration used as a primary filtration process.

(7) Inactivation toolbox components.

(a) Calculation of CT values

(i) CT is the product of the disinfectant contact time (T, in minutes) and disinfectant concentration (C, in milligrams per liter). Owners of waterworks with treatment credit for chlorine dioxide or ozone under subdivision B 3 d (7) (b) of this section shall calculate CT at least once each day, with both C and T measured during peak hourly flow in accordance with the procedure listed in Appendix L.

(ii) Waterworks with several disinfection segments in sequence may calculate CT for each segment, where a disinfection segment is defined as a treatment unit process with a measurable disinfectant residual level and a liquid volume. Under this approach, owners shall add the Cryptosporidium CT values in each segment to determine the total CT for the treatment plant.

(b) CT values for chlorine dioxide and ozone.

(i) Waterworks receive the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in the following table by meeting the corresponding chlorine dioxide CT value for the applicable water temperature, as described in subdivision B 3 d (7) (a) of this section.

CT Values (mg-min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Chlorine Dioxide1

Log credit

Water Temperature, °C

Less than or equal to 0.5

1

2

3

5

7

10

15

20

25

30

0.25

159

153

140

128

107

90

69

45

29

19

12

0.5

319

305

279

256

214

180

138

89

58

38

24

1.0

637

610

558

511

429

360

277

179

116

75

49

1.5

956

915

838

767

643

539

415

268

174

113

73

2.0

1275

1220

1117

1023

858

719

553

357

232

150

98

2.5

1594

1525

1396

1278

1072

899

691

447

289

188

122

3.0

1912

1830

1675

1534

1286

1079

830

536

347

226

147

1Waterworks may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values:

Log credit = (0.001506×(1.09116)Temp)× CT

(ii) Waterworks receive the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in the following table by meeting the corresponding ozone CT values for the applicable water temperature, as described in subdivision B 3 d (7) (a) of this section.

CT Values (mg-min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Ozone1

Log credit

Water Temperature, °C

Less than or equal to 0.5

1

2

3

5

7

10

15

20

25

30

0.25

6.0

5.8

5.2

4.8

4.0

3.3

2.5

1.6

1.0

0.6

0.39

0.5

12

12

10

9.5

7.9

6.5

4.9

3.1

2.0

1.2

0.78

1.0

24

23

21

19

16

13

9.9

6.2

3.9

2.5

1.6

1.5

36

35

31

29

24

20

15

9.3

5.9

3.7

2.4

2.0

48

46

42

38

32

26

20

12

7.8

4.9

3.1

2.5

60

58

52

48

40

33

25

16

9.8

6.2

3.9

3.0

72

69

63

57

47

39

30

19

12

7.4

4.7

1Waterworks may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values:

Log credit = (0.0397×(1.09757)Temp)× CT

(c) Ultraviolet light. Waterworks receive Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and virus treatment credits for ultraviolet (UV) light reactors by achieving the corresponding UV dose values shown in subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (i) of this section. Waterworks shall validate and monitor UV reactors as described in subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (ii) and (iii) of this section to demonstrate that they are achieving a particular UV dose value for treatment credit.

(i) UV dose table. The treatment credits listed in this table are for UV light at a wavelength of 254 nm as produced by a low pressure mercury vapor lamp. To receive treatment credit for other lamp types, waterworks shall demonstrate an equivalent germicidal dose through reactor validation testing, as described in subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (ii) of this section. The UV dose values in this table are applicable only to post-filter applications of UV in filtered systems.

UV dose table for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and virus inactivation credit

Log credit

Cryptosporidium UV dose (mJ/cm2)

Giardia lamblia UV dose (mJ/cm2)

Virus UV dose (mJ/cm2)

0.5

1.6

1.5

39

1.0

2.5

2.1

58

1.5

3.9

3.0

79

2.0

5.8

5.2

100

2.5

8.5

7.7

121

3.0

12

11

143

3.5

15

15

163

4.0

22

22

186

(ii) Reactor validation testing. Waterworks shall use UV reactors that have undergone validation testing to determine the operating conditions under which the reactor delivers the UV dose required in subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (i) of this section (i.e., validated operating conditions). These operating conditions shall include flow rate, UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, and UV lamp status.

((a)) When determining validated operating conditions, owners shall account for the following factors: UV absorbance of the water; lamp fouling and aging; measurement uncertainty of online sensors; UV dose distributions arising from the velocity profiles through the reactor; failure of UV lamps or other critical waterworks components; and inlet and outlet piping or channel configurations of the UV reactor.

((b)) Validation testing shall include the following: full scale testing of a reactor that conforms uniformly to the UV reactors used by the waterworks and inactivation of a test microorganism whose dose response characteristics have been quantified with a low pressure mercury vapor lamp.

(iii) Reactor monitoring.

((a)) Owners shall monitor their UV reactors to determine if the reactors are operating within validated conditions, as determined under subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (ii) of this section. This monitoring shall include UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate, lamp status, and other parameters the commissioner designates based on UV reactor operation. Owners shall verify the calibration of UV sensors and shall recalibrate sensors in accordance with a protocol the commissioner approves.

((b)) To receive treatment credit for UV light, waterworks shall treat at least 95% of the water delivered to the public during each month by UV reactors operating within validated conditions for the required UV dose, as described in subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (i) and (ii) of this section. Owners shall demonstrate compliance with this condition by the monitoring required under subdivision B 3 d (7) (c) (iii)((a)) of this section.

e. Owners shall comply with the applicable recordkeeping and reporting requirements described in 12VAC5-590-530 and 12VAC5-590-550.

C. Reserved.

D. Reserved.

E. Reserved.

F. Reserved.

G. Beginning January 1, 1993, each owner shall certify annually in writing to the commissioner (using third party or manufacturer's certification) that, when polymers containing acrylamide or epichlorohydrin are used by the waterworks in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the following specified levels: Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 ppm (or equivalent) of polymer. Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 ppm (or equivalent) of polymer. Certifications may rely on manufacturers or third parties, as approved by the commissioner.

H. Treatment technique for control of disinfection byproduct (DBPP) precursors.

1. Applicability.

a. Waterworks that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water using conventional filtration treatment shall operate with enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening to achieve the TOC percent removal levels specified in subdivision H 2 of this section unless the waterworks meets at least one of the alternative compliance criteria listed in subdivision H 1 b or c of this section.

b. Alternative compliance criteria for enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening waterworks. Owners of waterworks that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water provided with conventional filtration treatment may use the alternative compliance criteria in subdivisions H 1 b (1) through (6) of this section to comply with this section in lieu of complying with subdivision H 2 of this section. Owners shall still comply with monitoring requirements in 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 i.

(1) The waterworks' source water TOC level, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

(2) The waterworks' treated water TOC level, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

(3) The waterworks' source water TOC level, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than 4.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as a running annual average; the source water alkalinity, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is greater than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), calculated quarterly as a running annual average; and either the TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are no greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively; or prior to the effective date for compliance in 12VAC590-370 B 3 a, the owner has made a clear and irrevocable financial commitment not later than the effective date for compliance in 12VAC590-370 B 3 a to use of technologies that will limit the levels of TTHMs and HAA5 to no more than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively. Owners shall submit evidence of a clear and irrevocable financial commitment, in addition to a schedule containing milestones and periodic progress reports for installation and operation of appropriate technologies, to the commissioner for approval not later than the effective date for compliance in 12VAC590-370 B 3 a. These technologies shall be installed and operating not later than June 30, 2005. Failure to install and operate these technologies by the date in the approved schedule will constitute a violation of these regulations.

(4) The TTHM and HAA5 running annual averages are no greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively, and the waterworks uses only chlorine for primary disinfection and maintenance of a residual in the distribution system.

(5) The waterworks' source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured monthly according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

(6) The waterworks' finished water SUVA, measured monthly according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

c. Additional alternative compliance criteria for softening waterworks. Waterworks practicing enhanced softening that cannot achieve the TOC removals required by subdivision H 2 b of this section may use the alternative compliance criteria in subdivisions H 1 c (1) and (2) of this section in lieu of complying with subdivision H 2 of this section. Owners shall still comply with monitoring requirements in 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 i.

(1) Softening that results in lowering the treated water alkalinity to less than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), measured monthly according to 12VAC5-590-440 and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

(2) Softening that results in removing at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), measured monthly according to 12VAC5-590-440 and calculated quarterly as a running annual average.

2. Enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening performance requirements.

a. Waterworks shall achieve the percent reduction of TOC specified in subdivision H 2 b of this section between the source water and the combined filter effluent, unless the commissioner approves a waterworks' request for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under subdivision H 2 c of this section.

b. Required Step 1 TOC reductions, indicated in the following table, are based upon specified source water parameters measured in accordance with 12VAC5-590-440. Waterworks practicing softening are required to meet the Step 1 TOC reductions in the far-right column (Source water alkalinity greater than 120 mg/L) for the specified source water TOC:

Step 1 Required Removal of TOC by Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Softening for Community or Nontransient Noncommunity Waterworks That Use Surface Water or Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water Using Conventional Treatment 1, 2

Source-water TOC mg/L

Source-water alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

0-60

greater than 60-120

greater than 1203

greater than 2.0 - 4.0

35.0%

25.0%

15.0%

greater than 4.0 - 8.0

45.0%

35.0%

25.0%

greater than 8.0

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

1Waterworks meeting at least one of the conditions in subdivisions H 1 b (1) through (6) of this section are not required to operate with enhanced coagulation.

2Softening waterworks meeting one of the alternative compliance criteria in subdivision H 1 c of this section are not required to operate with enhanced softening.

3Waterworks practicing softening shall meet the TOC removal requirements in this column.

c. Waterworks that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water with conventional treatment systems that cannot achieve the Step 1 TOC removals required by subdivision H 2 b of this section due to water quality parameters or operational constraints shall apply to the commissioner, within three months of failure to achieve the TOC removals required by subdivision H 2 b of this section, for approval of alternative minimum TOC (Step 2) removal requirements submitted by the waterworks. If the commissioner approves the alternative minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, the commissioner may make those requirements retroactive for the purposes of determining compliance. Until the commissioner approves the alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, the owner shall meet the Step 1 TOC removals contained in subdivision H 2 b of this section.

d. Alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements. Applications, made to the commissioner by waterworks using enhanced coagulation, for approval of alternative minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under subdivision H 2 c of this section shall include, at a minimum, results of bench- or pilot-scale testing conducted under subdivision H 2 d (1) of this section. The submitted bench- or pilot-scale testing shall be used to determine the alternate enhanced coagulation level.

(1) Alternate enhanced coagulation level is defined as coagulation at a coagulant dose and pH as determined by the method described in subdivisions H 2 d (1) through (5) of this section such that an incremental addition of 10 mg/L of alum (or equivalent amount of ferric salt) results in a TOC removal of equal to or less than 0.3 mg/L. The percent removal of TOC at this point on the "TOC removal versus coagulant dose" curve is then defined as the minimum TOC removal required for the waterworks. Once approved by the commissioner, this minimum requirement supersedes the minimum TOC removal required by the table in subdivision H 2 b of this section. This requirement will be effective until such time as the commissioner approves a new value based on the results of a new bench- and pilot-scale test. Failure to achieve the alternative minimum TOC removal levels set by the commissioner is a violation of these regulations.

(2) Bench- or pilot-scale testing of enhanced coagulation shall be conducted by using representative water samples and adding 10 mg/L increments of alum (or equivalent amounts of ferric salt) until the pH is reduced to a level less than or equal to the enhanced coagulation Step 2 target pH shown in the following table:

Enhanced Coagulation Step 2 Target pH

Alkalinity (mg/L as CaCO3)

Target pH

0-60

5.5

greater than 60-120

6.3

greater than 120-240

7.0

greater than 240

7.5

(3) For waters with alkalinities of less than 60 mg/L for which addition of small amounts of alum or equivalent addition of iron coagulant drives the pH below 5.5 before significant TOC removal occurs, the owner shall add necessary chemicals to maintain the pH between 5.3 and 5.7 in samples until the TOC removal of 0.3 mg/L per 10 mg/L alum added (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant) is reached.

(4) The owner may operate at any coagulant dose or pH necessary (consistent with other sections of these regulations) to achieve the minimum TOC percent removal approved under subdivision H 2 c of this section.

(5) If the TOC removal is consistently less than 0.3 mg/L of TOC per 10 mg/L of incremental alum dose at all dosages of alum (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant), the water is deemed to contain TOC not amenable to enhanced coagulation. The waterworks may then apply to the commissioner for a waiver of enhanced coagulation requirements.

3. Compliance calculations.

a. Owners of waterworks that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water other than those identified in subdivision H 1 b or H 1 c of this section shall comply with requirements contained in subdivision H 2 b or H 2 c of this section. Owners shall calculate compliance quarterly, beginning after the waterworks has collected 12 months of data, by determining an annual average using the following method:

(1) Determine actual monthly TOC percent removal, equal to: (1-(treated water TOC/source water TOC))X100

(2) Determine the required monthly TOC percent removal (from either the table in subdivision H 2 b of this section or from subdivision H 2 c of this section).

(3) Divide the value in subdivision H 3 a (1) of this section by the value in subdivision H 3 a (2) of this section.

(4) Add together the results of subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section for the last 12 months and divide by 12.

(5) If the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (4) of this section is less than 1.00, the waterworks is not in compliance with the TOC percent removal requirements.

b. Owners may use the provisions in subdivisions H 3 b (1) through (5) of this section in lieu of the calculations in subdivisions H 3 a (1) through (5) of this section to determine compliance with TOC percent removal requirements.

(1) In any month that the waterworks' treated or source water TOC level, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is less than 2.0 mg/L, the owner may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision H 3 a of this section.

(2) In any month that a waterworks practicing softening removes at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision H 3 a of this section.

(3) In any month that the waterworks' source water SUVA, prior to any treatment and measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is equal to or less than 2.0 L/mg-m, the owner may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision H 3 a of this section.

(4) In any month that the waterworks' finished water SUVA, measured according to 12VAC5-590-440, is equal to or less than 2.0 L/mg-m, the owner may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision H 3 a of this section.

(5) In any month that a waterworks practicing enhanced softening lowers alkalinity below 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), the owner may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (in lieu of the value calculated in subdivision H 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision H 3 a of this section.

c. Waterworks that use surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water and using conventional treatment may also comply with the requirements of this section by meeting the criteria in subdivision H 1 b or c of this section.

4. Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening is the treatment technique required to control the level of DBP precursors in drinking water treatment and distribution systems for waterworks using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water and using conventional treatment.

I. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for disinfection byproducts show in Table 2.13 are listed below:

1. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant levels for bromate and chlorite:

Disinfection byproduct

Best available technology

Bromate

Control of ozone treatment process to reduce production of bromate.

Chlorite

Control of treatment processes to reduce disinfectant demand and control of disinfection treatment processes to reduce disinfectant levels

2. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the running annual average maximum contaminant levels for TTHM and HAA5:

Disinfection byproduct

Best available technology

Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5)

Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10, with chlorine as the primary and residual disinfectant

3. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the locational running annual average maximum contaminant levels for TTHM and HAA5 for all systems that disinfect their source water:

Disinfection byproduct

Best available technology

Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5)

Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or nanofiltration with a molecular weight cutoff less than or equal to 1000 Daltons; or GAC20

4. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the locational running annual average maximum contaminant levels for TTHM and HAA5 for consecutive waterworks and applies only to the disinfected water that consecutive waterworks buy or otherwise receive:

Disinfection byproduct

Best available technology

Total trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic acids (five) (HAA5)

Waterworks serving equal to or greater than 10,000: Improved distribution system and storage tank management to reduce residence time, plus the use of chloramines for disinfectant residual maintenance

Waterworks serving less than 10,000: Improved distribution system and storage tank management to reduce residence time

J. The best technology, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the maximum residual disinfectant levels identified in Table 2.12 is the control of treatment processes to reduce disinfectant demand and control of disinfection treatment processes to reduce disinfectant levels.

K. If spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes are recycled, in any waterworks supplied by a surface water source and waterworks supplied by a groundwater source under the direct influence of surface water that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment, then they are subject to the recycle treatment technique requirement. Under this requirement recycle flows shall be returned through all the processes of the treatment system, or an alternative location approved by the state, by June 8, 2004.

L. Waterworks with uncovered finished water storage facilities shall comply with the requirements to cover the facility or treat the discharge from the facility as described in this paragraph.

1. Waterworks using uncovered finished water storage facilities shall comply with the conditions of this section.

2. Owners shall notify the commissioner of the use of each uncovered finished water storage facility no later than April 1, 2008.

3. Owners shall meet the conditions of subdivision L 3 a or b of this section for each uncovered finished water storage facility or be in compliance with a State-approved schedule to meet these conditions no later than April 1, 2009.

a. All uncovered finished water storage facilities shall be covered.

b. Waterworks shall treat the discharge from the uncovered finished water storage facility to the distribution system to achieve inactivation and/or removal of at least 4-log virus, 3-log Giardia lamblia, and 2-log Cryptosporidium using a protocol approved by the commissioner.

4. Failure to comply with the requirements of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-004.09 § 2.9, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Volume 09, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 12, Issue 02, eff. November, 15, 1995; Volume 18, Issue 19, eff. July 3, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 17, eff. June 4, 2003; Volume 19, Issue 20, eff. July 16, 2003; Volume 21, Issue 13, eff. April 6, 2005; Volume 25, Issue 05, eff. December 10, 2008; Volume 27, Issue 01, eff. October 13, 2010; Volume 28, Issue 05, eff. December 7, 2011.

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