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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department Of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
1/19/2021

12VAC5-590-440. Analytical methods.

All drinking water analyses for compliance purposes shall have been performed by analytical methods that are consistent with current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations found at 40 CFR Part 141 and 40 CFR Part 143. Laboratories seeking certification to perform drinking water analyses shall comply with all applicable regulations promulgated by the Department of General Services, Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services.

Testing for alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, disinfectant residual, orthophosphate, pH, silica, temperature, and turbidity for compliance purposes may be performed by any person or party acceptable to the commissioner.

Table 2.2 ― Inorganic Chemicals.

Substance

Primary Maximum Contaminant Level (mg/L)

Antimony

0.006

Arsenic (As)

0.010***

Asbestos

7 Million Fibers/Liter (longer than 10 um)

Barium (Ba)

2

Beryllium

0.004

Cadmium (Cd)

0.005

Chromium (Cr)

0.1

Cyanide (as free Cyanide)

0.2

Fluoride (F)

4.0 #

Mercury (Hg)

0.002

Nickel

No Limits Designated

Nitrate (as N)

10**

Nitrite (as N)

1

Total Nitrate and Nitrite (as N)

10

Selenium (Se)

0.05

Thallium

0.002

Substance

Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (mg/L)

Chloride (Cl)

250.0

Copper (Cu)

1.0

Corrosivity

Noncorrosive, See Appendix B

Fluoride

2.0

Foaming Agents

0.5*

Iron (Fe)

0.3

Manganese (Mn)

0.05

Sodium (Na)

No Limits Designated

Sulfate (SO4)

250.0

Zinc (Zn)

5.0

Substance

Action Level (mg/L)

Lead (Pb)

0.015

Copper (Cu)

1.3

# Note. For artificially fluoridated waterworks the minimum concentration of fluoride should be 0.8 mg/L and the maximum should be 1.0 mg/L. The optimum control limit is 0.9 mg/L. (See Appendix B)

*Note. Concentration reported in terms of Methylene Blue Active Substances.

**Note. See Appendix B for Exception Regarding Noncommunity Waterworks.

***Note. The PMCL for arsenic is 0.010 mg/L for community and nontransient noncommunity waterworks effective January 23, 2006. Arsenic sampling results shall be reported to the nearest 0.001 mg/L.

Table 2.3 ― Organic Chemicals.

Substance

Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels (mg/L)

VOC

1. Vinyl Chloride

0.002

2. Benzene

0.005

3. Carbon Tetrachloride

0.005

4. 1,2‑Dichloroethane

0.005

5. Trichloroethylene (TCE)

0.005

6. 1,1‑Dichloroethylene

0.007

7. 1,1,1‑Trichloroethane

0.2

8. para‑Dichlorobenzene

0.075

9. cis‑1,2‑Dichloroethylene

0.07

10. 1,2‑Dichloropropane

0.005

11. Ethylbenzene

0.7

12. Monochlorobenzene

0.1

13. o‑Dichlorobenznen

0.6

14. Styrene

0.1

15. Tetrachloroethylene

0.005

16. Toluene

1

17. trans‑1,2‑Dichloroethylene

0.1

18. Xylene (total)

10

19. Dichloromethane

0.005

20. 1,2,4‑Trichlorobenzene

0.07

21. 1,1,2‑Trichloroethane

0.05

SOC

1. Alachlor

0.002

2. Atrazine

0.003

3. Carbofuran

0.04

4. Chlordane

0.002

5. Heptachlor

0.0004

6. Heptachlor epoxide

0.0002

7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

0.0005

8. Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)

0.0002

9. Ethylene dibromide (EDB)

0.00005

10. Lindane

0.0002

11. Methoxychlor

0.04

12. Toxaphene

0.003

13.4‑Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4‑D)

0.07

14. 2,4,5‑Trichlorophenoxypropionic Acid (2,4,5‑TP or Silvex)

0.05

15. Reserved

16. Reserved

17. Reserved

18. Pentachlorophenol

0.001

19. Benzo(a)pyrene

0.0002

20. Dalapon

0.2

21. Di(2‑ethylhexy)adipate

0.4

22. Di(2‑ethylhexy)phthalate

0.006

23. Dinoseb

0.007

24. Diquat

0.02

25. Endothall

0.1

26. Endrin

0.002

27. Glyphosate

0.7

28. Hexachlorobenzene

0.001

29. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene

0.05

30. Oxamyl (Vydate)

0.2

31. Picloram

0.5

32. Simazine

0.004

33. 2,3,7,8‑TCDD (Dioxin)

3 X 10-8

Table 2.4 ― Physical Quality.

Parameter

Maximum Contaminant Level

Concentration

Color

Secondary

15 Color Units

Odor

Secondary

3 Threshold odor numbers

pH

Secondary

6.5‑8.5

Total Dissolved

Secondary

500 mg/L Solids (TDS)

Turbidity

Primary

*1 Turbidity Unit

* See Appendix B for operational requirements.

Table 2.5 ― Radiological Quality.

A. Maximum Contaminant Level Goals for Radionuclides

Substance

MCLG

1. Combined radium-226 and radium-228

Zero

2. Gross alpha particle activity (excluding Radon and uranium)

Zero

3. Beta particle and photon radioactivity

Zero

4. Uranium

Zero

B. Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels for Radionuclides

Substance

Primary Maximum Contaminant Level

1. Combined radium‑226 and radium‑228

5 pCi/L

2. Gross Alpha Activity (excluding Radon and Uranium)

15 pCi/L

3. Uranium

30 μg/L

Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels for Beta Particle and Photon Radioactivity from Man-Made Radionuclides

1. The average annual concentration of Beta particle and Photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water shall not produce an annual dose equivalent to the total body or any internal organ greater than 4 millirem/year.

2. Except for the radionuclides listed in Schedule I, the concentration of man-made radionuclides causing 4 MREM total body or organ dose equivalents shall be calculated on the basis of a 2 liter per day drinking water intake using the 168-hour data listed in "Maximum Permissible Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radionuclides in Air and Water for Occupational Exposure," MBS Handbook 69 as amended August 1963, U.S. Department of Commerce. If two or more radionuclides are present, the sum of their annual dose equivalent to the total body or to any organ exceed 4 millirem/year.

Schedule 1

Average annual concentrations assumed to produce a total body organ dose of 4 mrem/year.

Radionuclide

Critical Organ

pCi/liter

Tritium

Total Body

20,000

Strontium‑90

Bone Marrow

8

* See Appendix B

Table 2.6 ― Unregulated Contaminant Organics to be Monitored.

Group A

1. Chloroform

12. Chloromethane

2. Bromodichloromethane

13. Bromoethane

3. Chlorodibromomethane

14. 1,2,3‑Trichloropropane

4. Bromoform

15. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

5. Chlorobenzene

16. Chloroethane

6. m‑Dichlorobenzene

17. 2,2‑Dichloropropane

7. Dibromomethane

18. o‑Chlorotoluene

8. 1,1‑Dichloropropene

19. p‑Chlorotoluene

9. 1,1‑Dichloroethane

20. Bromobenzene

10. 1,1,2,2‑Tetrachloroethane

21. 1,3‑Dichloropropene

11. 1,3‑Dichloropropane

Group B

1. Aldrin

8. Metoachlor

2. Butachlor

9. Metribuzin

3. Carbaryl

10. Propachlor

4. Dicamba

11. Aldicarb

5. Dieldrin

12. Aldicarb sulfone

6. Methomyl

13. Aldicarb sulfoxide

7. 3‑Hyposycarbofuran

Table 2.7 ― Reserved

Table 2.8 ― Organic Chemical Monitoring Implementation Schedule.

Number of Persons Served

Monitoring to Begin During the Quarter that Begins

Over 10,000

January 1,1988

3,300 to 10,000

January 1,1989

less than 3,300

January 1,1991

Table 2.9 ― PMCL Effective Dates.

Table 2.3, Organics Chemicals, VOC 1 through 8 (Phase I)

January 9, 1989

Total Trihalomethanes and Fluoride

July 1, 1991

Table 2.3, Organics Chemicals, VOC 9 through 18 and SOC 1 through 14 (Phase II VOCs and SOCs)

July 30, 1992

Asbestos, Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury, Nitrate, Nitrite, Total Nitrate+Nitrite, Selenium (Phase II IOCs)

July 30, 1992

Table 2.3, Organics Chemicals, SOC 15 through 18 and Table 2.2, Inorganic Chemicals, Barium (Phase II SOCs and IOCs)

January 1, 1993

Table 2.3, Organics Chemicals, VOC 19 through 21, SOC 19 through 33 and Table 2.2, Inorganic Chemicals; antimony, beryllium, cyanide (as free cyanide), nickel, and thallium

January 17, 1994

Uranium

December 8, 2003

E. coli

April 1, 2016

Table 2.10 ― Maximum Contaminant Level Goals for Microbiological Contaminants.

Contaminant

MCLG

Giardia lamblia

Zero

Viruses

Zero

Legionella

Zero

Cryptosporidium

Zero

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

Zero

Table 2.11 ― Maximum Contaminant Level Goals for Disinfection Byproducts.

Disinfection byproduct

MCLG (mg/L)

Bromate

Zero

Bromodichloromethane

Zero

Bromoform

Zero

Chlorite

0.8

Chloroform

0.07

Dibromochloromethane

0.06

Dichloroacetic acid

Zero

Monochloroacetic acid

0.07

Trichloroacetic acid

0.02

Table 2.12 ― Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals (MRDLG) and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels (MRDL) for Disinfectants

Disinfectant residual

MRDLG (mg/L)

MRDL (mg/L)

Chlorine

4 (as Cl2)

4.0 (as Cl2)

Chloramines

4 (as Cl2)

4.0 (as Cl2)

Chlorine dioxide

0.8 (as ClO2)

0.8 (as ClO2)

Notwithstanding the MRDLs in Table 2.12, owners may increase residual disinfectant levels in the distribution system of chlorine or chloramines (but not chlorine dioxide) to a level and for a time necessary to protect public health, to address specific microbiological contamination problems caused by circumstances such as, but not limited to, distribution line breaks, storm run-off events, source water contamination events, or cross-connection events.

Table 2.13 ― Primary Maximum Contaminant Levels (PMCL) for Disinfection Byproducts

Disinfection byproduct

PMCL (mg/L)

Total trihalomethanes (TTHM)

0.080

Haloacetic Acids (five) (HAA5)

0.060

Bromate

0.010

Chlorite

1.0

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-004.11 § 2.11, eff. June 23, 1993; amended, Volume 12, Issue 02, eff. November 15, 1995; Volume 18, Issue 19, eff. July 3, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 17, eff. June 4, 2003; Volume 19, Issue 24, eff. September 10, 2003; Volume 22, Issue 15, eff. May 3, 2006; Volume 22, Issue 24, eff. September 6, 2006; Volume 25, Issue 05, eff. December 10, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 05, eff. December 7, 2011; Volume 33, Issue 03, eff. November 2, 2016.

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