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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 18. Professional and Occupational Licensing
Agency 130. Real Estate Appraiser Board
Chapter 20. Real Estate Appraiser Board Rules and Regulations
9/17/2019

18VAC130-20-10. Definitions.

Part I
General

The following words and terms when used in this chapter, unless a different meaning is provided or is plainly required by the context, shall have the following meanings:

"Accredited colleges, universities, junior and community colleges" means those accredited institutions of higher learning approved by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia or listed in the Transfer Credit Practices of Designated Educational Institutions, published by the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers or a recognized international equivalent.

"Adult distributive or marketing education programs" means those programs offered at schools approved by the Virginia Department of Education or any other local, state, or federal government agency, board or commission to teach adult education or marketing courses.

"Analysis" means a study of real estate or real property other than the estimation of value.

"Appraisal Foundation" means the foundation incorporated as an Illinois Not for Profit Corporation on November 30, 1987, to establish and improve uniform appraisal standards by defining, issuing, and promoting such standards.

"Appraisal subcommittee" means the designees of the heads of the federal financial institutions regulatory agencies established by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council Act of 1978 (12 USC § 3301 et seq.), as amended.

"Appraiser" means an individual who is expected to perform valuation services competently and in a manner that is independent, impartial, and objective.

"Appraiser classification" means any category of appraiser, which the board creates by designating criteria for qualification for such category and by designating the scope of practice permitted for such category.

"Appraiser Qualifications Board" means the board created by the Appraisal Foundation to establish appropriate criteria for the certification and recertification of qualified appraisers by defining, issuing, and promoting such qualification criteria; to disseminate such qualification criteria to states, governmental entities, and others; and to develop or assist in the development of appropriate examinations for qualified appraisers.

"Appraiser trainee" means an individual who is licensed as an appraiser trainee to appraise those properties that the supervising appraiser is permitted to appraise.

"Business entity" means any corporation, partnership, association, or other business entity under which appraisal services are performed.

"Certified general real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure that relate to the appraisal of all types of real estate and real property and is licensed as a certified general real estate appraiser.

"Certified instructor" means an individual holding an instructor certificate issued by the Real Estate Appraiser Board to act as an instructor.

"Certified residential real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure for the appraisal of or the review appraisal of any residential real estate or real property of one to four residential units regardless of transaction value or complexity. Certified residential real estate appraisers may also appraise or provide a review appraisal of nonresidential properties with a transaction value or market value as defined by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice up to $250,000, whichever is the lesser.

"Classroom hour" means 50 minutes out of each 60-minute segment. The prescribed number of classroom hours includes time devoted to tests which are considered to be part of the course.

"Distance education" means an educational process based on the geographical separation of provider and student (i.e., CD-ROM, online learning, correspondence courses, etc.).

"Experience" as used in this chapter includes experience gained in the performance of traditional appraisal assignments, or in the performance of the following: fee and staff appraisals, ad valorem tax appraisal, review appraisal, appraisal analysis, real estate consulting, highest and best use analysis, and feasibility analysis or study.

For the purpose of this chapter, experience has been divided into four major categories: (i) fee and staff appraisal, (ii) ad valorem tax appraisal, (iii) review appraisal, and (iv) real estate consulting.

1. "Fee and staff appraiser experience" means experience acquired as a sole appraiser, as a cosigner, or through disclosure of assistance in the certification in accordance with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice.

Sole appraiser experience is experience obtained by an individual who makes personal inspections of real estate, assembles and analyzes the relevant facts, and by the use of reason and the exercise of judgment forms objective opinions and prepares reports as to the market value or other properly defined value of identified interests in said real estate.

Cosigner appraiser experience is experience obtained by an individual who signs an appraisal report prepared by another, thereby accepting full responsibility for the content and conclusions of the appraisal.

To qualify for fee and staff appraiser experience, an individual must have prepared written appraisal reports after January 30, 1989, that comply with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice in the edition in effect at the time of the reports' preparation, including Standards 1 and 2.

2. "Ad valorem tax appraisal experience" means experience obtained by an individual who assembles and analyzes the relevant facts and who correctly employs those recognized methods and techniques that are necessary to produce and communicate credible appraisals within the context of the real property tax laws. Ad valorem tax appraisal experience may be obtained either through individual property appraisals or through mass appraisals as long as applicants under this category of experience can demonstrate that they are using techniques to value real property similar to those being used by fee and staff appraisers and that they are effectively utilizing the appraisal process.

To qualify for ad valorem tax appraisal experience for individual property appraisals, an individual must have prepared written appraisal reports after January 30, 1989, that comply with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice in the edition in effect at the time of the reports' preparation.

To qualify for ad valorem tax appraisal experience for mass appraisals, an individual must have prepared mass appraisals or have documented mass appraisal reports after January 30, 1989, that comply with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice in the edition in effect at the time of the reports' preparation, including Standard 6.

In addition to the preceding, to qualify for ad valorem tax appraisal experience, the applicant's experience log must be attested to by the applicant's supervisor.

3. "Reviewer experience" means experience obtained by an individual who examines the reports of appraisers to determine whether their conclusions are consistent with the data reported and other generally known information. An individual acting in the capacity of a reviewer does not necessarily make personal inspection of real estate but does review and analyze relevant facts assembled by fee and staff appraisers and by the use of reason and exercise of judgment forms objective conclusions as to the validity of fee and staff appraisers' opinions. Reviewer experience shall not constitute more than 1,000 hours of total experience claimed, and at least 50% of the review experience claimed must be in field review wherein the individual has personally inspected the real property which is the subject of the review.

To qualify for reviewer experience, an individual must have prepared written reports after January 30, 1989, recommending the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the fee and staff appraiser's opinions that comply with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice in the edition in effect at the time of the reports' preparation, including Standard 3.

Signing as "Review Appraiser" on an appraisal report prepared by another will not qualify an individual for experience in the reviewer category. Experience gained in this capacity will be considered under the cosigner subcategory of fee and staff appraiser experience.

4. "Real estate consulting experience" means experience obtained by an individual who assembles and analyzes the relevant facts and by the use of reason and the exercise of judgment forms objective opinions concerning matters other than value estimates relating to real property. Real estate consulting experience includes the following:

Absorption Study
Ad Valorem Tax Study
Annexation Study
Assemblage Study
Assessment Study
Condominium Conversion Study
Cost-Benefit Study
Cross Impact Study
Depreciation/Cost Study
Distressed Property Study
Economic Base Analysis
Economic Impact Study
Economic Structure Analysis
Eminent Domain Study
Feasibility Study
Highest and Best Use Study
Impact Zone Study
Investment Analysis Study
Investment Strategy Study
Land Development Study
Land Suitability Study
Land Use Study
Location Analysis Study
Market Analysis Study
Market Strategy Study
Market Turning Point Analysis
Marketability Study
Portfolio Study
Rehabilitation Study
Remodeling Study
Rental Market Study
Right of Way Study
Site Analysis Study
Utilization Study
Urban Renewal Study
Zoning Study

To qualify for real estate consulting experience, an individual must have prepared written reports after January 30, 1989, that comply with the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice in the edition in effect at the time of the reports' preparation, including Standards 4 and 5. Real estate consulting shall not constitute more than 500 hours of experience for any type of appraisal license.

"Inactive license" means a license that has been renewed without meeting the continuing education requirements specified in this chapter. Inactive licenses do not meet the requirements set forth in § 54.1-2011 of the Code of Virginia.

"Licensed residential real estate appraiser" means an individual who meets the requirements for licensure for the appraisal of or the review appraisal of any noncomplex, residential real estate or real property of one to four residential units, including federally related transactions, where the transaction value or market value as defined by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice is less than $1 million. Licensed residential real estate appraisers may also appraise or provide a review appraisal of noncomplex, nonresidential properties with a transaction value or market value as defined by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice up to $250,000, whichever is the lesser.

"Licensee" means any individual holding an active license issued by the Real Estate Appraiser Board to act as a certified general real estate appraiser, certified residential real estate appraiser, licensed residential real estate appraiser, or appraiser trainee as defined, respectively, in § 54.1-2009 of the Code of Virginia and in this chapter.

"Local, state or federal government agency, board or commission" means an entity established by any local, federal or state government to protect or promote the health, safety and welfare of its citizens.

"Proprietary school" means a privately owned school offering appraisal or appraisal related courses approved by the board.

"Provider" means accredited colleges, universities, junior and community colleges; adult distributive or marketing education programs; local, state or federal government agencies, boards or commissions; proprietary schools; or real estate appraisal or real estate related organizations.

"Real estate appraisal activity" means the act or process of valuation of real property or preparing an appraisal report.

"Real estate appraisal" or "real estate related organization" means any appraisal or real estate related organization formulated on a national level, where its membership extends to more than one state or territory of the United States.

"Reciprocity agreement" means a conditional agreement between two or more states that will recognize one another's regulations and laws for equal privileges for mutual benefit.

"Registrant" means any corporation, partnership, association, or other business entity that provides appraisal services and that is registered with the Real Estate Appraiser Board in accordance with § 54.1-2011 E of the Code of Virginia.

"Reinstatement" means having a license or registration restored to effectiveness after the expiration date has passed.

"Renewal" means continuing the effectiveness of a license or registration for another period of time.

"Sole proprietor" means any individual, but not a corporation, partnership, or association, who is trading under his own name, or under an assumed or fictitious name pursuant to the provisions of §§ 59.1-69 through 59.1-76 of the Code of Virginia.

"Substantially equivalent" means any educational course or seminar, experience, or examination taken in this or another jurisdiction which is equivalent in classroom hours, course content and subject, and degree of difficulty, respectively, to those requirements outlined in this chapter and Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia for licensure and renewal.

"Supervising appraiser" means any individual holding a license issued by the Real Estate Appraiser Board to act as a certified general real estate appraiser or certified residential real estate appraiser who supervises any unlicensed individual acting as a real estate appraiser or an appraiser trainee as specified in this chapter.

"Transaction value" means the monetary amount of a transaction which may require the services of a certified or licensed appraiser for completion. The transaction value is not always equal to the market value of the real property interest involved. For loans or other extensions of credit, the transaction value equals the amount of the loan or other extensions of credit. For sales, leases, purchases and investments in or exchanges of real property, the transaction value is the market value of the real property interest involved. For the pooling of loans or interests in real property for resale or purchase, the transaction value is the amount of the loan or the market value of real property calculated with respect to each such loan or interest in real property.

"Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice" means the 2018‑2019 edition of those standards promulgated by the Appraisal Standards Board of the Appraisal Foundation for use by all appraisers in the preparation of appraisal reports.

"Valuation" means an estimate or opinion of the value of real property.

"Valuation assignment" means an engagement for which an appraiser is employed or retained to give an analysis, opinion or conclusion that results in an estimate or opinion of the value of an identified parcel of real property as of a specified date.

"Waiver" means the voluntary, intentional relinquishment of a known right.

Statutory Authority

§ 54.1-2013 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR583-01-03 § 1.1, eff. April 15, 1992; amended, Volume 11, Issue 04, eff. January 1, 1995; Volume 14, Issue 10, eff. March 4, 1998; Volume 19, Issue 18, eff. July 1, 2003; Volume 24, Issue 06, eff. January 1, 2008; Volume 24, Issue 23, eff. September 1, 2008; Volume 26, Issue 02, eff. November 1, 2009; Volume 31, Issue 20, eff. August 1, 2015; Volume 32, Issue 04, eff. January 1, 2016; Volume 34, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2018.

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