Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 18. Professional And Occupational Licensing
Agency 85. Board of Medicine
Chapter 20. Regulations Governing the Practice of Medicine, Osteopathic Medicine, Podiatry, and Chiropractic

18VAC85-20-360. Monitoring.

A. A written protocol shall be developed for monitoring equipment to include but not be limited to:

1. Monitoring equipment shall be appropriate for the type of anesthesia and the nature of the facility. At a minimum, provisions shall be made for a reliable source of oxygen, suction, resuscitation equipment and emergency drugs.

2. In locations where anesthesia is administered, there shall be adequate anesthesia apparatus and equipment to ensure appropriate monitoring of patients. All equipment shall be maintained, tested and inspected according to manufacturer's specifications, and backup power shall be sufficient to ensure patient protection in the event of an emergency.

3. When anesthesia services are provided to infants and children, the required equipment, medication and resuscitative capabilities shall be appropriately sized and calibrated for children.

B. To administer office-based moderate sedation/conscious sedation, the following equipment, supplies and pharmacological agents are required:

1. Appropriate equipment to manage airways;

2. Drugs and equipment to treat shock and anaphylactic reactions;

3. Precordial stethoscope;

4. Pulse oximeter with appropriate alarms or an equivalent method of measuring oxygen saturation;

5. Continuous electrocardiograph;

6. Devices for measuring blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate;

7. Defibrillator; and

8. Accepted method of identifying and preventing the interchangeability of gases.

C. In addition to requirements in subsection B of this section, to administer general anesthesia, deep sedation or major conductive blocks, the following equipment, supplies and pharmacological agents are required:

1. Drugs to treat malignant hyperthermia, when triggering agents are used;

2. Peripheral nerve stimulator, if a muscle relaxant is used; and

3. If using an anesthesia machine, the following shall be included:

a. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitor (capnograph);

b. In-circuit oxygen analyzer designed to monitor oxygen concentration within breathing circuit by displaying oxygen percent of the total respiratory mixture;

c. Oxygen failure-protection devices (fail-safe system) that have the capacity to announce a reduction in oxygen pressure and, at lower levels of oxygen pressure, to discontinue other gases when the pressure of the supply of oxygen is reduced;

d. Vaporizer exclusion (interlock) system, which ensures that only one vaporizer, and therefore only a single anesthetic agent can be actualized on any anesthesia machine at one time;

e. Pressure-compensated anesthesia vaporizers, designed to administer a constant non-pulsatile output, which shall not be placed in the circuit downstream of the oxygen flush valve;

f. Flow meters and controllers, which can accurately gauge concentration of oxygen relative to the anesthetic agent being administered and prevent oxygen mixtures of less than 21% from being administered;

g. Alarm systems for high (disconnect), low (subatmospheric) and minimum ventilatory pressures in the breathing circuit for each patient under general anesthesia; and

h. A gas evacuation system.

D. A written protocol shall be developed for monitoring procedures to include but not be limited to:

1. Physiologic monitoring of patients shall be appropriate for the type of anesthesia and individual patient needs, including continuous monitoring and assessment of ventilation, oxygenation, cardiovascular status, body temperature, neuromuscular function and status, and patient positioning.

2. Intraoperative patient evaluation shall include continuous clinical observation and continuous anesthesia monitoring.

3. A health care practitioner administering general anesthesia or deep sedation shall remain present and available in the facility to monitor a patient until the patient meets the discharge criteria. A health care practitioner administering moderate sedation/conscious sedation shall routinely monitor a patient according to procedures consistent with such administration.

Statutory Authority

§§ 54.1-2400 and 54.1-2912.1 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 19, Issue 18, eff. June 18, 2003.

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