Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 8. Education
Agency 20. State Board of Education
Chapter 23. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel

8VAC20-23-190. Professional studies requirements for PreK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements: 18 semester hours. Professional studies requirements for special education endorsements: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disabilities; gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners; gifted and talented students and students with disabilities; and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school, and family engagement with the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included. The certification or training program shall (i) be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross, and (ii) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

g. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

h. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners shall be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growth shall be included.

c. Skills shall also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal-setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress shall be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education such as diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, and placement assessments shall be included.

4. Foundations of education and the teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention shall be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities shall be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity shall be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers shall be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills and of self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment shall be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages shall be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6. Language and literacy.

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher shall be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised classroom experience. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks of successful full-time student teaching in the endorsement area sought under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised classroom experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 14, eff. April 15, 2021.

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