Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 8. Education
Agency 20. State Board of Education
Chapter 23. Licensure Regulations for School Personnel

8VAC20-23-520. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in special education visual impairments preK-12; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education blindness and visual impairments or 30 semester hours in education of students with visual impairments, distributed with at least one course in each of the following areas:

a. Characteristics of students with visual impairment: 3 semester hours. Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infant and child growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Includes the educational, conceptual, psychosocial, and physical implications of a visual impairment.

b. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

c. Braille code: 3 semester hours. Includes the literary code of Braille, its implications for educational and literacy programs for students with visual disabilities and how to teach the Braille code to students with visual impairments.

d. Braille reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Includes instruction in the various technologies used by students who use Braille; basic instruction on transcription of advanced Braille codes, including uncontracted and contracted Unified English Braille, including music, foreign language, chemistry, and Nemeth code (Braille mathematics code); techniques for teaching skills in each code; and technology tools used to create Braille and tactile materials in addition to other assistive technologies used for instruction in mathematics and science.

e. Medical and educational implications of visual impairment: 3 semester hours. Includes anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development.

f. Assistive technology for students with sensory impairment: 3 semester hours. Introduces specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve ability of individuals with sensory disabilities and includes literacy skill development of students who are blind or visually impaired using technology.

g. Curriculum and assessment: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of educational assessments used with students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Addresses assessment of technology needs of students with visual impairments, including functional vision assessments, learning media assessments, assistive technology, and assessment in areas of the expanded core curriculum; application of assessment results to development of the individualized education program (IEP); planning for placement; and services and accommodations for students with visual impairments.

h. Positive behavior intervention supports: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding of research-based, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement; and understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

i. Collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that include understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are visually impaired.

j. Teaching methods: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(1) Methods of teaching compensatory skills, the core curriculum, and technology used by students who are blind and visually impaired; introduces individual family service plans (IFSPs); and includes understanding and application of development and implementation of the IEP, including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are visually impaired.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are visually impaired.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery.

(6) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, and monitor student progress.

(7) Ability to adapt materials and procedures to meet the needs of students with visual impairments.

k. Orientation and mobility. Includes the components of orientation and mobility (O&M); how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M; and the philosophy and history of O&M, including cane instruction, dog guides, and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

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