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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 20. Virginia Waste Management Board
Chapter 60. Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations
7/13/2020

9VAC20-60-1505. Additional Universal Wastes.

A. The Commonwealth of Virginia incorporates at 9VAC20-60-273 A all universal wastes adopted by the federal government at 40 CFR Part 273. In addition to the universal wastes listed in 40 CFR Part 273, the universal wastes listed in this section are also universal wastes in Virginia if the requirements as provided in this section for each particular universal waste are met.

B. Mercury-containing lamps may be crushed for size reduction provided the requirements of this subsection are met.

1. Mercury-containing lamps are crushed under the control of the generator as defined in subdivision 4 of this subsection, and the crushed lamps are sent off site for recycling.

2. The use of mobile crushing units is prohibited. Mobile crushing units include any device or equipment or combination of devices and equipment that is designed to be transported and operated at more than one site.

3. Mercury-containing lamps that are crushed for size reduction by a generator or under the control of the generator as defined in subdivision 4 of this subsection may be managed under the provisions for universal wastes, 9VAC20-60-273, if the owner or operator complies with all the requirements and qualifications of this section.

4. "Under the control of the generator" means:

a. That the mercury-containing lamps are generated and crushed at the generating facility (for purposes of this definition, generating facility means all contiguous property owned, leased, or otherwise controlled by the universal waste (UW) lamp generator); or

b. That the mercury-containing lamps are generated and crushed at different facilities if the crushing facility is controlled by the generator or if both the generating facility and the crushing facility are controlled by a person as defined in 40 CFR Part 260.10, and if the generator provides one of the following certifications: (i) "on behalf of [insert generator facility name], I certify that this facility will send the indicated UW lamps to [insert crushing facility name], which is controlled by [insert generator facility name] and that [insert the name of either facility] has acknowledged full responsibility for the safe management of the UW lamps" or (ii) "on behalf of [insert generator facility name] I certify that this facility will send the indicated UW lamps to [insert crushing facility name], that both facilities are under common control, and that [insert name of either facility] has acknowledged full responsibility for the safe management of the UW lamps." For purposes of this certification, "control" means the power to direct the policies of the facility, whether by the ownership of stock, voting rights, or otherwise, except that contractors who operate facilities on behalf of a different person as defined in 40 CFR Part 260.10 shall not be deemed to "control" such facilities. The certification shall be submitted to the department in accordance with subdivision 7 (h) of this subsection.

5. Mercury-containing lamp crushing operations that do not meet the definition of "under the control of the generator" in subdivision 4 of this subsection are subject to all applicable requirements for destination facilities in 40 CFR Part 273, Subpart E.

6. Safety hazards to operating personnel shall be controlled through an active safety program consistent with the requirements of 29 CFR Part 1910.

7. Crushing, handling, and storing mercury-containing lamps shall occur in a safe and controlled manner that minimizes the release of mercury to the environment. Requirements for a safe and controlled manner shall include the following:

a. Mercury-containing lamps shall be crushed in a mechanical unit specifically designed to crush mercury-containing lamps. This unit shall be hermetically sealed, except for air intakes, and under negative pressure. Air intake points must be closed when the unit is not operating.

b. Crushing operations shall occur in a space with its ambient air isolated from other work areas where persons who are not involved in the crushing operation may work. The ambient air from rooms containing crushing operations shall be discharged after filtration directly to an area outside the building where persons are unlikely to be directly exposed. If a situation exists at a particular facility in which the facility determines that discharge of ambient air from a room containing a crushing operation to the outside is technically or financially impracticable, the department may approve an alternated design that allows the discharge of ambient air from a room containing a crushing operation to another internal building space or centralized air circulation system if:

(1) The ambient air is discharged to the internal building space or centralized air circulation system through filtration system capable of capturing both particulate and vapor phase mercury.

(2) The filtration system is maintained as recommended by the manufacturer to ensure that it operates at its design mercury removal efficiency.

(3) Maintenance of the filtration system shall be documented and records of maintenance shall be kept on site.

c. Mercury-containing lamps shall be crushed with a device that is equipped with air pollution controls that capture both particulate and vapor phase mercury. At a minimum, these controls shall include a HEPA filter, a sorption column of sulfur impregnated activated carbon media, and a negative air flow (vacuum) throughout the unit. The crushing unit shall have documentation from the manufacturer that demonstrates that the unit is equipped as required and:

(1) Achieves a particle retention rate of 99.97% in the HEPA filter (at a particle diameter less than 0.3 microns); and

(2) Achieves the air emission limits specified in the risk-based protectiveness standards table of subdivision 7 n (2) of this subsection.

d. Mercury-containing lamps shall be crushed indoors.

e. The transfer of crushed mercury-containing lamps in drums or containers to other drums or containers is not permitted.

f. Crushed mercury-containing lamps shall be stored in closed and hermetically sealed, nonleaking drums or containers that are in good condition (e.g., no severe rusting, no apparent structural defects, and no leaking).

g. Drums or containers used for storage of crushed mercury-containing lamps shall be properly sealed and labeled. The label shall bear the words "universal waste-lamps," "waste lamps," or "used lamps."

h. The generator or facility under the control of the generator shall make written notification to the department of the physical location of the crushing operation no later than January 31, 2017, for all existing operations or 30 calendar days prior to beginning operation of a new crushing operation. The notification shall include the name of the individual or company that owns the operation; the EPA ID number if one has been issued for the facility; the location of the crushing operation; and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of the operator and principal contact person or persons. A written notice of changes in the notification data shall be sent to the department within 15 calendar days of the change. The notification shall include the certification required under subdivision 4 (b) of this subsection if applicable.

i. A written procedure specifying how to safely crush, handle, and store mercury-containing lamps and how to minimize the release of mercury, including during drum changes and malfunctions, shall be developed, implemented, and documented. This procedure shall include (i) the type of equipment to be used to crush mercury-containing lamps safely, (ii) instructions for proper equipment operation and a schedule for maintenance of the unit in accordance with written procedures developed by the manufacturer of the equipment, (iii) proper waste management practices, and (iv) the use of personal protective equipment to include at a minimum safety glasses or full face shield and cut-proof gloves. The maintenance schedule shall identify all maintenance operations and the frequency with which they must be performed, including replacement of particle filters and the activated carbon media as recommended by the manufacturer of the crushing unit.

j. Maintenance activities shall be documented and records of maintenance shall be maintained and available for inspection per subdivision 8 of this subsection.

k. Each unit operator shall receive initial and annual training in crushing procedures, waste handling, safety, use of personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures, including proper procedures for cleaning up broken mercury-containing lamps. All training shall be documented and records of training shall be maintained and available for inspection per subdivision 8 of this subsection.

l. Residues, filter media, used equipment, other mercury-containing equipment, and other solid waste shall not be placed in the container with the crushed mercury-containing lamps. Any waste materials generated as part of the crushing operation that are determined to be hazardous waste shall be managed under this chapter, as hazardous waste or if not hazardous waste, as a solid waste under the Solid Waste Management Regulations, 9VAC20-81.

m. Any spills of the contents of the mercury-containing lamps that may occur shall be cleaned up in accordance with 40 CFR Part 273.13(d)(2) or 40 CFR Part 273.33(d)(2).

n. All generators or facilities under the control of the generator that crush mercury-containing lamps, except those generators or facilities that crush two hours or less and no more than 220 pounds/100 kilograms (VSQG equivalent) of bulbs per month, shall provide monitoring as follows:

(1) Ambient air within the lamp crushing room and exhaust air from the lamp crushing unit shall be tested for mercury during the first month of using the lamp crushing unit and whenever the unit is modified or replaced, and annually thereafter. In addition, all connection points for hoses circulating air from within the unit, the seal between the unit and the drum, and openings in the crushing unit (e.g., the lamp feed tube) shall also be tested for mercury release during the first month of lamp crushing operation and annually thereafter. Routine maintenance of the machine does not constitute modified or replaced for purposes of requiring ambient air testing. Ambient air shall be tested within five feet of the lamp crushing device. Exhaust air and other tests shall be performed within two inches of the designated testing points on the lamp crushing device. All mercury testing required by this section shall be performed at a time when the lamp crushing device is being used to crush mercury-containing lamps.

(2) Testing for mercury releases from lamp crushing units shall be performed using a mercury vapor analyzer that has been approved for the application by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Virginia Department of Labor and Industry, or a comparable device that has been calibrated by the manufacturer or laboratory providing the equipment. Mercury vapor monitors used for testing must be capable of detecting mercury at the applicable concentrations provided below or lower in air and must be equipped with a data recording device to provide a record of measurements taken. Mercury monitoring data shall be documented and available for inspection per subdivision 8 of this subsection. The acute exposure protectiveness standard is 300 µg/m3 for a 10-minute exposure with the understanding that the acute exposure protectiveness standard is considered a ceiling value and at no time during bulb crushing operation will the air concentrations of mercury exceed 300 µg/m3. Alternately, compliance with the acute exposure protectiveness standard may be demonstrated by comparing the 95% upper confidence level of the mean of the individual data points to the standard. The following are risk-based protectiveness standards at a distance of five feet from the bulb crushing unit:

Monthly Bulb Crushing Duration (X Hours/Month)*

Chronic Exposure Air Emission Limit (µg/m3)

Acute Exposure Air Emission Limit (µg/m3)

X ≥ 32

1.314skin µg/m3

300 µg/m3

8 < X < 32

6.317 skin µg/m3

300 µg/m3

X ≤ 8

27.375 skin µg/m3

300µg/m3

X ≤ 2

and no more than 220 lbs/month or 100 kg/month of bulbs crushed

Monitoring not required

Monitoring not required

*Monthly crushing duration is determined based on the maximum number of hours that bulb crushing occurred in any one month over the last 12-month period.

(3) Any lamp crushing device that, when tested as described in subdivisions 7 n (1) and 7 n (2) of this subsection, fails to meet the criteria specified in subdivision 7 n (2) of this subsection, must immediately be removed from service. Lamp crushing devices removed from service under this subdivision may not be returned to service until the device has been inspected and repaired, and in subsequent testing has been shown to meet the specified criteria. Test data and documentation of repairs shall be kept in the facility record and available for inspection per subdivision 8 of this subsection.

(4) The facility shall document the amount of time spent crushing lamps and this information shall be maintained in the facility record and available for inspection per subdivision 8 of this subsection.

8. A copy of all records, notifications, certifications, and reports required by this section shall be kept on site and be available for examination by the department for a period of at least three years.

9. All requirements of this section shall be immediately effective for all new facilities beginning operations on or after January 1, 2017. All requirements of this section shall be effective for all existing facilities no later than April 1, 2017.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6921 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 260 through 272.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 15, Issue 09, eff. February 17, 1999; amended, Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 11, eff. March 13, 2002; Volume 33, Issue 05, eff. January 1, 2017; Volume 35, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2019.

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