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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 20. Virginia Waste Management Board
Chapter 60. Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations
12/5/2021

9VAC20-60-265. Adoption of 40 CFR Part 265 by reference.

A. Except as otherwise provided, the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR Part 265 are hereby incorporated as part of the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are parts of 40 CFR Part 265 are also hereby incorporated as parts of the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations.

B. In all locations in these regulations where 40 CFR Part 265 is incorporated by reference, the following additions, modifications, and exceptions shall amend the incorporated text for the purpose of its incorporation into these regulations:

1. Sections 40 CFR 265.1(c)(4), 40 CFR 265.149 and 40 CFR 265.150 and Subpart R of 40 CFR Part 265 are not included in the incorporation of 40 CFR Part 265 by reference and are not a part of the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations.

2. In 40 CFR 265.1(c)(14) and wherever elsewhere in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations there is a listing of universal wastes or a listing of hazardous wastes that are the subject of provisions set out in 40 CFR Part 273 as universal wastes, it shall be amended by addition of the following sentence: "In addition to the hazardous wastes listed here, the term "universal waste" and all lists of universal waste or waste subject to provision of 40 CFR Part 273 shall include those hazardous wastes listed in Part XVI (9VAC20-60-1495 et seq.) of the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations as universal wastes, in accordance with the terms and requirements described."

3. A copy of all reports and notices made in accordance with 40 CFR 265.12 shall be sent to the department, the administrator and the chief administrative officer of the local government of the jurisdiction in which the event occurs.

4. In 40 CFR 265.12(a), the term "Regional Administrator" shall mean the Regional Administrator of Region III of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or his designee.

5. In 40 CFR 265.33, the following sentence shall be added to the end of the paragraph: "A record of tests or inspections will be maintained on a log at that facility or other reasonably accessible and convenient location."

6. In addition to the notifications required by 40 CFR 265.56(d)(2), notification shall be made to the on-scene coordinator, the National Response Center, and the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, Emergency Operations Center. In the associated report filed under 40 CFR 265.56(i), the owner or operator shall include such other information specifically requested by the director, which is reasonably necessary and relevant to the purpose of an operating record.

7. In addition to the requirements of 40 CFR 265.91, a log shall be made of each groundwater monitoring well describing the soils or rock encountered, the permeability of formations, and the cation exchange capacity of soils encountered. A copy of the logs with appropriate maps shall be sent to the department.

8. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 265.143(g) and 40 CFR 265.145(g): "An owner or operator may use a financial assurance mechanism specified in this section to meet the requirements of this section for more than one facility in Virginia. Evidence of financial assurance submitted to the department must include a list showing, for each facility, the EPA Identification Number, name, address, and the amount of funds for closure or post-closure assured by the mechanism. The amount of funds available through the mechanism must be no less than the sum of funds that would be available if a separate mechanism had been established and maintained for each facility. In directing funds available through the mechanism for closure or post-closure care of any of the facilities covered by the mechanism, the director may direct only the amount of funds designated for that facility, unless the owner or operator agrees to the use of additional funds available under the mechanism.

9. In 40 CFR 265.147(a)(1)(ii), 40 CFR 265.147(g)(2), and 40 CFR 265.147(i)(4), the term "Virginia" shall not be substituted for the term "State" or "States."

10. In 40 CFR 265.191(a), the compliance date of January 12, 1988, applies only for HSWA tanks. For non-HSWA tanks, the compliance date is November 2, 1986.

11. In 40 CFR 265.191(c), the reference to July 14, 1986, applies only to HSWA tanks. For non-HSWA tanks, the applicable date is November 2, 1987.

12. In 40 CFR 265.193, the federal effective dates apply only to HSWA tanks. For non-HSWA tanks, the applicable date of January 12, 1987, is replaced with November 2, 1997.

13. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 265.440(a): "The requirements of this subpart apply to owners and operators of facilities that use new or existing drip pads to convey wood drippage, precipitation and/or surface water run-off to an associated collection system. Existing HSWA drip pads are those constructed before December 6, 1990, and those for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into a binding financial or other agreement for construction prior to December 6, 1990. Existing non-HSWA drip pads are those constructed before January 14, 1993, and those for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into a binding financial or other agreement for construction prior to January 14, 1993. All other drip pads are new drip pads. The requirement at 40 CFR 265.443(b)(3) to install a leak collection system applies only to those HSWA drip pads that are constructed after December 24, 1992, except for those constructed after December 24, 1992, for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into a binding financial or other agreement for construction prior to December 24, 1992. For non-HSWA drip pads, the requirement at 40 CFR 264.573(b)(3) to install a leak collection system applies only to those non-HSWA drip pads that are constructed after September 8, 1993, except for those constructed after September 8, 1993, for which the owner or operator has a design and has entered into a binding financial or other agreement for construction prior to September 8, 1993."

14. In 40 CFR 265.1083(c)(4)(ii), the second occurrence of the term "EPA" shall mean the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

15. In addition to the requirements of 40 CFR 265.310, the owner or operator shall consider at least the following factors in addressing the closure and post-closure care objectives of this part:

a. Type and amount of hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents in the landfill;

b. The mobility and the expected rate of migration of the hazardous waste and hazardous waste constituents;

c. Site location, topography, and surrounding land use, with respect to the potential effects of pollutant migration;

d. Climate, including amount, frequency and pH of precipitation;

e. Characteristics of the cover, including material, final surface contours, thickness, porosity and permeability, slope, length of run of slope, and type of vegetation on the cover; and

f. Geological and soil profiles and surface and subsurface hydrology of the site.

16. Additionally, during the post-closure care period, the owner or operator of a hazardous waste landfill shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR 265.116 and the following items:

a. Maintain the function and integrity of the final cover as specified in the approved closure plan;

b. Maintain and monitor the leachate collection, removal, and treatment system, if present, to prevent excess accumulation of the leachate in the system;

c. Maintain and monitor the landfill gas collection and control system, if present, to control the vertical and horizontal escape of gases;

d. Protect and maintain, if present, surveyed benchmarks; and

e. Restrict access to the landfill as appropriate for its post-closure use.

17. The underground injection of hazardous waste for treatment, storage or disposal shall be prohibited throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.

18. Regulated units of the facility are those units used for storage treatment or disposal of hazardous waste in surface impoundments, waste piles, land treatment units, or landfills that received hazardous waste after July 26, 1982. In addition to the requirements of Subpart G of 40 CFR Part 265, owners or operators of regulated units who manage hazardous wastes in regulated units shall comply with the closure and post-closure requirements contained in Subpart G of 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart H of 40 CFR Part 264, and Subpart K of 40 CFR Part 264 through Subpart N of 40 CFR Part 264, as applicable, and shall comply with the requirements in Subpart F of 40 CFR Part 264 during any post-closure care period and for the extended ground water monitoring period, rather than the equivalent requirements contained in 40 CFR Part 265. The following provisions shall also apply:

a. For owners or operators of surface impoundments or waste piles included above who intend to remove all hazardous wastes at closure in accordance with 40 CFR 264.228(a)(1) or 40 CFR 264.258(a), as applicable, submittal of contingent closure and contingent post-closure plans is not required. However, if the facility is subsequently required to close as a landfill in accordance with Subpart N of 40 CFR Part 264, a modified closure plan shall be submitted no more than 30 days after such determination. These plans will be processed as closure plan amendments. For such facilities, the corresponding post-closure plan shall be submitted within 90 days of the determination that the unit shall be closed as a landfill.

b. A permit application as required under 9VAC20-60-270 to address the post-closure care requirements of 40 CFR 264.117 and for groundwater monitoring requirements of 40 CFR 264.98, 40 CFR 264.99, or 40 CFR 264.100, as applicable, shall be submitted for all regulated units that fail to satisfy the requirements of closure by removal or decontamination in 40 CFR 264.228(a)(1), 40 CFR 264.258(a), or 40 CFR 264.280(d) and 40 CFR 264.280(e), as applicable. The permit application shall be submitted at the same time as the closure plan for those units closing with wastes in place and six months following the determination that closure by removal or decontamination is unachievable for those units attempting such closure. The permit application shall address the post-closure care maintenance of both the final cover and the groundwater monitoring wells as well as the implementation of the applicable groundwater monitoring program whenever contaminated soils, subsoils, liners, etc., are left in place. When all contaminated soils, subsoils, liners, etc., have been removed yet groundwater contamination remains, the permit application shall address the post-closure care maintenance of the ground water monitoring wells as well as the implementation of the applicable ground water monitoring program.

c. In addition to the requirements of 40 CFR 264.112(d)(2)(i) for requesting an extension to the one-year limit, the owner or operator shall demonstrate that he will continue to take all steps to prevent threats to human health and the environment.

d. In addition to the requirements of 40 CFR 264.119(c), the owner or operator shall also request a modification to the post-closure permit if he wishes to remove contaminated structures and equipment.

19. In 40 CFR 265.71, the terms "EPA" and "Environmental Protection Agency" shall mean the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the reference to "system" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency's national electronic manifest system.

20. Subpart FF of 40 CFR Part 265 shall not be incorporated into this chapter.

21. Requirements for mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities. The following requirements apply to all facilities that recover or reclaim mercury from lamps:

a. All owners and operators of mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities shall:

(1) Have established markets for the utilization of reclaimed materials and be able to identify these markets to the department;

(2) Only introduce into the processing equipment lamps or devices for which the equipment was specifically designed to process and operate and maintain processing equipment consistent with the equipment manufacturer's specifications; and

(3) Not speculatively accumulate the materials.

b. If a mercury-containing lamp recycling facility's processed materials are to be delivered to a facility other than a mercury reclamation facility, the owner or operator shall:

(1) Demonstrate proper equipment operation and efficiency by sampling and analytical testing of the processed materials. The testing shall ensure that such processed materials (i) have less than three parts per million of "average mercury" during each consecutive 12-week time period of operations ("average mercury" shall be calculated pursuant to subdivision 21 b (3) of this subsection); (ii) have less than five parts per million of total mercury as reported in the "weekly composite sample of process operations" ("weekly composite sample of process operations" shall be calculated pursuant to subdivision 21 b (3) of this subsection); (iii) are not a hazardous waste; and (iv) comply with 40 CFR Part 268, if applicable.

(2) Retest, reprocess, or deliver to a mercury reclamation facility processed materials that are in excess of the allowable levels of mercury specified in subdivision 21 b (1) of this subsection.

(3) Sample and perform analytical testing of the processed material for total mercury as follows:

(a) Facility operators shall take daily physical samples of the mercury-containing materials at the point at which they exit the processing equipment. These samples shall be representative of the materials processed during that day.

(b) At the beginning of each week, the prior week's daily samples shall be consolidated into one weekly sample that shall be submitted for chemical analysis of total mercury content using an approved EPA methodology. At least three separate daily samples shall be taken in order to obtain a weekly sample. When a facility is not operating at least three days during a week, that week will be dropped out of the 12-week rolling average as calculated under subdivision 21 b (3) (c) of this subsection. However, all daily samples that are in a week that has been dropped out shall be counted towards the very next weekly sample that is included in a 12-week rolling average. The result of this analysis shall be considered the "weekly composite sample of process operations."

(c) The "average mercury" value calculation shall be the rolling average of weekly composite sample results from samples taken during the most recent 12-week time period with each new weekly composite sample result replacing the oldest sample result that was used in the previous 12-week period.

c. Mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities shall ensure that the separated materials that are generated from their operations are suitable and safe for their intended end use and shall bear the burden of responsibility for the safety of these materials sold or delivered from the operations. Facilities shall notify in writing receiving sources, other than mercury reclamation facilities, of the amount and type of any hazardous substances present in the processed materials as demonstrated by laboratory analysis.

d. Operating requirements. Mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities shall be operated in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities shall control mercury emissions through the use of a single air handling system with redundant mercury controls and comply with the following:

(a) The owner or operator shall operate, monitor, and maintain an air handling system with redundant air pollution control equipment in order to reduce the mercury content of the air collected during the volume reduction and mercury recovery and reclamation processes.

(b) Redundant air pollution control equipment shall incorporate at least two carbon filters or equivalent technology arranged in a series so that the air passes through both filters before being released. In the event of a single filter failure, each filter shall be designed to ensure compliance with the risk-based protectiveness standards for mercury vapor provided in subdivision 21 e of this subsection.

(c) A sample of air shall be collected after the first carbon filter (or equivalent technology) and upstream of the second once each operating day while mercury-containing lamps or devices are being processed. The mercury content of the sample shall be determined for comparison with the risk-based protectiveness standards provided in subdivision 21 e of this subsection.

(d) The owner or operator shall operate, monitor, and maintain the air pollution control equipment in such a manner as not to exceed the risk-based protectiveness standards under subdivision 21 e of this subsection for mercury vapor downstream of the first carbon filter (or equivalent technology) and upstream of the second carbon filter.

(2) The area in which the processing equipment is located shall be fully enclosed and kept under negative pressure while processing mercury-containing lamps or devices.

e. Testing for mercury releases from lamp crushing units shall be performed using a mercury vapor analyzer that has been approved for the application by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the Virginia Department of Labor and Industry or a comparable device that has been calibrated by the manufacturer or laboratory providing the equipment. Mercury vapor monitors used for testing must be capable of detecting mercury at the applicable concentrations provided in this subdivision or lower in air and must be equipped with a data recording device to provide a record of measurements taken. Mercury monitoring data shall be documented and available for inspection in accordance with subdivision 21 g of this subsection. The acute exposure protectiveness standard is 300 µg/m3 for a 10-minute exposure with the understanding that the acute exposure protectiveness standard is considered a ceiling value and at no time during bulb crushing operation will the air concentrations of mercury exceed 300 µg/m3. The following are risk-based protectiveness standards at a distance of five feet from the bulb crushing unit:

Monthly Bulb Crushing Duration (X Hours/Month)*

Chronic Exposure Air Emission Limit (µg/m3)

Acute Exposure Air Emission Limit (µg/m3)

X ≥ 32

1.314skin µg/m3

300 µg/m3

8 < X < 32

6.317 skin µg/m3

300 µg/m3

X ≤ 8

27.375 skin µg/m3

300 µg/m3

*Monthly crushing duration is determined based on the maximum number of hours that bulb crushing occurred in any one month over the last 12-month period.

f. Closure. Mercury-containing lamp recycling facilities must prepare and maintain a closure plan conforming to the requirements of 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart G as adopted by reference in this section. Financial assurance shall be provided to the department in accordance with 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart H as adopted by reference in this section.

g. Recordkeeping requirements. The owner or operator of a mercury-containing lamp recycling facility shall maintain records of monitoring information that (i) specify the date, place, and time of measurement; (ii) provide the methodology used; and (iii) list the analytical results. The records maintained shall include all calibration and maintenance records of monitoring equipment. The owner or operator shall retain records of all monitoring data and supporting information available for department inspection for a period of at least three years from the date of collection.

22. In 40 CFR 265.12, the term "EPA" shall mean the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6921 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 260 through 272.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 15, Issue 9, eff. February 17, 1999; amended, Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 11, eff. March 13, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 18, eff. July 1, 2003; Volume 33, Issue 5, eff. January 1, 2017; Volume 34, Issue 14, eff. April 8, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2019.

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