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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 20. Virginia Waste Management Board
Chapter 81. Solid Waste Management Regulations
9/27/2020

9VAC20-81-140. Operation Requirements.

The operation of all sanitary, CDD, and industrial landfills shall be governed by the standards set forth in this section. Landfill operations will be detailed in an operations manual that shall be maintained in the operating record in accordance with 9VAC20-81-485. This operations manual will include an operations plan, an inspection plan, a health and safety plan, an unauthorized waste control plan, an emergency contingency plan, and a landscaping plan meeting the requirements of this section and 9VAC20-81-485. This manual shall be made available to the department when requested. If the applicable standards of this chapter and the landfill's Operations Manual conflict, this chapter shall take precedence.

A. Landfill operational performance standards.

1. Safety hazards to operating personnel shall be controlled through an active safety program consistent with the requirements of 29 CFR Part 1910, as amended.

2. A groundwater monitoring program meeting the requirements of 9VAC20-81-250 shall be implemented, as applicable.

3. A corrective action program meeting the requirements of 9VAC20-81-260 is required whenever the groundwater protection standard is exceeded at statistically significant levels.

4. Open burning at active landfills.

a. Owners or operators shall ensure that the units do not violate any applicable requirements developed by the State Air Pollution Control Board or promulgated by the EPA administrator pursuant to § 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 USC §§ 7401 to 7671q).

b. Open burning of solid waste, except for infrequent burning of agricultural wastes, silvicultural wastes, land-clearing debris, diseased trees, or debris from emergency cleanup operations is prohibited. There shall be no open burning permitted on areas where solid waste has been disposed of or is being used for active disposal.

c. The owner or operator shall be responsible for extinguishing any fires that may occur at the facility. A fire control plan will be developed that outlines the response of facility personnel to fires. The fire control plan will be provided as an attachment to the emergency contingency plan required under the provisions of 9VAC20-81-485. The fire control plan will be available for review upon request by the public. There shall be no open burning permitted on areas where solid waste has been disposed or is being used for active disposal.

5. Except as provided in 9VAC20-81-130 K, owners or operators shall implement a gas management plan in accordance with 9VAC20-81-200 to control landfill gas such that:

a. The concentration of methane gas generated by the landfill does not exceed 25% of the lower explosive limit for methane in landfill structures (excluding gas control or recovery system components); and

b. The concentration of methane gas does not exceed the lower explosive limit for methane at the facility boundary.

6. Landfills shall not:

a. Allow leachate from the landfill to drain or discharge into surface waters except when treated onsite and discharged into surface water as authorized under a VPDES Permit (9VAC25-31).

b. Cause a discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States, including wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.), including, but not limited to, the VPDES requirements and Virginia Water Quality Standards (9VAC25-260).

c. Cause the discharge of a nonpoint source of pollution to waters of the United States, including wetlands, that violates any requirement of an areawide or statewide water quality management plan that has been approved under § 208 or 319 of the Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.), as amended or violates any requirement of the Virginia Water Quality Standards (9VAC25-260).

d. Allow solid waste to be deposited in or to enter any surface waters or groundwaters.

7. Owners or operators shall maintain the run-on/runoff control systems designed and constructed in accordance with 9VAC20-81-130 H.

8. Access to sanitary, CDD, or noncaptive industrial landfills shall be permitted only when an attendant is on duty and only during daylight hours, unless otherwise specified in the landfill permit.

9. Fencing or other suitable control means shall be used to control litter migration. All litter blown from the landfill operations shall be collected on a weekly basis.

10. Odors and vectors shall be effectively controlled so they do not constitute nuisances or hazards. Odor hazard or nuisances shall be controlled in accordance with 9VAC20-81-200 D. Disease vectors shall be controlled using techniques for the protection of human health and the environment.

11. If salvaging is allowed by a landfill, it shall not interfere with operation of the landfill and shall not create hazards or nuisances.

12. Fugitive dust and mud deposits on main offsite roads and access roads shall be minimized at all times to limit nuisances. Dust shall be controlled to meet the requirements of Article 1 (9VAC5-40-60 et seq.) of Part II of 9VAC5-40.

13. Internal roads in the landfill shall be maintained to be passable in all weather by ordinary vehicles. All operation areas and units shall be accessible.

14. All landfill appurtenances listed in 9VAC20-81-130 shall be properly maintained and operated as designed and approved in the facility's permit.

15. Adequate numbers and types of properly maintained equipment shall be available to a landfill for operation. Provision shall be made for substitute equipment to be available or alternate means implemented to achieve compliance with subdivision B 1, C 1, or D 1 of this section, as applicable, within 24 hours should the former become inoperable or unavailable. Operators with training appropriate to the tasks they are expected to perform and in sufficient numbers for the complexity of the site shall be on the site whenever it is in operation.

16. Self-Inspection. Each landfill shall implement an inspection routine including a schedule for inspecting all applicable major aspects of facility operations necessary to ensure compliance with the requirements of this chapter. Records of these inspections must be maintained in the operating record and available for review. At a minimum, the following aspects of the facility shall be inspected on a monthly basis: erosion and sediment controls, storm water conveyance system, leachate collection system, safety and emergency equipment, internal roads, and operating equipment. The groundwater monitoring system and gas management system shall be inspected at a rate consistent with the system's monitoring frequency.

17. Records to include, at a minimum, date of receipt, quantity by weight or volume, and origin shall be maintained on solid waste received and processed to fulfill the applicable requirements of the Solid Waste Information and Assessment Program under 9VAC20-81-80 and the Control Program for Unauthorized Waste under 9VAC20-81-100 E. Such records shall be made available to the department for examination or use when requested.

B. In addition to the standards in subsection A of this section, sanitary landfills shall also comply with the following:

1. Compaction and cover requirements.

a. Unless provided otherwise in the permit, solid waste shall be spread into two-foot layers or less and compacted at the working face, which shall be confined to the smallest area practicable.

b. Lift heights shall be sized in accordance with daily waste volumes. Lift height is not recommended to exceed 10 feet.

c. Daily cover consisting of at least six inches of compacted soil or other approved material shall be placed upon and maintained on all exposed solid waste prior to the end of each operating day, or at more frequent intervals if necessary, to control disease vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging. Alternate materials of an alternate thickness may be approved by the department if it has been demonstrated that the alternate material and thickness control disease vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging without presenting a threat to human health and the environment. At least three days of acceptable cover soil or approved material at the average usage rate shall be maintained at the landfill or readily available at all times.

d. Intermediate cover of at least six inches of additional compacted soil shall be applied and maintained whenever an additional lift of refuse is not to be applied within 30 days. Further, all areas with intermediate cover exposed shall be inspected as needed, but not less than weekly. Additional cover material shall be placed on all cracked, eroded, and uneven areas as required to maintain the integrity of the intermediate cover system.

e. Final cover construction will be initiated and maintained in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-160 D 2 when the following pertain:

(1) An additional lift of solid waste is not to be applied within one year, or a longer period as required by the facility's phased development.

(2) Any area of a landfill attains final elevation and within 90 days after such elevation is reached or longer if specified in the landfill's approved closure plan.

(3) An entire landfill's permit is terminated for any reason, and within 90 days of such denial or termination.

f. Vegetation shall be established and maintained on all exposed final cover material within four months after placement, or as specified by the department when seasonal conditions do not permit. Mowing will be conducted a minimum of once a year or at a frequency suitable for the vegetation and climate.

g. Areas where waste has been disposed that have not received waste within 30 days will not have slopes exceeding the final cover slopes specified in the permit or 33% unless steeper slopes are approved in the permit.

2. The active working face of a sanitary landfill shall be kept as small as practicable, determined by the tipping demand for unloading.

3. A sanitary landfill that is located within 10,000 feet of any airport runway used for turbojet aircraft or 5,000 feet of any airport runway used by only piston type aircraft, shall operate in such a manner that the landfill does not increase or pose additional bird hazards to aircraft.

4. Sanitary landfills shall not dispose of the following wastes, except as specifically authorized by the landfill permit or by the department:

a. Free liquids.

(1) Bulk or noncontainerized liquid waste, unless:

(a) The waste is household waste; or

(b) The waste is gas condensate derived from that landfill;

(c) The waste is leachate derived from that landfill and the landfill is designed with a composite liner and leachate collection system as described in 9VAC20-81-130 J 1 a and 9VAC20-81-130 L; or

(2) Containers holding liquid waste, unless:

(a) The container is a small container similar in size to that normally found in household waste;

(b) The container is designed to hold liquids for use other than storage; or

(c) The waste is household waste.

b. Regulated hazardous wastes as defined by the Virginia Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-60).

c. Solid wastes, residues, or soils containing more than 1.0 ppb (parts per billion) TEF (dioxins).

d. Solid wastes, residues, or soils containing 50.0 ppm (parts per million) or more of PCB's except as allowed under the provisions of 9VAC20-81-630.

e. Sludges that have not been dewatered.

f. Contaminated soil unless approved by the department in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-610 or 9VAC20-81-660.

g. Regulated medical waste as specified in the Regulated Medical Waste Management Regulations (9VAC20-120).

5. Chloroflourocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and PCBs must be removed from white goods prior to placement on the working face.

C. In addition to the standards in subsection A of this section, Construction/demolition/debris landfills shall also comply with the following:

1. Compaction and cover requirements.

a. Waste materials shall be compacted in shallow layers during the placement of disposal lifts to minimize differential settlement.

b. Compacted soil cover shall be applied as needed for safety and aesthetic purposes. A minimum one-foot thick progressive cover shall be maintained weekly such that the top of the lift is fully covered at the end of the work week. If the landfill accepts Category I or II nonfriable asbestos-containing material for disposal, daily soil cover shall be placed upon all exposed Category I or II nonfriable asbestos-containing material prior to the end of each operating day. The open working face of a landfill shall be kept as small as practicable, determined by the tipping demand for unloading.

c. When waste deposits have reached final elevations, or disposal activities are interrupted for 15 days or more, waste deposits shall receive a one-foot thick intermediate cover unless soil has already been applied in accordance with subdivision 1 b of this subsection and be graded to prevent ponding and to accelerate surface run-off.

d. Final cover construction will be initiated and maintained in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-160 D 2 when the following pertain:

(1) An additional lift of solid waste is not to be applied within one year, or a longer period as required by the facility's phased development.

(2) Any area of a landfill attains final elevation and within 90 days after such elevation is reached or longer if specified in the landfill's approved closure plan.

(3) An entire landfill's permit is terminated for any reason, and within 90 days of such denial or termination.

e. Vegetation shall be established and maintained on all exposed final cover material within four months after placement, or as specified by the department when seasonal conditions do not permit. Mowing will be conducted a minimum of once a year or at a frequency suitable for the vegetation and climate.

f. Areas where waste has been disposed that have not received waste within 30 days will not have slopes exceeding the final cover slopes specified in the permit or 33%.

2. Chloroflourocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and PCBs must be removed from white goods prior to placement on the working face.

D. In addition to the standards in subsection A of this section, Industrial Landfills shall also comply with the following:

1. Compaction and cover requirements.

a. Unless provided otherwise in the permit, solid waste shall be spread and compacted at the working face, which shall be confined to the smallest area practicable.

b. Lift heights shall be sized according to the volume of waste received daily and the nature of the industrial waste. A lift height is not required for materials such as fly ash that are not compactable.

c. Where it is necessary for the specific waste, such as Category I or II nonfriable asbestos-containing material, daily soil cover, or other suitable material shall be placed upon all exposed solid waste prior to the end of each operating day. For wastes such as fly ash and bottom ash from burning of fossil fuels, periodic cover to minimize exposure to precipitation and control dust or dust control measures such as surface wetting or crusting agents shall be applied. At least three days of acceptable cover soil or approved material at the average usage rate shall be maintained at the fill at all times at facilities where daily cover is required unless an offsite supply is readily available on a daily basis.

d. Intermediate cover of at least one foot of compacted soil shall be applied whenever an additional lift of refuse is not to be applied within 30 days unless the owner or operator demonstrates to the satisfaction of the director that an alternate cover material or an alternate schedule will be protective of public health and the environment. In the case of facilities where fossil fuel combustion products are removed for beneficial use, intermediate cover must be applied in any area where ash has not been placed or removed for 30 days or more. Further, all areas with intermediate cover exposed shall be inspected as needed but not less than weekly and additional cover material shall be placed on all cracked, eroded, and uneven areas as required to maintain the integrity of the intermediate cover system.

e. Final cover construction will be initiated in accordance with the requirements of 9VAC20-81-160 D 2 when the following pertain:

(1) When an additional lift of solid waste is not to be applied within two years or a longer period as required by the facility's phased development.

(2) When any area of a landfill attains final elevation and within 90 days after such elevation is reached or longer if specified in the landfill's approved closure plan.

(3) When a landfill's permit is terminated within 90 days of such denial or termination.

f. Vegetation shall be established and maintained on all exposed final cover material within four months after placement, or as otherwise specified by the department when seasonal conditions do not otherwise permit. Mowing will be conducted a minimum of once a year or at a frequency suitable for the vegetation and climate.

2. Incinerator and air pollution control residues containing no free liquids shall be incorporated into the working face and covered at such intervals as necessary to minimize them from becoming airborne.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Part 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 22, eff. August 3, 2011.

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