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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 25. State Water Control Board
Chapter 192. Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Regulation and General Permit for Animal Feeding Operations and Animal Waste Management

9VAC25-192-90. Utilization and storage requirements for transferred animal waste.

A. An animal waste end-user who receives animal waste from an owner or operator of an animal feeding operation covered by a VPA or VPDES permit shall comply with the requirements outlined in this section.

B. Storage requirements. An animal waste end-user who receives animal waste from an owner or operator of an animal feeding operation covered by a VPA or VPDES permit shall comply with the requirements outlined in this subsection regarding storage of animal waste in his possession or under his control.

1. Animal waste shall be stored in a manner that prevents contact with surface water and groundwater. Animal waste that is stockpiled outside for more than 14 days shall be kept in a facility or at a site that provides adequate storage. Adequate storage shall, at a minimum, include the following:

a. Animal waste shall be covered to protect it from precipitation and wind;

b. Stormwater shall not run onto or under the stored animal waste;

c. A minimum of two feet separation distance to the seasonal high water table or an impermeable barrier shall be used under the stored waste. All waste storage facilities that use an impermeable barrier shall maintain a minimum of one foot separation between the seasonal high water table and the impermeable barrier. "Seasonal high water table" means that portion of the soil profile where a color change has occurred in the soil as a result of saturated soil conditions or where soil concretions have formed. Typical colors are gray mottlings, solid gray, or black. The depth in the soil at which these conditions first occur is termed the seasonal high water table. Impermeable barriers shall be constructed of at least 12 inches of compacted clay, at least four inches of reinforced concrete, or another material of similar structural integrity that has a minimum permeability rating of 0.0014 inches per hour (1X10-6 centimeters per second); and

d. For animal waste that is not stored in a waste storage facility or under roof, the storage site must be at least 100 feet from any surface water, intermittent drainage, wells, sinkholes, rock outcrops, and springs.

2. Any liquid animal waste collection and storage facility shall be designed and operated to (i) prevent point source discharges of pollutants to state waters except in the case of a storm event greater than the 25-year, 24-hour storm and (ii) provide adequate waste storage capacity to accommodate periods when the ground is frozen or saturated, periods when land application of nutrients should not occur due to limited or nonexistent crop nutrient uptake, and periods when physical limitations prohibit the land application of waste.

3. Waste storage facilities constructed after December 1, 1998, shall not be located on a 100-year floodplain.

4. Earthen waste storage facilities constructed after December 1, 1998, shall include a properly designed and installed liner. Such liner shall be either a synthetic liner of at least 20 mils thickness or a compacted soil liner of at least one foot thickness with a maximum permeability rating of 0.0014 inches per hour. A Virginia licensed professional engineer or an employee of the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture with appropriate engineering approval authority shall certify that the siting, design, and construction of the waste storage facility comply with the requirements of this subsection. This certification shall be maintained on site.

5. At earthen waste storage facilities constructed below the seasonal high water table, the top surface of the waste must be maintained at a level of at least two feet above the water table.

6. All liquid waste storage or treatment facilities shall maintain at least one foot of freeboard at all times, up to and including a 25-year, 24-hour storm.

C. Land application requirements. An animal waste end-user who (i) receives more than 10 tons of solid or semi-solid animal waste (solid or semi-solid animal waste contains less than 85% moisture) or more than 6,000 gallons of liquid animal waste (liquid animal waste contains 85% or more moisture) from an owner or operator of an animal feeding operation covered by a VPA or VPDES permit and (ii) land applies animal waste shall follow appropriate land application requirements as outlined in this subsection. The application of animal waste shall be managed to minimize adverse water quality impacts.

1. The maximum application rates can be established by the following methods:

a. Phosphorus crop removal application rates can be used when:

(1) Soil test phosphorus levels do not exceed the values listed in the table below:


Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Soil Test (Mehlich I) *

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain


Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont


Ridge and Valley


* If results are from another laboratory the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

(2) The phosphorus crop removal application rates are set forth by regulations promulgated by the Department of Conservation and Recreation in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

b. Animal waste may be applied to any crop once every three years at a rate of no greater than 80 pounds of plant available phosphorus per acre when:

(1) The plant available phosphorus supplied by the animal waste is based on a waste nutrient analysis obtained in the last two years;

(2) In the absence of current soil sample analyses and recommendations; and

(3) Nutrients have not been supplied by an organic source, other than pastured animals, to the proposed land application sites within the previous three years of the proposed land application date of animal waste.

c. Soil test recommendations can be used when:

(1) Accompanied by analysis results for soil tests that have been obtained from the proposed field or fields in the last three years;

(2) The analytical results are from procedures in accordance with 4VAC50-85-140 A 2 f; and

(3) Nutrients from the waste application do not exceed the nitrogen or phosphorus recommendations for the proposed crop or double crops. The recommendations shall be in accordance with 4VAC50-85-140 A 2 a.

d. A nutrient management plan developed by a certified nutrient management planner in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

2. The timing of land application of animal waste shall be appropriate for the crop, and in accordance with 4VAC50-85-140 A 4, except that no waste may be applied to ice covered or snow covered ground or to soils that are saturated.

3. Animal waste shall not be land applied within buffer zones. Buffer zones at waste application sites shall, at a minimum, be maintained as follows:

a. Distance from occupied dwellings: 200 feet (unless the occupant of the dwelling signs a waiver of the buffer zone);

b. Distance from water supply wells or springs: 100 feet;

c. Distance from surface water courses: 100 feet (without a permanent vegetated buffer) or 35 feet (if a permanent vegetated buffer exists). Other site-specific conservation practices may be approved by the department that will provide pollutant reductions equivalent or better than the reductions that would be achieved by the 100-foot buffer;

d. Distance from rock outcropping (except limestone): 25 feet;

e. Distance from limestone outcroppings: 50 feet; and

f. Waste shall not be applied in such a manner that it would discharge to sinkholes that may exist in the area.

D. Animal waste end-users shall maintain the records demonstrating compliance with the requirements of subsections B and C of this section for at least three years and make them available to department personnel upon request.

E. The activities of the animal waste end-user shall not contravene the Water Quality Standards, as amended and adopted by the board, or any provision of the State Water Control Law (§ 62.1-44 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

F. Any duly authorized agent of the board may, at reasonable times and under reasonable circumstances, enter any establishment or upon any property, public or private, for the purpose of obtaining information or conducting surveys or investigations necessary in the enforcement of the provisions of this regulation.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 18, eff. November 16, 2014.

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