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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 80. Permits for Stationary Sources
11/18/2019

9VAC5-80-1410. Definitions.

A. For the purpose of this article and subsequent amendments or any orders issued by the board, the words or terms shall have the meaning given them in subsection C of this section.

B. As used in this section, all terms not defined here shall have the meaning given them in 9VAC5 Chapter 10 (9VAC5-10-10 et seq.), unless otherwise required by context.

C. Terms defined.

"Affected source" means the stationary source, the group of stationary sources, or the portion of a stationary source which is regulated by a MACT standard.

"Affected states" are all states:

1. Whose air quality may be affected and that are contiguous to the Commonwealth; or

2. Whose air quality may be affected and that are within 50 miles of the major source for which a case-by-case MACT determination is made in accordance with this article.

"Available information" means, for purposes of identifying control technology options for the stationary source, information contained in the following information sources as of the date of approval of the permit:

1. A relevant proposed regulation, including all supporting information.

2. Background information documents for a draft or proposed regulation.

3. Data and information available from the Control Technology Center developed pursuant to § 113 of the federal Clean Air Act.

4. Data and information contained in the Aerometric Informational Retrieval System including information in the MACT database.

5. Any additional information that can be expeditiously provided by the administrator.

6. For the purpose of determinations by the board, any additional information provided by the applicant or others, and any additional information considered available by the board.

"Begin actual construction" means initiation of permanent physical on-site construction of an emissions unit. This includes, but is not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying of underground pipework, and construction of permanent storage structures.

"Begin actual reconstruction" means initiation of permanent physical on-site reconstruction of an emissions unit. This includes, but is not limited to, installation of building supports and foundations, laying of underground pipework, and construction of permanent storage structures.

"Best controlled similar source" means a stationary source that (i) has comparable emissions and is structurally similar in design and capacity to other stationary sources such that the stationary sources could be controlled using the same control technology, and (ii) uses a control technology that achieves the lowest emission rate among all other similar sources in the United States.

"Case-by-case MACT determination" means a determination by the board, pursuant to the requirements of this article, which establishes a MACT emission limitation, MACT work practice standard, or other MACT requirements for a stationary source subject to this article.

"Commenced" means, with respect to construction or reconstruction of a stationary source, that the owner has undertaken a continuous program of construction or reconstruction or that an owner has entered into a contractual obligation to undertake and complete, within a reasonable time, a continuous program of construction or reconstruction.

"Complete application" means that the application contains all the information necessary for processing the application and the provisions of § 10.1-1321.1 of the Virginia Air Pollution Control Law have been met. Designating an application complete for purposes of permit processing does not preclude the board from requesting or accepting additional information.

"Construct a major source" means:

1. To fabricate, erect, or install a major source at any undeveloped site; or

2. To fabricate, erect, or install a major process or production unit at any site.

"Construction" means:

1. The fabrication, erection, or installation of a major source at any undeveloped site; or

2. The fabrication, erection, or installation of a major process or production unit at any site.

"Control technology" means measures, processes, methods, systems, or techniques to limit the emission of hazardous air pollutants including, but not limited to, measures that:

1. Reduce the quantity of, or eliminate emissions of, such pollutants through process changes, substitution of materials or other modifications;

2. Enclose systems or processes to eliminate emissions;

3. Collect, capture or treat such pollutants when released from a process, stack, storage or fugitive emissions point;

4. Are design, equipment, work practice, or operational standards (including requirements for operator training or certification); or

5. Are a combination of subdivisions 1 through 4 of this definition.

"Electric utility steam generating unit" means any fossil fuel fired combustion unit of more than 25 megawatts that serves a generator that produces electricity for sale. A unit that co-generates steam and electricity and supplies more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 megawatts electric output to any utility power distribution system for sale shall be considered an electric utility steam generating unit.

"Emergency" means, in the context of 9VAC5-80-1580 C, a situation where immediate action on the part of a source is needed and where the timing of the action makes it impractical to meet the requirements of this article, such as sudden loss of power, fires, earthquakes, floods or similar occurrences.

"Emissions unit" means any part of a stationary source which emits or would have the potential to emit any hazardous air pollutant.

"Enforceable as a practical matter" means that the permit contains emission limitations that are enforceable by the board or the department and meet the following criteria:

1. Are permanent.

2. Contain a legal obligation for the owner to adhere to the terms and conditions.

3. Do not allow a relaxation of a requirement of the state implementation plan.

4. Are technically accurate and quantifiable.

5. Include averaging times or other provisions that allow at least monthly (or a shorter period if necessary to be consistent with the emission standard) checks on compliance. This may include, but not be limited to, the following: compliance with annual limits in a rolling basis, monthly or shorter limits, and other provisions consistent with 9VAC5-80-1490 and other regulations of the board.

6. Require a level of recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring sufficient to demonstrate compliance.

"EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

"Federal operating permit" means a permit issued under Article 1 (9VAC5-80-50 et seq.) or Article 3 (9VAC5-80-360 et seq.) of this part.

"Federally enforceable" means all limitations and conditions which are enforceable by the administrator and citizens under the federal Clean Air Act or that are enforceable under other statutes administered by the administrator. Federally enforceable limitations and conditions include but are not limited to the following:

1. Emission standards, alternative emission standards, alternative emission limitations, and equivalent emission limitations established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act as amended in 1990.

2. New source performance standards established pursuant to § 111 of the federal Clean Air Act, and emission standards established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act before it was amended in 1990.

3. All terms and conditions in a federal operating permit, including any provisions that limit a source's potential to emit, unless expressly designated as not federally enforceable.

4. Limitations and conditions that are part of an approved State Implementation Plan (SIP) or a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP).

5. Limitations and conditions that are part of a federal construction permit issued under 40 CFR 52.21 or any construction permit issued under regulations approved by EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part 51. This does not include limitations and conditions that are established to address plans, programs, or regulatory requirements that are enforceable only by the Commonwealth.

6. Limitations and conditions that are part of an operating permit issued pursuant to a program approved by EPA into a SIP as meeting EPA's minimum criteria for federal enforceability, including adequate notice and opportunity for EPA and public comment prior to issuance of the final permit and practicable enforceability. This does not include limitations and conditions that are established to address plans, programs, or regulatory requirements that are enforceable only by the Commonwealth.

7. Limitations and conditions in a Virginia regulation or program that has been approved by EPA under subpart E of 40 CFR Part 63 for the purposes of implementing and enforcing § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act.

8. Individual consent agreements that EPA has legal authority to create.

"Fixed capital cost" means the capital needed to provide all the depreciable components of an existing source.

"Fugitive emissions" means those emissions which could not reasonably pass through a stack, chimney, vent, or other functionally equivalent opening.

"Hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed in § 112(b) of the federal Clean Air Act as amended by 40 CFR 63.60.

"MACT standard" means (i) an emission standard; (ii) an alternative emission standard; or (iii) an alternative emission limitation promulgated in 40 CFR Part 63 that applies to the stationary source, the group of stationary sources, or the portion of a stationary source regulated by such standard or limitation. A MACT standard may include or consist of a design, equipment, work practice, or operational requirement, or other measure, process, method, system, or technique (including prohibition of emissions) that the administrator establishes for new or existing sources to which such standard or limitation applies. Every MACT standard established pursuant to § 112 of the federal Clean Air Act includes subpart A of 40 CFR Part 63 and all applicable appendices of 40 CFR Part 63 or of other parts of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations that are referenced in that standard.

"Major process or production unit" means any process or production unit which in and of itself emits or has the potential to emit 10 tons per year of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year of any combination of hazardous air pollutants.

"Major source" means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants, unless the board establishes a lesser quantity, or in the case of radionuclides, different criteria from those specified in this definition.

"Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) emission limitation" means the emission limitation which is not less stringent than the emission limitation achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source, and which reflects the maximum degree of reduction in emissions that the board, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reduction and any nonair quality health and environmental impacts and energy requirements, determines is achievable by the constructed or reconstructed major source.

"New source review program" means a program for the preconstruction review and permitting of new stationary sources or expansions to existing ones in accordance with regulations promulgated to implement the requirements of §§ 110(a)(2)(C), 165 (relating to permits in prevention of significant deterioration areas) and 173 (relating to permits in nonattainment areas) and 112 (relating to permits for hazardous air pollutants) of the federal Clean Air Act.

"Permit" means a document issued pursuant to this article containing all federally enforceable conditions necessary to enforce the application and operation of any maximum achievable control technology or other control technologies such that the MACT emission limitation is met.

"Potential to emit" means the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment, and restrictions on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or its effect on emissions is state and federally enforceable.

"Presumptive MACT" means a preliminary MACT determination made by EPA, in consultation with states and other stakeholders, after data on a source category's emissions and controls have been collected and analyzed, but before the MACT standard has been promulgated.

"Process or production unit" means any collection of structures or equipment or both, that processes, assembles, applies, or otherwise uses material inputs to produce or store an intermediate or final product. A single facility may contain more than one process or production unit.

"Public comment period" means a time during which the public shall have the opportunity to comment on the permit application information (exclusive of confidential information), the preliminary review and analysis, and the preliminary decision of the board regarding the permit application.

"Reconstruct a major source" means to replace components at an existing major process or production unit whenever:

1. The fixed capital cost of the new components exceeds 50% of the fixed capital cost that would be required to construct a comparable new process or production unit; and

2. It is technically and economically feasible for the reconstructed major source to meet the applicable standard for new sources established in a permit.

"Reconstruction" means the replacement of components at an existing major process or production unit whenever:

1. The fixed capital cost of the new components exceeds 50% of the fixed capital cost that would be required to construct a comparable new process or production unit; and

2. It is technologically and economically feasible for the reconstructed process or production unit to meet the applicable standard for new sources established in a permit.

"Research and development activities" means activities conducted at a research or laboratory facility whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development into new processes and products, where such source is operated under the close supervision of technically trained personnel and is not engaged in the manufacture of products for sale or exchange for commercial profit, except in a de minimis manner.

"Similar source" means a stationary source or process that has comparable emissions and is structurally similar in design and capacity to a constructed or reconstructed major source such that the source could be controlled using the same control technology.

"Source category list" means the list and schedule issued pursuant to § 112(c) and (e) for promulgating MACT standards issued pursuant to § 112(d) of the federal Clean Air Act and published in the Federal Register at 63 FR 7155, February 12, 1998.

"State enforceable" means all limitations and conditions which are enforceable as a practical matter, including those requirements developed pursuant to 9VAC5-170-160, requirements within any applicable order or variance, and any permit requirements established pursuant to this chapter.

"Stationary source" means any building, structure, facility or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant.

"Uncontrolled emission rate" means the emission rate from a source when operating at maximum capacity without air pollution control equipment. Air pollution control equipment is equipment that enables the source to conform to applicable air pollution control laws and regulations and that is not vital to its operation.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1308 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 16, Issue 07, eff. February 1, 2000.

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