Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/15/2024

Article 5. Maintenance and Operation

12VAC5-421-1570. Good repair and proper adjustment.

Article 5
Maintenance and Operation

A. Equipment shall be maintained in a state of repair and condition that meets the requirements specified under Articles 1 (12VAC5-421-960 et seq.) and 2 (12VAC5-421-1080 et seq.) of this part. Unused or non-functioning equipment shall be removed from the premises.

B. Equipment components such as doors, seals, hinges, fasteners, and kick plates shall be kept intact, tight, and adjusted in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

C. Cutting or piercing parts of can openers shall be kept sharp to minimize the creation of metal fragments that can contaminate food when the container is opened.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-1580. Cutting surfaces.

Surfaces such as cutting blocks and boards that are subject to scratching and scoring shall be resurfaced if they can no longer be effectively cleaned and sanitized, or discarded if they are not capable of being resurfaced.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-1590. Microwave ovens.

Microwave ovens shall meet the safety standards specified in 21 CFR 1030.10.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-1600. Warewashing equipment, cleaning frequency.

A warewashing machine; the compartments of sinks, basins, or other receptacles used for washing and rinsing equipment, utensils, or raw foods, or laundering wiping cloths; and drainboards or other equipment used to substitute for drainboards as specified under 12VAC5-421-1470 shall be cleaned:

1. Before use;

2. Throughout the day at a frequency necessary to prevent recontamination of equipment and utensils and to ensure that the equipment performs its intended function; and

3. If used, at least every 24 hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-1610. Warewashing machines, manufacturers' operating instructions.

A. A warewashing machine and its auxiliary components shall be operated in accordance with the machine's data plate and other manufacturer's instructions.

B. A warewashing machine's conveyor speed or automatic cycle times shall be maintained accurately timed in accordance with manufacturer's specifications.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002.

12VAC5-421-1620. Warewashing sinks, use limitation.

A. A warewashing sink shall not be used for handwashing.

B. If a warewashing sink is used to wash wiping cloths, wash produce, or thaw food, the sink shall be cleaned as specified under 12VAC5-421-1600 before and after each time it is used to wash wiping cloths or wash produce or thaw food. Sinks used to wash or thaw food shall be sanitized as specified under Article 7 (12VAC5-421-1885 et seq.) of this part before and after using the sink to wash produce or thaw food.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-1630. Warewashing equipment, cleaning agents.

When used for warewashing, the wash compartment of a sink, mechanical warewasher, or wash receptacle of alternative manual warewashing equipment as specified in 12VAC5-421-1460 C, shall contain a wash solution of soap, detergent, acid cleaner, alkaline cleaner, degreaser, abrasive cleaner, or other cleaning agent according to the cleaning agent manufacturer's label instructions.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1640. Warewashing equipment, clean solutions.

The wash, rinse, and sanitize solutions shall be maintained clean.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-1650. Manual warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

The temperature of the wash solution in manual warewashing equipment shall be maintained at not less than 110°F (43°C) or the temperature specified on the cleaning agent manufacturer's label instructions.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1660. Mechanical warewashing equipment, wash solution temperature.

A. The temperature of the wash solution in spray type warewashers that use hot water to sanitize shall not be less than:

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C);Pf

2. For a stationary rack, dual temperature machine, 150°F (66°C);Pf

3. For a single tank, conveyor, dual temperature machine, 160°F (71°C);Pf or

4. For a multitank, conveyor, multitemperature machine, 150°F (66°C).Pf

B. The temperature of the wash solution in spray-type warewashers that use chemicals to sanitize shall not be less than 120°F (49°C).Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1670. Manual warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.

If immersion in hot water is used for sanitizing in a manual operation, the temperature of the water shall be maintained at 171°F (77°C) or above.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1680. Mechanical warewashing equipment, hot water sanitization temperatures.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, in a mechanical operation, the temperature of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse as it enters the manifold shall not be more than 194°F (90°C), or less than: Pf

1. For a stationary rack, single temperature machine, 165°F (74°C);Pf or

2. For all other machines, 180°F (82°C).Pf

B. The maximum temperature specified under subsection A of this section does not apply to the high pressure and temperature systems with wand-type, hand-held, spraying devices used for the in-place cleaning and sanitizing of equipment such as meat saws.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1690. Mechanical warewashing equipment, sanitization pressure.

The flow pressure of the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse in a warewashing machine, as measured in the water line immediately downstream or upstream from the fresh hot water sanitizing rinse control valve, shall be within the range specified on the machine manufacturer's data plate and may not be less than five pounds per square inch (35 kilopascals) or more than 30 pounds per square inch (200 kilopascals).

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-1700. Manual and mechanical warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization - 2011 temperature, pH, concentration, and hardness.

A chemical sanitizer used in a sanitizing solution for a manual or mechanical operation at contact times specified under subdivision 3 of 12VAC5-421-1900 shall meet the criteria as specified under 12VAC5-421-3380, shall be used in accordance with the EPA-registered label use instructions,P and shall be used as follows:

1. A chlorine solution shall have a minimum temperature based on the concentration and pH of the solution as listed in the following chart:P

Minimum
Concentration

Minimum
Temperature

mg/L (ppm)

pH 10 or less
°F (°C)

pH 8 or less
°F (°C)

25-49

120 (49)

120 (49)

50-99

100 (38)

75 (24)

100

55 (13)

55 (13)

2. An iodine solution shall have a:

a. Minimum temperature of 68°F (20°C);P

b. pH of 5.0 or less or a pH no higher than the level for which the manufacturer specifies the solution is effective;P and

c. Concentration between 12.5 mg/L (ppm) and 25 mg/L (ppm);P

3. A quaternary ammonium compound solution shall:

a. Have a minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C);P

b. Have a concentration as specified under 12VAC5-421-3380 and as indicated by the manufacturer's use directions included in the labeling;P and

c. Be used only in water with 500 mg/L hardness or less or in water having a hardness no greater than specified by the manufacturer's label;P

4. If another solution of a chemical specified under subdivisions 1, 2 and 3 of this section is used, the permit holder shall demonstrate to the department that the solution achieves sanitization and the use of the solution shall be approved;P

5. If a chemical sanitizer other than chlorine, iodine, or a quaternary ammonium compound is used, it shall be applied in accordance with the EPA-registered label use instructions;P and

6. If a chemical sanitizer is generated by a device located on site at the food establishment it shall be used as specified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this section and shall be produced by a device that:

a. Complies with regulation as specified in §§ 2(q)(1) and 12 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),P

b. Complies with 40 CFR 152.500 and 40 CFR 156.10,P

c. Displays the EPA device manufacturing facility registration number on the device,Pf and

d. Is operated and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-1710. Manual warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization using detergent-sanitizers.

If a detergent-sanitizer is used to sanitize in a cleaning and sanitizing procedure where there is no distinct water rinse between the washing and sanitizing steps, the agent applied in the sanitizing step shall be the same detergent-sanitizer that is used in the washing step.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-1720. Warewashing equipment, determining chemical sanitizer concentration.

Concentration of the sanitizing solution shall be accurately determined by using a test kit or other device.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1730. Good repair and calibration.

A. Utensils shall be maintained in a state of repair or condition that complies with the requirements specified under Articles 1 (12VAC5-421-960 et seq.) and 2 (12VAC5-421-1080 et seq.) of this part or shall be discarded.

B. Food temperature measuring devices shall be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer's specifications as necessary to ensure their accuracy.Pf

C. Ambient air temperature, water pressure, and water temperature measuring devices shall be maintained in good repair and be accurate within the intended range of use.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1740. Single-service and single-use articles, required use.

A food establishment without facilities specified under Articles 6 (12VAC5-421-1770 et seq.) and 7 (12VAC5-421-1885 et seq.) of this part for cleaning and sanitizing kitchenware and tableware shall provide only single-use kitchenware, single-service articles, and single-use articles for use by food employees and single-service articles for use by consumers.P

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-1750. Single-service and single-use articles, use limitation.

A. Single-service and single-use articles shall not be reused.

B. The bulk milk container dispensing tube shall be cut on the diagonal leaving no more than one inch protruding from the chilled dispensing head.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

12VAC5-421-1760. Shells, use limitation.

Mollusk and crustacea shells shall not be used more than once as serving containers.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007.

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