Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
4/20/2024

Part III. Inspection Requirements for Passenger Vehicles and Vehicles Up to 10,000 Pounds (Gvwr)

19VAC30-70-80. Service brakes.

A. The inspector, as a minimum, must drive all vehicles into the inspection lane and test both service and parking brakes.

B. A minimum of two wheels, one front and one rear, must be inspected on each passenger and multipurpose vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) or less at the time of inspection, except those listed in subdivisions 1, 2, and 3 of this subsection.

NOTE: If the vehicle is equipped with wheels that do not allow visual access to the braking system, the inspected wheels shall be removed.

NOTE: If the vehicle is equipped with drum brakes, the wheel and drum shall be removed for inspection.

1. Motorcycles.

2. A new model vehicle is defined as a vehicle that has not been titled or leased and is less than one year old, measured from October 1 as of each year; if such motor vehicle does not have a model year, such measurement shall be made from the date of manufacture.

3. Trucks with floating axles that require seal replacement upon removal of rear wheels. The inspection receipt (approval and rejection) shall be marked to reflect which wheels were pulled.

Warning: If wheels are removed to inspect brakes, lug nuts must be torqued to the manufacturer's specifications to prevent damage to disc rotors. The use of an impact wrench may exceed the manufacturer's specifications and damage disc rotors.

C. If any braking problem is detected, the inspector may test drive or require a test drive of the vehicle.

D. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Vehicle is not equipped with brakes or any brake has been disconnected, rendered inoperative, or improperly installed. Trailers having an actual gross weight of less than 3,000 pounds are not required to be equipped with brakes; however, if brakes are installed, these vehicles must be inspected.

Brake System Failure Indicator Lamp

2. Passenger vehicles manufactured after January 1, 1968, are not equipped with a red brake failure warning lamp or warning lamp does not light with parking brake applied when ignition key is turned to the start position, except for anti-lock system. The red brake failure warning lamp should light when the ignition key is turned to the start position; on some imports it may be checked when the emergency brake is applied or other factory installed test button. (DO NOT reject if only the amber ABS/anti-lock brake lamp is on.) With the engine running and parking brake released, the red brake failure warning lamp should go off, except for vehicles equipped with anti-lock system. If so, apply service brake for 10 seconds and if the red brake failure warning lamp lights again the system is defective. Also, if the warning lamp light does not come on when there is a leak or the warning lamp light is not functioning properly, the system is defective and shall be rejected. NOTE: This subdivision does not apply to vehicles registered as street rods nor does it imply that the red brake failure warning lamp needs to light when the emergency brake is set. There are many vehicles that are not factory equipped with an emergency brake indicator light.

Note: Vehicles equipped with a brake pad wear indicator warning light shall not constitute an automatic rejection for the vehicle submitted for a safety inspection. Each vehicle manufacturer has determined an appropriate level to activate the brake pad wear indicator warning light; therefore, it shall be the responsibility of the inspector to confirm whether or not the brake pads have exceeded the established tolerance of 2/32 of an inch.

Brake Linings and Disc Pads

3. Bonded, molded, or riveted linings or disc pads are worn to less than 2/32 of an inch in thickness at any point (not to include manufactured slots) or over the rivet heads.

4. Wire in wire-backed lining is visible in friction surface.

5. Snap-on brake linings are loose.

6. Any lining is broken or cracked so that the lining or parts of the lining are not firmly attached to the shoe or has cracks on the friction surface extending to the open edge.

7. Grease or other contamination is present on the linings, drums, or rotors.

8. Rivets in riveted linings are loose or missing.

9. Any lining or pad is misaligned or does not make full contact with the drum or rotor, with the exception of minor scoring caused by debris, provided it does not affect braking efficiency.

10. Any foreign material or debris caught between a drum or rotor and the brake pad.

Brake Drums and Discs

NOTE: The inspector shall ensure that the minimum measurements in subdivision D 3 of this section are obtained.

11. Brake drums or brake discs (rotors) are worn or scored to the extent that their machining would result in a failure to meet manufacturer's specifications. Use the specification stamped on the rotor or drum if available.

12. Brake drums or brake discs (rotors) are scored to the extent that the braking surface is reduced to the point that the braking efficiency is adversely affected. This does not apply to minor scoring caused by debris.

NOTE: A number of vehicles on the market are equipped with a lock nut to hold the rear brake drum in place. Manufacturers recommend replacement of these lock nuts after each removal to prevent failure of the component. If the customer is advised up front, then the wholesale cost of the replacement nut may be charged to the customer.

NOTE: The proper method to remove the rear brake assembly on the 2000 Ford Focus is to remove the four bolts from the opposite side of the assembly. Removal otherwise may damage the outside grease cap and incur a cost to replace.

13. Brake drums or discs have any external crack or cracks more than one half the width of the friction surface of the drum or disc. NOTE: Do not confuse short hairline heat cracks with flexural cracks.

Mechanical Linkage

14. Cables are frayed or frozen.

15. Mechanical parts missing, broken, badly worn, or misaligned.

E. Hydraulic.

NOTE: Some motor vehicles, beginning with 1976 models, have a hydraulic power system that serves both the power-assisted brakes and power-assisted steering system. Some vehicles, beginning with 1985 models, have an integrated hydraulic actuation and anti-lock brake unit using only brake fluid.

1. Brake hydraulic system. Inspector should check the brake hydraulic system in the following manner: test vehicle in a standing position; apply moderate pressure to the brake pedal for 10 seconds. Brake pedal height must be maintained. On vehicles equipped with power-assisted systems, the engine should be running.

2. Hydraulic system operation. Stop engine, then depress brake pedal several times to eliminate all pressure. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (30 pounds). While maintaining this force on the pedal, start engine and observe if pedal moves slightly when engine starts.

Reject vehicle if pedal does not move slightly as engine is started while force is on brake pedal.

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3. Condition of hydraulic booster power brake system. Inspect system for fluid level and leaks.

Reject vehicle if there is insufficient fluid in the reservoir; if there are broken, kinked, or restricted fluid lines or hoses; if there is any leakage of fluid at the pump, steering gear or brake booster, or any of the lines or hoses in the system; or if belts are frayed, cracked, or excessively worn.

4. Integrated hydraulic booster/anti-lock system operation. With the ignition key in the off position, depress brake pedal a minimum of 25 times to deplete all residual stored pressure in the accumulator. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (25 pounds). Place ignition key in the on position and allow 60 seconds for the brake warning light to go out and the electric pump to shut off.

Reject vehicle if the brake pedal does not move down slightly as the pump builds pressure or if the brake and anti-lock warning lights remain on longer than 60 seconds.

NOTE: The inspection of the ABS light is only for an integrated system that is an earlier system. The newer system that has the nonintegrated systems does not need to be checked. If the ABS system malfunctions on the newer system, the brake systems are still functional.

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5. Condition of integrated hydraulic booster/anti-lock system with electronic pump. With the system fully charged, inspect system for fluid level and leaks.

Reject vehicle if there is insufficient fluid in the reservoir; if there are broken, kinked, or restricted fluid lines or hoses; or if there is any leakage of fluid at the pump or brake booster, or any of the lines or hoses in the system.

6. Vacuum system operation. Stop engine then depress brake pedal several times to eliminate all vacuum in the system. Depress pedal with a light foot-force (25 pounds). While maintaining this force on the pedal, start engine and observe if pedal moves down slightly when engine starts.

Reject vehicle if pedal does not move down slightly as engine is started while force is on the brake pedal. In full vacuum-equipped vehicles, there is insufficient vacuum reserve for one full service brake application after engine is stopped.

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7. Condition of vacuum booster power brake system. Reject vehicle if there are collapsed, cracked, broken, badly chafed, or improperly supported hoses and tubes, loose or broken hose clamps.

F. Inspect for and reject if:

General Specifications - Hydraulic Brakes

1. There is any leakage in the master cylinder, wheel cylinders, or brake calipers. When checking for leakage in rear wheel cylinders, do not disturb the dust boot.

NOTE: Do not reject for the common dust ball formed on wheel cylinders or for wetness that may have spread to the backing plate unless it has contaminated the linings or drums as specified in subdivision D 8 of this section. Consumers should be advised of this wear so that they will be aware that repair may be needed before their next inspection. This may not warrant an immediate repair considering the dual valve master cylinder.

2. Fluid level in master cylinder is below the proper level for the particular vehicle.

3. There is any evidence of a caliper sticking or binding.

Electric Brake System

4. Trailers show an amperage value more than 20% above or 30% below the brake manufacturer's maximum current rating for each brake.

5. Amp meter shows no reading or indicator is not steady on application and release of brake controller.

6. Any terminal connections are loose or dirty; wires are broken, frayed, or unsupported; any single conductor nonstranded wires below the size recommended by the brake manufacturers are installed.

7. Electrical trailer brakes do not apply automatically when the breakaway safety switch is operated.

8. Breakaway braking devices are missing or inoperative; cable is frayed or broken.

General Specifications

9. Absence of braking action on any wheel required to have brakes.

10. There is any leakage in any hydraulic, air, or vacuum lines; hoses have any cracks, crimps, or restrictions or are abraded, exposing inner fabric; tubing or connections leak or are crimped, restricted, cracked, or broken; or any valves leak or are inoperative.

a. Reject the vehicle if the brake hoses or tubing are stretched or extended and do not allow for suspension movement.

b. Brake tubing and hoses must be:

(1) Long and flexible enough to accommodate without damage all normal motions of the parts to which they are attached;

(2) Secured against chaffing, kinking, or other mechanical damage; and

(3) Installed in a manner that prevents them from contacting the vehicle's exhaust system or any other source of high temperatures.

11. Any hydraulic brake tubing has been repaired using a compression fitting.

12. Brakes are not equalized so as to stop the vehicle on a straight line.

13. There is less than 1/5 reserve in actuator travel of the service brake when fully applied on all hydraulic, mechanical, or power-assisted hydraulic braking systems.

14. When tested on dry, hard, approximately level road free from loose material, at a speed of 20 miles per hour without leaving a 12-foot wide lane, results in excess of the following distances are obtained:

(When in doubt about a vehicle's stopping ability, the inspector shall conduct a road test.)

a. Any motor vehicle (except motorcycles, trucks, and tractor-trucks with semitrailers attached) four wheel brakes - 25 feet.

b. Any motor vehicle (except motorcycles, trucks, and tractor-trucks with semitrailers attached) two wheel brakes - 45 feet.

c. All combinations of vehicles - 40 feet.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 8, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019; Volume 36, Issue 25, eff. September 4, 2020; Volume 40, Issue 10, eff. February 1, 2024.

19VAC30-70-90. Brakes: emergency, parking, or holding..

A. Some vehicles are equipped with an actual emergency brake, while others have only a parking or holding brake. Some types may be actuated by a foot or hand lever, while others may incorporate a switch or valve to actuate the brake. Air and vacuum brake systems may employ spring activating parking brakes.

B. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Vehicle or combination of vehicles is not equipped with a parking, holding, or emergency brake in good working order of the type installed as original standard factory equipment for the vehicle on which it is installed.

2. The parking brake actuating mechanism does not fully release when the control is operated to the off position or if the parking brake lamp light remains on.

NOTE: The light does not apply to vehicles that are not equipped with a parking (emergency) brake indicator light.

3. Any mechanical parts are missing, broken, badly worn, or are inoperative.

4. Cables are stretched, worn, or frayed or not operating freely.

5. Grease or similar-type contamination is present on the linings, drums, or rotors.

6. Parking brake will not hold the vehicle stationary with the engine running at slightly accelerated speed with shift lever in drive position for automatic transmission or shift lever in low gear with clutch engaged for standard shift transmission.

7. Holding brake will not disengage when engine is started and vehicle is placed in drive. Holding brake will not hold vehicle stationary with foot on holding brake and vehicle in drive.

8. On vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions, the vehicle will start in any gear other than (P) park and (N) neutral. If the gearshift indicator does not identify the park (P) and neutral (N) positions, then the vehicle shall be rejected.

9. On vehicles equipped with manual transmissions, the vehicle will start in any gear if the clutch is not depressed or disengaged.

NOTE: This will not apply to older model vehicles, which were not originally equipped with a neutral-safety switch, clutch disengagement system or clutch pedal position sensor by the manufacturer.

10. The accelerator does not disengage after being depressed, allowing the engine to return to a normal idle speed.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 9, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 1, eff. October 4, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-100. Brakes: trailer (GVWR less than 10,000 pounds).

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Trailer brakes do not comply with 19VAC30-70-80 and 19VAC30-70-90.

2. Operator does not have full control over brakes. For the purpose of this subdivision, surge brakes are considered to be in control of the operator.

3. Breakaway braking devices are missing or inoperative or cable is frayed or broken, or trailers, manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1964, having an actual gross weight of 3,000 pounds or more are not equipped with emergency breakaway brakes designed to:

a. Apply automatically upon breakaway from towing vehicle.

b. Remain fully applied for at least 15 minutes.

c. Apply and release by operation of the manual emergency control.

A minimum of one wheel must be removed from each axle equipped with brakes to inspect the brake components.

NOTE: Trailers having an actual gross weight of 3,000 pounds or more, but with a manufacturer's gross weight rating of less than 10,000 pounds, need not be equipped with brakes on all wheels.

a. Exception: Wheels on trailers equipped with open brake mechanisms are not required to be removed.

b. The inspection receipt approval and rejection shall be marked to reflect which wheel, drum, or dust cover was removed or inspected.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 10, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-110. Steering and suspension.

A. The steering and suspension systems installed and utilized on motor vehicles have evolved to where many different suspension systems are being designed, developed, and employed on vehicles. To properly inspect the steering and suspension on vehicles, it may be necessary for the inspection to be made in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures in addition to meeting any requirements outlined in this regulation.

B. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any modification has been made that affects normal functioning of the shock absorbers. The inspector should operate the vehicle when in doubt. (If there is no evidence of the convolutions (coils) of the spring hitting one another, one pair (two) of nonmetallic coil spring stabilizers may be present in each of a vehicle's front coil springs, provided the installation of the stabilizers does not cause the springs to be higher than their original height.)

Shock absorbers in fully extended or compressed positions when the vehicle is stationary will not function normally.

2. The front end suspension has been modified by the use of lift blocks. (A lift block is defined as any solid piece of wood, metal, or other material placed between and separating the vehicle's front axle and the springs.) This does not prohibit the use of shims that may be necessary to correct front end alignment.

3. Any modification has been made to the front end suspension which reduces turning radius, bypasses safety components of original steering mechanism or if there is any lateral movement between the axle and frame.

4. Any modification has been made to the suspension to cause the vehicle body or chassis to come in contact with the ground or expose the fuel tank to damage from collision.

Reject the vehicle if it has been modified by any means so as to raise its body more than three inches above the manufacturer's attachment points or the frame rail (exclude original manufacturer's spacers, washers or bushings when measuring).

5. Any modification has been made to cause the wheels to come in contact with the body or frame under normal operating conditions.

6. A motor vehicle has a repair kit or preventive maintenance kit installed on a tie rod end, idler arm, ball joint, or any other part of the vehicle's steering gear.

NOTE: The repair kit or preventive maintenance kit usually consists of a small coil spring and a plastic cap that is placed over the bolt stud of the component and held in place by a retaining nut. There is nothing in this paragraph that prohibits the replacement of parts or components of a motor vehicle's steering gear in order to correct deficiencies in the steering gear.

7. When checked visually, the wheels appear to be out of line or an axle is bent.

8. Any vehicle that shimmies or wanders at normal operating speeds.

9. Rack and pinion steering bellows (boot) is defective or missing. Do not inspect constant-velocity (CV) boots, CV joints, or universal joints on rear wheel drive vehicles.

NOTE: CV boots on the vehicle shall not be rejected if the CV boots are defective or missing.

10. Power steering is defective and affects adequate steering of the vehicle or power steering fluid in reservoir is below operating level, or if there is an obvious leak of power steering fluid. Do not reject for dampness.

NOTE: If the vehicle is equipped with power steering, the engine must be running during testing.

11. Power steering hoses have any cracks, crimps, or restrictions or are abraded, exposing inner fabric; tubing or connections leak or are crimped, restricted, cracked, or broken. Power steering tubing and hoses must be secured against chaffing, kinking, or other mechanical damage and be installed in a manner that prevents contact with the vehicle's exhaust system or any other source of high temperatures.

12. Power steering belt does not have sufficient tension, is frayed, or missing. The serpentine belt should only be rejected if a chunk of the ribbing is missing or a deep cut or crack exposes the inner fabric of the belt. (Do not reject for the many little surface cracks that appear in the ribs or back.)

13. Any modification has been made to any part of the steering or suspension system that affects proper steering or suspension or any part of the original suspension system has been disconnected.

NOTE: "All thread rod material" shall not be used as U-bolts in the suspension system.

Vehicles registered as street rods may substitute any part of the original suspension system provided the components are installed in accordance with the component manufacturers' specifications.

14. Any modification or replacement has been made to the steering wheel that affects proper steering. The steering wheel shall be rejected if the outside diameter is less than 13 inches unless original factory equipment.

15. Steering column has any absence or looseness of bolts or positioning parts, resulting in motion of the steering column from its normal position.

16. A spring is broken, sagging or misaligned, shackles are worn or loose, or if air bags are collapsed or the air suspension system leaks or is deflated.

CAUTION: Underneath inspection of a vehicle equipped with air suspension with excessive leak down could result in serious personal injury.

17. Shock absorbers or cross stabilizer links are disconnected, broken, bent, loose, or do not function properly on vehicles with this design.

18. Any front or rear axle or suspension positioning parts are cracked, broken, loose, worn, bent or missing, resulting in shifting of an axle from the normal position. Any control arm or suspension positioning part using bushings for control, support and normal functioning is missing the bushing, or the bushing is worn to the extent that the component can be moved by hand along the axis of the component.

NOTE: All rear suspension parts including control arms (upper and lower ball joints, radius or torque arms, stabilizer bars, and trailing arms) shall not have any damage or noticeable play when checked with hand pressure.

19. A MacPherson strut installed on a motor vehicle is broken, bent, loose or does not function properly.

NOTE: Do not reject a shock absorber or MacPherson strut unless there is evidence of leakage that causes the device not to function properly.

20. If vehicles measured movement at top or bottom of tire is greater than:

Wheel Size:

less than 17 inches -

1/4 inch

17 to 18 inches -

3/8 inch

over 18 inches -

1/2 inch

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Proper lifting for wheel bearing, steering linkage looseness, and king pin play action

FIGURE A

FIGURE B

FIGURE C

NOTE: King pin play. If vehicle is equipped with king pins, first eliminate all wheel bearing movement by applying service brake. With front end lifted as illustrated for inspecting wheel bearings (Figure C), grasp the tire at the top and bottom and attempt to move it in and out to detect looseness. Measure the movement at the top or bottom of the tire at the outer circumference.

C. Wheel bearing/steering linkage.

Reject vehicle if any wheel bearing is excessively worn or not properly adjusted; any cotter key or other locking device is missing or inoperative.

NOTE: Lifting techniques vary for measuring wheel bearing movement. On vehicles with coil spring or torsion bar on lower support arm - hoist at frame (Figure A). On vehicles with coil spring on upper support arm - hoist at lower support arm (Figure B). On front wheel drive vehicles, the inspector must consult manufacturer's lifting information.

NOTE: With vehicle lifted properly, grasp tire at top and bottom, rock in and out and record movement. Wheel bearing looseness is detected by the relative movement between the brake drum or disc and the braking plate or splash shield.

CAUTION: If air suspension vehicles are hoisted via body support area, air spring damage may occur if the air suspension switch is not turned off. Reject vehicle if relative movement between drum and backing plate (disc and splash shield) is more than 1/8 inch measured at the outer circumference of the tire.

D. Steering linkage play.

1. Reject vehicle if measured movement at front or rear of tire is greater than:

Wheel Size:

16 inches or less -

1/4 inch (6.5mm)

17 to 18 inches -

3/8 inch (9.5mm)

over 18 inches -

1/2 inch (13mm)

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NOTE: First eliminate all wheel-bearing movement by applying service brake. With vehicle lifted as shown in the diagram and wheels in straight-ahead position, grasp front and rear of tire and attempt to move assembly right and left without moving the steering gear.

2. Reject vehicle if the steering mechanism is unusually tight or binding when turning the steering wheel completely to the left or right or the steering mechanism will not turn in both directions stop to stop.

3. Reject vehicle if the steering stops have been removed or adjusted in so that steering radius is reduced.

E. Steering lash/travel. Reject vehicle if inspection reveals excessive wear or looseness in any ball stud, end assembly, pivot point, mechanical linkage or if steering gear box has any loose or missing bolts, or excessive wear, or looseness is found at any other location in the steering that adversely affects the steering of the vehicle.

NOTE: For vehicles equipped with power steering, the engine must be running and the fluid level, belt tension and belt condition must be adequate before testing.

With road wheels in straight ahead position, turn steering wheel until motion can be detected at the front road wheels. Align a reference mark on the steering wheel with a mark on a ruler and slowly turn steering wheel in the opposite direction until motion can again be detected at the front road wheel (see diagram). Measure lash at steering wheel. Special lash-checking instruments may be used to measure free play in inches or degrees. Such instruments should always be mounted and used according to the manufacturer's instructions. Reject vehicle if steering wheel movement exceeds:

Power - 2 inches

Manual - 3 inches

Rack & Pinion - (Power or Manual) - 0.4 inch - see note

NOTE: No play is permissible for Volkswagen and Audi vehicles - consult respective manufacturer's specifications.

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F. Steering lash/travel; trucks.

NOTE: Before inspection, the vehicle must be placed on a smooth, dry, level surface. For vehicles equipped with power steering, the engine must be running and the fluid level, belt tension and belt condition must be adequate before testing. With road wheels in straight ahead position, turn steering wheel until motion can be detected at the front road wheels. Align a reference mark on steering wheel with a mark on a ruler and slowly turn steering wheel in the opposite direction until motion can be detected at the front road wheel. Measure lash at steering wheel. Special lash-checking instruments are also available, measuring free play in inches or degrees. Such instruments should always be mounted and used according to the manufacturer's instructions. With vehicle raised, visually inspect steering linkage, ball studs, tie rod end socket assemblies and all pivot points.

NOTE: On vehicles with power steering, engine must be running.

Reject vehicle if steering wheel movement exceeds:

Steering Wheel Size and Lash

Steering wheel diameter

Power steering system

Manual steering system

16 inches or less

2 inches (51 mm)

4-1/4 inches (108 mm)

18 inches

2-1/4 inches (57 mm)

4-3/4 inches (121 mm)

19 inches

2-3/8 inches (60 mm)

5 inches (127 mm)

20 inches

2-1/2 inches (64 mm)

5-1/4 inches (133 mm)

21 inches

2-5/8 inches (67 mm)

5-1/2 inches (140 mm)

22 inches

2-3/4 inches (70 mm)

5-3/4 inches (146 mm)

G. Ball joint wear (front and rear). There is a trend among U.S. automobile manufacturers toward the use of "wear-indicating" ball joints. Many vehicles on the road, however, do not have wear-indicating ball joints. The inspection of both types will be discussed. With the broadening use of rear suspension ball joints, their inspection shall be made in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures. Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the proper hoisting for checking most ball joints. On late model vehicles, it may be necessary to check for both horizontal and vertical movement. Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 illustrate the proper hoisting for checking ball joints.

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NOTE: To check ball joint wear on vehicles when the spring is supported on the upper control arm or when the spring is a part of a MacPherson strut or wear in any other type suspension not using ball joints when the front wheels are suspended on a solid axle, the vehicle must be hoisted as shown in Figure 1 or 2.

NOTE: Upper control arm must be stabilized in normal load carrying position by means of an upper control or other support tool to insure ball joint is in unloaded position.

NOTE: To check ball joint wear on vehicles not listed in above referred to section and diagram or tables when the spring is supported on the lower control arm; and to check the king pin wear in any other type suspension not previously described when the wheels are independently suspended, the vehicle must be hoisted as shown in Figure 3 or 4.

H. Ball joints without wear indicators (front and rear).

1. If play is detected in any ball joint without "wear-indicating" ball joints, it will be necessary for the inspection to be made in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedures and specifications prior to rejecting the vehicle.

2. If there are no manufacturer's recommended procedures and specifications, the lower ball joints will be checked when hoisted as in Figure 1 or 2 of subsection G of this section, or in the upper ball joints when hoisted as in Figure 3 or 4 of subsection G of this section. There should be no noticeable play detected in the ball joints when checked in this manner.

3. Reject vehicle if play exceeds the manufacturer's specifications. Inspectors shall use a dial indicator or ball joint checking gauge when checking for play of a ball joint, when procedures and specifications are provided by the manufacturer.

I. Ball joints with wear indicators. Support vehicle with ball joints loaded (in normal driving attitude). Wipe grease fitting and checking surface free of dirt and grease. Determine if checking surface extends beyond the surface of the ball joint cover.

Reject vehicle if checking surface is flush with or inside the cover surface.

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J. American Motors Pacer (only). Position vehicle on level surface. Remove lubrication plug from lower ball joint. Check lower ball joint clearance by inserting stiff wire or thin rod into lubrication plug hole until it contacts ball stud. Accurately mark rod with knife or scriber where it aligned with outer edge of plug hole. Distance from ball stud to outer edge of plug hole is ball joint clearance. Measure distance from mark to end of rod. (Anything less than 7/16 inch is acceptable.)

Reject vehicle if distance measured is 7/16 inch or more.

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K. Chrysler front-wheel drive vehicles (lower only). With the weight of the vehicle resting on the road wheels, grasp the grease fitting as shown below and attempt to move fitting. No mechanical assistance or added force is necessary.

Reject vehicle if grease fitting shows any movement.

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Statutory Authority

     § 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 11, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996;Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Errata, 29:2 VA.R. 336 September 24, 2012; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-120. Frame, engine mounts, coupling devices and emergency chains.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Frame or unitized (monocoque) body of any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer possesses one or more of the following defective characteristics: rust holes; any area of the frame or its components is broken, cracked, sagging, or bent; or damaged at any location to include any welded joint; the frame is corroded to the point where it is weakened; or any holes are drilled in the top or bottom rail flanges of the frame or the frame or cross-member (except as specified by the manufacturer).

NOTE: Any welded repair of the frame must be in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's recommendations.

NOTE: All sections of a unitized frame are considered stress-bearing to include pinch and side rails, floors, and all support framework.

2. Engine or transmission mounts and hardware is broken or missing. This includes all hardware bolts and bushings used for mounting to the vehicle's frame, engine, or transmission. Any engine or transmission mount shall be rejected if they allow the power train to come in contact with the firewall or other body parts. Any body, truck bed, or bumper mounts or mounting hardware shall be rejected if they do not properly secure these components to the frame as originally designed.

3. Trailer hitch or pintle hook is not securely attached. Reject if the pintle eye or trailer drawbar has any cracks or if any welding repairs have been made to the pintle eye.

4. Chains, cables, etc., used to attach a towed vehicle are not securely attached or are broken, worn or abraded.

5. Fifth wheel does not lock in position or have a locking mechanism in proper working order.

6. Fifth wheel assembly system has any leak of fluid or air.

7. Fifth wheel has any broken, missing, or damaged parts; or is not securely attached to the frame.

8. Trailer king pin is not secure, or is broken or worn so as to prevent secure fit in fifth wheel.

9. Any movement is detected at any location where any device has been placed between the body and the chassis.

10. Trailer is not equipped with an emergency chain or steel cable.

NOTE: Fifth wheel assembly system does not require an emergency chain or cable. A fifth wheel is defined as a device which interfaces with and couples to the upper coupler assembly of a semitrailer. The upper coupler assembly is a structure consisting of an upper coupler plate, king pin and supporting framework which interfaces with and couples to a fifth wheel. Ball and socket connections also referred to as hitch and coupling connections are not fifth wheel assemblies and do require an emergency chain or steel cable.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 12, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 1, eff. October 4, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-130. Tires; wheels; rims.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any tire is marked specifically for use other than on the highway such as "For Farm Use Only," "For Off-Highway Use Only," "For Mobile Home Use Only," or "For Trailer Use Only."

EXCEPTION: "For Trailer Use Only" tires are allowed when installed on trailers only.

2. A radial tire is mismatched on the same axle with a bias ply tire or a bias belted tire.

3. Bias ply or bias belted tires are used on the rear axle when radial ply tires are used on the front axle.

EXCEPTION: On a two-axle vehicle equipped with truck tires with 20-inch rim diameter and larger, bias or radial tires may be used on either axle if the vehicle has dual rear wheels or is equipped with wide-base single tires.

4. A vehicle has installed on any axle a space saver emergency spare tire that is intended for temporary use.

5. Any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, except the dual wheels installed on motor vehicles having seats for more than seven passengers (i) operated wholly within a municipality or (ii) operated by urban and suburban bus lines, which are defined as bus lines operating over regularly scheduled routes and the majority of whose passengers use the buses for traveling a distance not exceeding 40 miles, measured one way, on the same day between their place of abode and their place of work, shopping areas, or schools, is equipped with a tire that has a tread depth measuring less than 2/32 of an inch when measured as follows:

NOTE: The exemptions provided in (i) and (ii) of this subdivision 5 do not apply to buses owned or operated by any public school district, private school or contract operator of buses.

NOTE: Measure in two adjacent tread grooves where tread is thinnest. Refer to Figure 1. If either of the grooves measure 2/32 of an inch or more, no further measurements are necessary and tread depth is satisfactory. Do not take measurements from the tread wear indicators.

6. If both adjacent grooves measure less than 2/32 of an inch, the tire tread depth must be measured again at two additional equally spaced intervals around the circumference of the tire in a like manner as the first measurement. Refer to Figure 1. If the tread depth is less than 2/32 of an inch in two adjacent tread grooves at each of the equally spaced intervals, the tire must be rejected.

MEASURE WHERE THE TREAD IS THINNEST IN TWO ADJACENT TREAD GROOVES

 https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399193858547VSPRE_files/image001.gif
FIGURE 1

IF THE DEPTH IS LESS THAN 2/32-INCH IN BOTH GROOVES, MEASURE AT TWO ADDITIONAL EQUALLY SPACED INTERVALS

7. A tire equipped with tread wear indicators if found to have such indicators in contact with the pavement in any two adjacent grooves at three equally spaced intervals around the circumference of the tire. Refer to Figure 2.

 https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399193858547VSPRE_files/image002.gif
FIGURE 2

REJECT IF THE TREAD WEAR INDICATORS ARE IN CONTACT WITH THE PAVEMENT IN ANY TWO ADJACENT GROOVES AT THREE EQUALLY SPACED LOCATIONS

8. Any tire has a cut or puncture into the fabric. This does not include a plug or patch that may be used as a manner of repair.

NOTE: Plugs or patches shall be in the tread area only. Plugs or patches are not permitted in the sidewall of the tire.

9. Any tire is worn so that the fabric or steel cord is visible.

10. Any tire has knots or bulges in its sidewalls or if there is evidence of a broken belt under the tread, or if the tread is separating from the fabric. Any cracks in the sidewall where separation in the rubber is detected or the fabric is exposed, not to include fine hairline cracks.

11. Any tire that has been recut or regrooved except commercial tires so designed and constructed to provide for acceptable and safe recutting and regrooving. (Regrooved tires must be identified on each sidewall as a regrooved tire.)

12. Any wheel studs, bolts, nuts, lugs, or other fasteners (both spoke and disc wheels) are loose, broken, cracked, stripped, missing, damaged, or otherwise ineffective.

13. Wheels are installed on the vehicle in a reversed position, except the wheels on vehicles that are reversed to perform part of a dual wheel combination.

14. Directional tires or wheels designed and manufactured to travel in one direction of rotation are not properly installed.

15. Rims or wheels are bent, cracked, or damaged so as to affect safe operation of the vehicle. Reject if lug nut holes are elongated (out of round).

NOTE: Refer to subdivision 1 of 19VAC30-70-180 (Clearance lamps and reflectors) for tires that exceed more than four inches from the body.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 13, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-140. Headlamps; except motorcycles.

A. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any motor vehicle is not equipped with at least two headlamps of an approved type. An approved headlamp assembly that contains bulbs for both the high and low beams within the same housing shall be considered one headlamp. The headlamps must be marked with the headlamp manufacturer's name or trademark, and DOT. If the headlamp bulbs are replaceable, the headlamp lens must be marked with the headlamp light source type (bulb) for which it was designed and the bulb must match the lens code.

NOTE: If the headlamp system is stamped to accept halogen bulbs, then the replacement bulbs must be halogen as well. Retrofitting an HID or LED bulb to a halogen headlamp system does not conform to the standards set forth by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and shall be rejected.

If the entire headlamp assembly is changed from a halogen system to an LED system and does not require the manufacture's original wiring to be cut or compromised, then it shall be considered for inspection if it meets the requirements of subdivision A 2 of this section.

2. Headlights are not of the same approved type (Halogen, HID, LED, etc.) except for sealed beam headlamps, or the replacement headlamp system does not contain all properly marked DOT and SAE stamps certifying that it has met and complied with the standards set forth by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 108.

NOTE: Replacement headlamps stamped with a DOT or SAE approval and marked with the headlamp manufacturer's name or trademark shall be considered approved by the Superintendent of State Police and will not be required to be listed on the Virginia Motor Vehicle Approved Equipment List.

3. In any headlamp the lens is cracked, broken, discolored, or rotated away from the proper position, or the reflector is not clean and bright.

4. Moisture or water buildup in headlamp is such that it affects the aiming pattern.

5. Headlamps emit light other than white. Light tints of color may be acceptable if the headlamp and headlamp bulbs are marked as required.

6. Bulbs are not of an approved type and marked with all of the following: light source type, the manufacturer's name or trade mark, and DOT.

NOTE:

Approved headlamp bulbs: HB1, HB2, HB3, HB3A, HB4, HB4A, HB5, H1, H3, H7, H8, H8B, H9, H9B, H9C, H11, H11B, H11C, H13, H13C, H15, HIR1, HIR2, H18, H19.

Approved headlamp bulbs that require ballast: 9500, D1R, D1S, D2R, D2S, D3R, D3S, D4R, D4S, D5S, D7S, D8S, D9S.

Approved headlamp ballasts must be marked with the light source type (bulb) and DOT. The bulb type marked on the ballast must match the marking on the headlamp lens.

7. Any filament or bulb in headlamps fails to burn properly or headlamps are not at the same location or configuration as designed by manufacturer. (Location and type of headlamps can be found in subsection E of this section.)

8. Wiring is dangling or connections are loose, or if proper filaments do not burn at different switch positions; or if switches, including foot or hand dimmer, do not function properly and are not convenient to the driver.

9. Foreign material is placed on or in front of the headlamp lens or interferes with the beam from the lamp. No glazing may be placed over or in front of the headlamps unless it is a part of an approved headlamp assembly.

a. Reject if vehicle has wire, unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials that are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of the headlamps.

b. Vehicles registered as street rods may have clear, rigid plastic or glass headlamp lens covers in front of sealed beam units to replace original manufacturer's equipment.

EXCEPTION: A clean impact film known as Headlight Savers produced by Grand Prix Motoring Accessories may be applied to the headlight lens to absorb impact of rocks, etc.

10. Lamps can be moved easily by hand due to a broken fender or loose support, or if a good ground is not made by the mounting.

11. Headlamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps are not mounted so that the beams are aimable and the mounting does not prevent the aim of the lighting device from being disturbed while the vehicle is operating on public roads. All lamps shall be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle.

12. A headlamp visor is over two inches long unless part of the original body design.

13. The high beam indicator in the driver's compartment does not burn when the high beam is on or does not go off when the low beam is on. (Vehicles not originally equipped with an indicator are not required to comply unless sealed beam headlamps have been installed.)

B. Aiming the headlamps.

1. Inspectors shall rely on their education, training, and experience to determine if the headlamps are properly aimed. If improper alignment is observed, headlamps shall be checked for proper aim by using an optical headlamp aimer, except on vehicles equipped with on-board aimers.

Headlamp aim on vehicles with on-board aimers shall be checked by visually examining the leveling device mounted either on or adjacent to the headlamp. Reject the vehicle if the leveling device shows the headlamp adjustment to exceed indicated specifications.

NOTE: Driving lamp and fog lamps must be visually inspected to ensure proper aiming. If improper alignment is observed, the optical aimer shall be used to correct any misalignment.

2. Headlamps are not aimed within the following tolerances using the optical aimer.

a. The center of the hot spot of all single element high beam lamps is set more than four inches up or down from the horizontal centerline or more than four inches to the left or right from the vertical centerline.

b. The left edge of the lamp pattern of any low beam lamp or any combination or multi-element lamp is more than four inches to the left or right of the vertical centerline or the top edge of the lamp pattern is more than four inches above or below the horizontal centerline when checked on low beam.

C. Optical aimer.

1. Optical aimers must be properly calibrated and used in the manner recommended by the manufacturer.

The optical headlamp machine must be aligned to the vehicle in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications.

2. When aiming headlamps, first look for the type of lamp, which will be found embossed on the lens. The type determines which aiming requirements must be followed for the optical aimer.

3. All low beam or combination/multi-element headlamps must be set by aiming the lamp pattern with the lamps set on low beam.

NOTE: If attempting to align a composite or sealed beam lamp with a high and low beam within the same housing, align only the low beam. If aligning a four-lamp system with high and low beams in separate housings, it may be necessary to cover the low beam while aligning the high beam, if all four lamps are on at the same time.

4. Pattern should be aimed so that the left edge does not extend to the left or right of straight ahead, and the top of the pattern should be even with the horizontal.

Pattern "A" represents the light pattern as it should appear on the view screen of the approved aimer when checking the low-beam pattern on a single element headlamp or a combination multi-element headlamp.

5. All VOL and VOR headlamps will be aimed as follows:

To properly aim a combination multi-element or low-beam VOL or VOR headlamp assembly, the headlamp pattern should be aimed on low beam only.

Letters marked on the headlamp cover should properly identify VOL and VOR headlamps.

NOTE: VOL and VOR headlamps will normally have only one adjustment, which will be for the vertical aim only. The horizontal aim should be disregarded, as the horizontal aim is preset at the factory.

6. All single element high beam headlamps shall be set by aiming the center of the hot spot with the lamps set on high beam.

7. Aim straight ahead-center of the hot spot should be centered with the vertical and horizontal centerlines.

Pattern "B" represents the light pattern as it should appear on the view screen of the approved aimers.

8. When lamp pairs are mounted horizontally, the low beam lamp must be on the outer side and when mounted vertically, the low beam lamp must be at the higher position in the pair.

9. The four headlamp system must be wired so that only the lower beam lamp will burn when the light beams are depressed. When switched to high beams, both high beam and low beam may burn.

The "F" type halogen headlamp 1986 (LF-UF) of the four headlamp system will function in the following manner: system must be used so the low beam does not burn with the high beam.

D. Headlamps on vehicles used for snow removal. Approved auxiliary headlamps may be mounted above the conventional headlamps. (These lamps must be in compliance with this section in its entirety, subdivision 7 of 19VAC30-70-150, and 19VAC30-70-170.)

E. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Lamps are not an approved type as previously indicated in subdivision A 6 of this section.

2. Lamps are not mounted in a manner that will permit proper aiming.

3. Lamps are mounted so as to obstruct the driver's vision.

4. The auxiliary headlamp circuit does not contain a switch that will deactivate the primary headlamp system when the auxiliary headlamps are in use.

5. Auxiliary headlamps are not aimed in accordance with the provisions of subdivision B 2 of this section.

6. Headlamps are not wired in accordance with the provisions of subdivision C 8 of this section.

NOTE: Light patterns shown in the following diagram will be displayed on the most recently approved light machines produced by Hopkins and Symtech Corporations.

HEADLAMP PATTERNS






NOTE: Always inspect the following sealed beam and replaceable bulb and integral beam headlamps on LOW BEAM only:

- 5-3/4 inch, marked 2, 2C, or 2C1

- 7 inch, marked 2, 2D, or 2D1

- 100 X 165mm rectangular, marked 2A, 2A1, or 2E1, 2G1 or 2H1

- 200 X 142mm rectangular, marked 2B or 2B1

- Replaceable bulb headlamp, marked LF with 9004 (HB1)

- 92 X 160mm rectangular, marked LF

- Replaceable bulb headlamps with 9006 (HB4) alone or in combination with 9005 (HB3)

- 55 X 135mm rectangular, marked L

- Integral beam headlamp when high and low beam reflectors move together.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 14, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Errata, 32:26 VA.R. 3588 August 22, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019; Volume 36, Issue 25, eff. September 4, 2020.

19VAC30-70-150. Rear lamps: tail lamp; license plate lamps; and rear lamp combinations.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Vehicle is not equipped with a rear (tail lamp) or rear lamp combination of an approved type or light assembly does not work as designed by the manufacturer.

2. The vehicle is equipped with more than one rear lamp, if all are not in operating condition.

3. Lens on rear lamps, or lens area in combination rear lamps (tail lamps), are not red. LED (light-emitting diode) lights with a clear lens are acceptable. Vehicles equipped with multiple LED lights (not filament-burning bulbs) will pass a safety inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning.

NOTE: Replacement tail lamps, commonly sold as "clear" tail lamps or "Euro-Tail" lamps, will not pass inspection if the red lamps are replaced with clear ones.

4. Lens has piece broken from it or does not fit properly. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

5. Filament in all rear (tail) lamps does not burn when headlamp switch is turned on to any position, or if lamps do not provide a red light visible to the rear through an approved red lens as annotated in subdivision 1 of this section. If it is a rear lamp combination incorporated with a wraparound side-marker light, then the side-marker lens must be red and not a clear lens with a red bulb. If the bulb, socket, and wiring are removed from the side-marker lamps, then they will not be considered during the inspection.

6. Rear (tail) lamp is not mounted near extreme rear of vehicle. Dump trucks and other specially constructed vehicles may mount the rear lamp at a point other than on the extreme rear, provided such rear lamp is clearly visible from the rear, and further provided that a red reflector of an approved type is mounted on the extreme rear. In unusual cases, the rear lamp may be mounted on the cab. Reject if the lamp is hidden by a bolster or other part of the body or frame, is not mounted securely, or if the lamp does not make a good electrical contact.

7. The vehicle has wire, unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials that are not original equipment, or any colored material placed on or in front of rear lamps, license plate lamps, and rear lamp combinations.

8. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn.

NOTE: Every trailer shall carry at the rear two red tail lights of a type approved by the superintendent.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 15, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019; Volume 40, Issue 10, eff. February 1, 2024.

19VAC30-70-160. Auxiliary lamps: backup; cornering; driving; fog; spot and warning.

A. Auxiliary lamps on a vehicle consist of seven general types: backup lamps (SAE-R), cornering lamps (SAE-K), driving lamps (SAE-Y), front fog lamps with an amber or clear lens (SAE-F) and rear fog lamps with red lens (SAE-F2), spot lamps (SAE-O), warning lamps (SAE-W, W2, W3), and daytime running lamps (DRLs) (SAE-Y2).

NOTE: Any light or lighting device not defined or otherwise authorized in 19VAC30-70-140 through 19VAC30-70-200 that is installed on a vehicle shall not be considered for inspection as long as it remains unlit during the inspection and is not wired to activate with any required lighting system in this chapter.

B. School buses may be equipped with an eight-lamp warning system of two red and two amber warning lamps of an approved type (SAE-W2) on the front and rear of such vehicle.

1. School buses may also be equipped with roof-mounted flashing white or amber warning lamps of an approved type (SAE-W2).

2. In addition to required warning lamps, school buses may be equipped with a stop signal arm consisting of an octagonal sign that meets FMVSS specifications (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, 49 CFR Part 571). The stop signal arm shall be reflectorized or be equipped with two red warning lamps of an approved type.

C. No more than four lamps, including two headlamps, may be lighted at any time to provide general illumination ahead of the vehicle. An approved headlamp assembly that contains bulbs for both high and low beams within the same housing shall be considered one headlamp.

D. Inspectors shall rely on Article 3 (§ 46.2-1010 et seq.) of Chapter 10 of Title 46.2 of the Code of Virginia to determine if a vehicle should be allowed to have such lighting (such as emergency vehicles or dealer demo vehicles).

E. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Auxiliary lamp is being used for a purpose other than for which it is manufactured or previously approved by the superintendent as defined in subsection A of this section.

EXCEPTIONS: An auxiliary lighting device that is both covered and unlit shall not be considered for inspection. An auxiliary lighting device that has a clear lens, has clear reflectors, and is unlit shall not be considered for inspection.

2. A vehicle has installed on it a warning lamp (SAE-W) that is not of an approved type or has been altered.

3. Vehicle has wire, unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials that are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of any auxiliary lamps: backup, cornering, driving, fog, spot, or warning lamps.

4. Motor vehicles may be equipped with more than two fog or auxiliary lights; however, only two of these types of lights can be illuminated at any time. Reject a vehicle equipped with a headlamp mounted or used as an auxiliary lamp.

5. Vehicle is equipped with an auxiliary lamp that does not function properly. (If an auxiliary lamp has been modified by removing the wiring, bulb and socket, the unit will be considered an ornament and not a lamp and will not be considered in inspection.)

6. Vehicle is equipped with a lighted advertising sign, except commercial motor vehicles, buses operated as public carriers, taxicabs, and privately-owned passenger cars used for home delivery of commercially prepared food. Commercial motor vehicles, buses operated as public carriers, and taxicabs may be equipped with vacant and destination signs and one steady burning white light for the nighttime illumination of external advertising. Privately-owned passenger cars used for home delivery of commercially prepared food may be equipped with one steady burning white light for the nighttime illumination of a sign identifying the business delivering the food. Do not reject approved identification lights.

7. The lens has a piece broken from it. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

8. Backup lamps are not required. However, if installed they must operate and be inspected.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. Required lamps are not of an approved type (SAE-R) or a lamp has been altered;

b. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn;

c. The lens has a piece broken from it. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted;

d. Lens is other than clear. LED (light-emitting diode) lights with a clear lens are acceptable if of an approved type. For those vehicles that are equipped with a multiple LED light (not filament-burning bulbs), they will pass inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning;

e. Lamps are not wired into the reverse gear. Vehicles manufactured without backup lamps may be wired into an independent circuit.

f. Any backup lamps do not emit white light.

9. Cornering lamps are not required. However, if installed they must operate and be inspected.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. Required lamps are not of an approved type (SAE-K) or a lamp has been altered;

b. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn;

c. The lens has a piece broken from it. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted;

d. The color of the light and lens is other than clear or amber;

e. The lamps do not burn in conjunction with the turn signals.

10. Driving lamps are not required. However, if installed they must operate and be inspected.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. Driving lamps are installed on vehicles equipped with the four-headlamp system, except the "F" type headlamp system;

b. Driving lamps are not of an approved type or have been altered;

c. The color of the lamp is other than white or the lens is not clear;

d. The lens has a piece broken from it or is rotated away from its proper position. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted;

e. Wiring or electrical connections are defective;

f. Any driving lamp is mounted above the level of the regular headlamps, or is not mounted firmly to prevent excessive vibration;

g. Driving lamps are not wired so that they will burn only when the high beams of the regular headlamps are activated;

h. Driving lamps are not aimed so that the center of the hot spot drops three inches in 25 feet so that the hot spot is directly ahead of the lamp.

NOTE: Driving lamps must be aimed using the optical headlight aimer. A tolerance of four inches in 25 feet is allowed in both the horizontal and the vertical adjustment.

11. Fog lamps are not required. However, if installed they must operate and be inspected.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. A vehicle may be equipped with more than two fog lamps; however, not more than two fog lamps can be illuminated at any time;

b. The lens or light is other than clear or amber. Fog lamps may have black-end bulbs or small metal caps over the end of the bulb;

c. The lens has a piece broken from it or is rotated away from its proper position. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted;

d. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn;

e. Any fog lamp is mounted above the level of the regular headlamps, or is not mounted firmly;

f. Lamps are not wired and aimed according to the following instructions:

(1) Fog lamps are general illumination lamps as covered in subsection A of this section. They must burn through the tail light circuit even if on a separate switch. If installed on a vehicle with a four-headlamp system, or a vehicle equipped with driving lamps, they must be wired into the low beam circuit.

(2) Fog lamps must be aimed so that the top edge of the high intensity zone is set at the horizontal centerline and the left edge of the high intensity zone is set at the vertical centerline. (Same as low beam headlights.)

NOTE: Fog lamps must be aimed using the optical headlight aimer. A tolerance of four inches in 25 feet is allowed in both the horizontal and the vertical adjustment.

12. Spot lamps are not required; however, if installed they must operate and be inspected.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. Vehicle is equipped with more than two spot lamps;

b. Lamps are not of an approved type (SAE-O) or a lamp has been altered;

c. The lens in any spot lamp is other than clear or light is not white;

d. The lens has a piece broken from it or is rotated away from its proper position. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted;

e. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn.

13. Daytime running lamps (DRLs) are not required. However, if installed they must operate and be inspected. DRLs must be installed in pairs.

NOTE: DRLs may or may not be wired into the tail light circuit.

Inspect for and reject if:

a. Any lamp, except headlamps, used as DRLs if not an approved type (SAE-Y2) and is not marked "DRL";

b. Fog lamps or parking lamps are used as DRLs;

c. More than one pair of lamps is used and designated as DRLs;

d. A DRL is mounted higher than 34 inches measured to the center of the lamp; or

e. The color is other than white to amber.

NOTE: Any DRL optically combined with a turn signal or hazard lamp must deactivate when the turn signal or hazard lamp is activated and then reactivate when the turn signal or hazard lamp deactivates.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 16, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 17, Issue 15, eff. May 9, 2001; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 33, Issue 25, eff. September 8, 2017; Volume 35, Issue 1, eff. October 4, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019; Volume 36, Issue 25, eff. September 4, 2020; Volume 40, Issue 10, eff. February 1, 2024.

19VAC30-70-170. Parking lamps.

A. Parking lamps are not required; however, if installed they must operate and be inspected. Parking lamps may burn in conjunction with the headlamps.

B. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Lamps are not of an approved type (DOT or SAE-P) or a lamp has been altered.

NOTE: The clear lens lights between the headlamps and the red lens lights between tail lamps on various vehicles are approved parking lamps and must work if not rendered inoperative by removing the bulb, socket and wiring from each individual lamp.

2. Parking lamps have other than white or amber lenses showing to the front. If the lens is clear, then the bulb shall be amber.

3. Parking lamps do not burn with the rear lamps.

4. If lens has a piece broken from it. Lens may have one or more cracks provided no off-color light projects through the crack or cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

5. Reject if the vehicle has unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials which are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of the parking lamps.

6. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn.

7. LED (light-emitting diode) lights with a clear lens are acceptable if of an approved type. For those vehicles that are equipped with a multiple LED light (not filament-burning bulbs), they will pass inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 17, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-180. Clearance lamps, side marker lamps, and reflectors.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer or other vehicle is not equipped with clearance lamps if the vehicle is over seven feet wide or if any portion extends four inches or more outside the front fender line.

NOTE: See 19VAC30-70-550 for vehicles exceeding 10,000 GVWR.

When a motor vehicle with a trailer attached is presented, the combination may be considered as one unit in meeting this requirement. If presented separately, the individual unit must meet these requirements.

2. Lamps or reflectors are not of an approved type or a lamp has been altered; any wires are exposed; unapproved lenses or plastic covers; or any other materials that are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of lamps or reflectors.

3. Lenses or lamps on the front are not amber and lenses on lamps on the rear are not red or if a lens has a piece broken from it. A lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the crack or cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

NOTE: For vehicles equipped with a multiple LED (light-emitting diode) light (not filament-burning bulbs): they will pass inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning.

4. Wiring or electrical connections are defective, all filaments do not burn.

5. Two amber lamps are not mounted on the front and two red lamps on the rear, so as to indicate the extreme width of the body, and as high on the permanent body as practical, except that approved 180 degree lamps with yellow or amber lens may be mounted on the side of the vehicle at or as near the front as possible, or if the front is not the widest portion, the lamps may be installed on the side and as near that point as possible. And with the further exception that 180 degree lamps with red lens may be mounted on the side of the vehicle at or as near the rear as possible or if the rear is not the widest portion of the vehicle, the lamps may be installed on the side as near that point as possible.

6. Any vehicle equipped with three red identification lamps with the lamp centers spaced not less than six inches or more than 12 inches apart and installed as close as practicable to the top of the vehicle and as close as practicable to the vertical centerline of the vehicle may have the rear clearance lamps required by subdivision 5 of this section, mounted at any height but indicate as nearly as practicable the extreme width of the vehicle.

NOTE: Other specially constructed vehicles may be equipped with the required clearance lamps not mounted on the extreme rear, provided such red lamps are clearly visible from the rear and provided further that two red reflectors of an approved type are mounted on the extreme rear. In unusual cases the rear lamp may be mounted on the cab and another red reflex reflector placed on the extreme rear.

NOTE: In addition to the required clearance lamps showing to the front and to the rear, a vehicle may be equipped with side marker lamps on the side of the vehicle. When such an installation is used, all of the clearance lamps on the side except the one at or near the rear must have an amber lens. The side marker lamps on the side at or near the rear must have a red lens.

7. Any vehicle covered by subdivision 1 of this section, except school buses, is not equipped with amber reflectors on the sides as near the front as practical, and red reflectors on the rear. The reflectors must be at least 15 inches and not more than 60 inches from the ground. No reflector can have a piece broken from its reflective surface, but may have one or more cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

8. Any combination of vehicles whose actual length exceeds 35 feet is not equipped with reflex reflectors of a type approved by the superintendent and mounted on the widest part of the towed vehicle so as to be visible from the front and sides of the vehicle. No reflector can have a piece broken from its reflective surface, but may have one or more cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

9. Any passenger vehicle is equipped with clearance lamps, unless such lamps are used to mark the extreme width of the vehicle or used as taxicab identification, or used as supplemental turn signals. (See 19VAC30-70-190 B.)

10. Vehicles so constructed as to make compliance with the requirements of subdivisions 1, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 12 of this section impractical will be equipped with clearance lamps and reflectors at the most practical location to provide maximum visibility.

11. Any vehicle is not equipped with two front side marker lights (amber) and two rear side marker lights (red).

12. Any vehicle is not equipped with two front side reflectors (amber), two rear side reflectors (red), and two reflectors mounted on the rear (red).

Description: Description: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399198058174VSPRE_files/image001.gif




If equipped with three red identification lamps, the required clearance lamps may be mounted at any height so long as they indicate, as nearly as practicable, the extreme width of the vehicle.

Description: Description: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399198058174VSPRE_files/image002.gif




NOTE: Must be equipped with three red identification lamps

ILLUSTRATIONS FOR PROPER INSTALLATION OF REFLECTORS

Description: Description: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399198590455VSPRE_files/image001.gif





At least 15 inches and not more than 60 inches from the ground.

Amber Reflector

Description: Description: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399198590455VSPRE_files/image002.gif




Red Reflectors: At least 15 inches and not more than 60 inches from the ground.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 18, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Errata, 15:8 VA.R. 1099 January 4, 1999; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Errata, 32:26 VA.R. 3588 August 22, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-190. Signal device (intention to stop or turn), hazard lights, stop lamp.

A. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with a switch that will permit all turn signal lamps to flash simultaneously.

B. Supplemental turn signals, properly wired into the turn signal circuit, may be installed. These may be either approved type turn signals or clearance lamps.

C. Single face lamps are permissible on the front, except tractor units shall be equipped with two-faced lamps mounted on the front fenders or on or near the front of the vehicle.

D. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Motor vehicle, or trailer, except an antique vehicle not originally equipped with a stop lamp, is not equipped with at least two brake lights of an approved type (DOT or SAE-S) that automatically exhibits a red or amber light to the rear when the brake pedal is actuated.

2. Every passenger car manufactured for the 1986 or subsequent model year and multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus whose overall width is less than 80 inches, manufactured September 1, 1993, and subsequent model year is not equipped with a supplemental center high mount stop lamp of an approved type (DOT or SAE-U, U1 or U2) mounted at the vertical centerline of the vehicle which functions only in cooperation with the vehicle's stop lamps, brake lights, and hazard lights. Any other vehicle on which a supplemental center high mount stop lamp is mounted shall have the lamp mounted at the vertical center line of the vehicle. The lamps shall be of an approved type and shall function only in conjunction with the stop lamps. The high mount stop lamp must be steady burning and not wired to flash with turn signals or other wig-wag device.

"Multipurpose passenger vehicle" means any motor vehicle that is (i) designed to carry no more than 10 persons and (ii) constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road use.

NOTE: Camper shells or rear spoilers that obscure the original manufacturer's high mount stop lamp must be equipped with a center high mount stop lamp in good working order.

NOTE: The original manufacturer's center high mount stop lamp will not be considered for inspection if it is obscured by a camper shell or rear spoiler that is equipped with a center high mount stop lamp of an approved type.

NOTE: No sticker or other foreign material shall be affixed to the vehicle in such a manner so as to obscure the center high mount stop lamp.

3. Proper signals do not go on with each throw of the switch or if stop signals do not go on with slightest pressure on the brake pedal. Turn signals may flash, however stop signals may not flash except when the vehicle is equipped with a brake warning system or device which will cause the brake lights to flash when the vehicle is in motion but committed to an emergency or panic stop.

4. Motor vehicle was manufactured after January 1, 1955, and is not equipped with approved signaling devices (SAE-I).

5. Vehicle is not equipped with a turn signal if such signal is not working properly or does not continue to function in the same manner as when it was originally manufactured. (The turn signal switch shall lock in place when positioned for a left turn or a right turn, and the turn signal indicators must function. Do not reject a vehicle if the self-canceling mechanism in the switch does not function when the steering wheel is rotated.).

6. Switch is not convenient to the driver and not of an approved type.

7. Any vehicle so constructed so as to prevent the operator from making a hand and arm signal, if such vehicle is not equipped with an approved type signaling device.

8. Turn signal lens is not clear or amber to the front, or red or amber to the rear. Lens or bulb color has been altered or modified. If the turn signal lens is clear, then the bulb shall be amber.

NOTE: The pink color lens found on 1998 and 1999 Honda Accords emit the proper color light (amber) when the lamp is activated. There may be other manufacturers using the same configuration and are not in violation of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.

9. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn.

NOTE: LED (light-emitting diode) lights with a clear lens are acceptable if of an approved type. For those vehicles that are equipped with a multiple LED light (not filament-burning bulbs), they will pass inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning.

10. Lens has a piece broken from it. The lens may have one or more cracks provided an off-color light does not project through the cracks. Taping or gluing cracks or pieces is not permitted.

11. The hazard warning signal operating unit does not operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch and when activated cause all turn signals to flash simultaneously.

NOTE: They are deemed not to be installed if none of the lights burn or flash when the switch is activated and the hazard warning signal flasher unit has been removed.

12. Device is not mounted near the rear for rear signals or near the front for front signals (except supplemental turn signals) or if the signal is hidden by a bolster or other part of body chassis.

13. All "Class A" signals are not mounted at least three feet apart. (This does not apply to the combination rear signal device.) However, signal lamps that are mounted as far apart as practical inside and at the rear of the frame so as to be properly visible will meet inspection requirements.

14. Any vehicle has wire, unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials that are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of the signal device (intention to stop or turn), hazard lights, or stop lamp.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 19, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 36, Issue 25, eff. September 4, 2020; Volume 40, Issue 10, eff. February 1, 2024.

19VAC30-70-200. Permissible lighting equipment.

A. Any vehicle may be equipped with:

1. Running board or courtesy lamps, of not over six candlepower.

2. Vacant or destination signs, if a taxicab or bus.

3. Identification lamps of approved type (SAE -P2 or P-3).

4. Interior lights, of not more than 15 candlepower.

Exception: This does not apply to alternating, blinking or flashing colored emergency lights mounted inside law-enforcement vehicles or flashing shielded red or red and white lights, mounted inside vehicles owned by members of volunteer fire companies, volunteer rescue squads or owned or used by professional firefighters, or police chaplains. Also, this does not apply to firefighting vehicles equipped with map lights.

5. Hood ornament light if of an approved type or permitted by the superintendent.

6. Any approved lamp in good working order when used for the purpose for which it was approved.

B. Side marker lamps are not required. If installed they must operate and be inspected. If the bulb, socket and wiring are removed from an individual lamp unit, the unit will not be considered during inspection. This does not include wraparound tail/marker lamp assembly/lens, which is intended to perform multiple functions.

C. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Lamps are not of an approved type (DOT or SAE-P2 or P3), or do not comply with subsection A of this section;

2. Lamps are not installed on the permanent structure of the vehicle with one as far to the rear and one as far forward as practicable and at a location which is not less than 15 inches above the road surface when measured from the center of the lamp;

3. Lamps installed on the side to the rear do not have a red approved lens (SAE-P2). Lamps installed on the side of the front do not have a clear or amber approved lens (SAE-P2) so as to project an amber light. If the approved lens on the front side is clear, then the bulb shall be a DOT-approved amber bulb;

4. Lens has a piece broken from it. The lens may have one or more cracks provided no off-color light projects through the crack(s);

5. Any vehicle has wire, unapproved lens or plastic covers, any other materials which are not original equipment or any colored material placed on or in front of permissible lighting equipment;

6. Wiring or electrical connections are defective or filaments do not burn.

7. LED (light-emitting diode) lights with a clear lens are acceptable if of an approved type. For those vehicles that are equipped with a multiple LED light (not filament-burning bulbs), they will pass inspection if more than 50% of the diode lights are burning.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 20, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 15, Issue 2, eff. November 11, 1998; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Errata, 32:26 VA.R. 3588 August 22, 2016.

19VAC30-70-210. Glass and glazing.

A. Motor vehicles may be inspected without windshields, side glasses, or any kind of glazing, except that any motor vehicle other than a motorcycle that was manufactured, assembled, or reconstructed after July 1, 1970, must be equipped with a windshield. If glass or other glazing is installed, it must be inspected. If no windshield is installed, see 19VAC30-70-50 C for location of the sticker.

B. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any motor vehicle manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1936, or any bus, taxicab or school bus manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1935, is not equipped throughout with safety glass, or other safety glazing material. (This requirement includes slide-in campers used on pickups or trucks, caps, or covers used on pickup trucks, motor homes, and vans.)

2. Any safety glass or glazing used in a motor vehicle is not of an approved type and properly identified (refer to approved equipment section). (Replacement safety glass installed in any part of a vehicle other than the windshield need not bear a trademark or name, provided the glass consists of two or more sheets of glass separated by a glazing material, and provided the glass is cut from a piece of approved safety glass, and provided the edge of the glass can be observed.)

NOTE: A number of 1998 and 1999 model year Ford Contour/Mystique, Econoline and Ranger vehicles were produced without the AS-1 windshield marking as required by FMVSS #205. Ford has certified that these vehicles' windshields meet all performance standards and will not be rejected.

3. Any glass at any location where glass is used is cracked or broken so that it is likely to cut or injure a person in the vehicle.

4. Windshield has any cloudiness more than three inches above the bottom, one inch inward from the outer borders, one inch down from the top, or one inch inward from the center strip. The bottom of the windshield shall be defined as the point where the top of the dash contacts the windshield.

5. Any distortion or obstruction that interferes with a driver's vision; any alteration that has been made to a vehicle that obstructs the driver's clear view through the windshield.

a. Any hood scoop installed on any motor vehicle manufactured for the year 1990 or earlier model year cannot exceed 2-1/4 inches high at its highest point measured from the junction of the dashboard and the windshield.

b. Any hood scoop installed on any motor vehicle manufactured for the 1991 or subsequent model year cannot exceed 1-1/8 inches high at its highest point measured from the junction of the dashboard and the windshield.

NOTE: Vehicles up to 10,000 pounds (GVWR) submitted for inspection, with a navigational device, video event recording device, or a crash avoidance camera mounted on the interior of the windshield; when the entire device is outside the area swept by the windshield wipers or any location above the AS-1 line, shall be issued an approval sticker if no other violations are detected.

6. Windshield glass, on the driver's side, has any scratch more than 1/4 inch in width and six inches long within the area covered by the windshield wiper blade, excluding the three inches above the bottom of the windshield. A windshield wiper that remains parked within the driver's side windshield wiper area shall be rejected.

EXCEPTION: Do not reject safety grooves designed to clean wiper blades if the grooves do not extend upward from the bottom of the windshield more than six inches at the highest point.

7. There is a pit, chip, or star crack larger than 1-1/2 inches in diameter at any location in the windshield above the three-inch line at the bottom.

8. At any location in the windshield above the three-inch line at the bottom (as measured from the junction of the dash board and the windshield) there is more than one crack from the same point if at least one of the cracks is more than 1-1/2 inches in length. There is any crack that weakens the windshield so that one piece may be moved in relation to the other. (If there is more than one crack running from a star crack that extends above the three-inch line, the windshield shall be rejected.)

NOTE: Windshield repair is a viable option to windshield replacement. However, the primary focus of windshield repairs is to stop or reduce further damage from roadway adversities, vibrations, ambient temperature changes, and weather. Repairs to minor damage may be made so long as the windshield meets all of the standards set forth in this section.

9. Any sticker is on the windshield other than an official one required by law or permitted by the superintendent. Authorization is hereby granted for stickers or decals, to include those required by any county, town, or city, measuring not more than 2-1/2 inches in width and four inches in length to be placed in the blind spot behind the rear view mirror. The normal location for any required county, town, or city sticker is adjacent to the right side of the official inspection sticker when viewed from inside the vehicle. The top edge of the sticker is to be approximately four inches from the bottom of the windshield. The left side edge adjacent to the official inspection sticker shall not be more than 1/4 inch from the right edge of the official inspection sticker when viewed from inside the vehicle. Valid Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) inspection decals or similar commercial vehicle inspection decal issued by local law enforcement may be placed at the bottom right corner of the windshield when viewed from inside the vehicle. The top edge of such decals are to be approximately four inches from the bottom of the windshield when viewed from inside the vehicle and are to be located outside the area swept by the windshield wipers.

Any sticker or decal required by the laws of any other state or the District of Columbia and displayed upon the windshield of a vehicle submitted for inspection in this state is permitted by the superintendent, provided the vehicle is currently registered in that jurisdiction, and the sticker is displayed in a manner designated by the issuing authority and has not expired. This includes vehicles with dual registration; (i.e., Virginia and the District of Columbia).

NOTE: Toll transponder devices may be affixed to the inside center of the windshield at the roof line just above the rear view mirror. If space does not allow, then the transponder device may be affixed to the immediate right of the mirror at the roof line.

NOTE: A licensed motor vehicle dealer may apply one transponder sticker no larger than one inch by four inches and one barcode sticker no larger than three inches by four inches to the driver's side edge of a vehicle's windshield to be removed upon the sale or lease of the vehicle provided that it does not extend below the AS-1 line. In the absence of an AS-1 line the sticker cannot extend more than three inches downward from the top of the windshield.

NOTE: Any vehicle displaying an expired sticker or decal on its windshield at the time of inspection, excluding a rejection sticker, shall not be issued an approval sticker unless the owner or operator authorizes its removal. A rejection sticker will be issued versus an involuntary removal.

10. Sunshading material words, lettering, numbers or pictures on the windshield that extend below the AS-1 line or three inches downward from the top of the windshield in the absence of an AS-1 line. Sunshading is permitted on the windshield if authorized by the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and indicated on the vehicle registration.

NOTE: Vehicles with permitted sunshading on the windshield must have a cut-out to accommodate the direct application of an approval or rejection sticker to the windshield in the location indicated in 19VAC30-70-50 C or 19VAC30-70-60 E.

NOTE: Vehicles with logos made into the glass at the factory meet federal standards and will pass state inspection.

11. Any sunscreening material is scratched, distorted, wrinkled or obscures or distorts clear vision through the glazing.

12. Front side windows have cloudiness above three inches from the bottom of the glass or other defects that affect the driver's vision or one or more cracks that permit one part of the glass to be moved in relation to another part. Wind silencers, breezes or other ventilator adaptors are not made of clear transparent material.

EXCEPTION: Colored or tinted ventvisors that do not exceed more than two inches from the forward door post into the driver's viewing area are permitted.

13. Glass in the left front door cannot be lowered so a hand signal can be given. (This does not apply to vehicles that were not designed or manufactured for the left front glass to be lowered, provided the vehicle is equipped with approved turn signals.) If either front door has the glass removed and material inserted in place of the glass that could obstruct the driver's vision.

EXCEPTION: Sunscreening material is permissible if the vehicle is equipped with a mirror on each side.

14. Any sticker or other obstruction is on either front side window, rear side windows, or rear windows. (The price label, fuel economy label and the buyer's guide required by federal statute and regulations to be affixed to new or used vehicles by the manufacturer shall normally be affixed to one of the rear side windows.) If a vehicle only has two door windows, the labels may be affixed to one of these windows. If a vehicle does not have any door or side windows the labels may be temporarily affixed to the right side of the windshield until the vehicle is sold to the first purchaser.

NOTE: A single sticker no larger than 20 square inches in area, if such sticker is totally contained within the lower five inches of the glass in the rear window if a vehicle has only one outside mirror, a single sticker or decal no larger than 10 square inches located in an area not more than three inches above the bottom and not more than eight inches from the rearmost edge of either front side window, is permissible and should not be rejected.

A single sticker issued by the Department of Transportation to identify a physically challenged driver, no larger than two inches by two inches, located not more than one inch to the rear of the front door post, or one inch to the rear of the front ventilator glass, if equipped with a ventilator glass and no higher than one inch from the bottom of the window opening, is permitted on the front driver's side window on a vehicle specially equipped for the physically challenged.

15. Rear window is clouded or distorted so that the driver does not have a view 200 feet to the rear.

EXCEPTIONS: The following are permissible if the vehicle is equipped with a mirror on each side:

a. There is attached to one rear window of such motor vehicle one optically grooved clear plastic right angle rear view lens, not exceeding 18 inches in diameter in the case of a circular lens or not exceeding 11 inches by 14 inches in the case of a rectangular lens, which enables the operator of the motor vehicle to view below the line of sight as viewed through the rear window.

b. There is affixed to the rear side windows, rear window, or windows of such motor vehicle any sticker or stickers, regardless of size.

c. There is affixed to the rear side windows, rear window, or windows of such motor vehicle a single layer of sunshading material.

d. Rear side windows, rear window, or windows is clouded or distorted.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 21, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 21, Issue 18, eff. April 15, 2005; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 34, Issue 9, eff. January 26, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 1, eff. October 4, 2018; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-220. Mirrors.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any motor vehicle is not equipped with at least one mirror.

2. Any 1969 and subsequent model motor vehicle, designed and licensed primarily for passenger vehicular transportation, is not equipped with at least one outside and one inside rear view mirror.

NOTE: The inside mirror cannot be removed on these vehicles even if it has an outside on each side.

Vehicles equipped with only one outside mirror must have the mirror on the driver's side.

EXCEPTION: No multipurpose vehicle shall be required to be equipped with an inside rear view mirror if it does not have a rear window or if the rear window is so obstructed as to prevent rearward vision by means of an inside rear view mirror, if the motor vehicle has horizontally and vertically adjustable outside rear view mirrors installed on both sides of such motor vehicle in such a manner as to provide the driver of such motor vehicle a clear view along both sides of such motor vehicle for a distance of not less than 200 feet.

3. Reflecting surface of mirror is cracked, broken, peeled, pitted, clouded, tarnished, has sharp edges, reflects more than one image or a distorted image, or is not mounted securely.

4. Mirror does not give the driver a clear view of the road 200 feet to the rear.

5. Interior rear view mirror.

a. Mirror is loose enough that rear view is impaired.

b. Mirror cannot be adjusted or will not maintain a set adjustment.

6. Exterior rear view mirror.

a. Mirror is loose enough that rear view is impaired.

b. Left mirror is obscured by an unwiped portion of windshield or mirror is mounted so it cannot be adjusted from driver's seat. (Applies to 1969 and subsequent model vehicles.)

c. A right side mirror is not required if the reflecting surface of the mirror has been completely removed from the mirror housing; however, a vehicle will be required to have two outside mirrors if there is a sticker or stickers, regardless of size, sunshading or tinting film on the rear side windows or rear window.

NOTE: A single sticker no larger than 20 square inches, if such sticker is totally contained within the lower five inches of the glass of the rear window and does not obstruct the center high mount brake light, is allowed and will pass inspection.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 22, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012.

19VAC30-70-230. Windshield wiper; defroster.

A. Windshield wiper.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Vehicle is equipped with a windshield and is not equipped with a windshield wiper.

2. Vehicle was manufactured before January 1, 1943, and is not equipped with at least one wiper on the driver's side. This wiper may be operated by hand.

3. Vehicle was manufactured after January 1, 1943, and is not equipped with a windshield wiper or wipers that clear both sides of the windshield. Vehicles converted from dual wipers to a single wiper are acceptable provided it continues to clear both sides of the windshield. These wipers must be mechanically operated by electric, vacuum, or air, but not by hand. A switch in good working order and convenient to the driver must be present to turn the wipers on and off. Any wiper that parks within the area covered by the driver's windshield wiper blade, excluding the three inches above the bottom of the windshield shall be rejected. (See 19VAC30-70-210 B 6).

4. Blade has brittle worn, torn or ripped rubber or if metal comes in contact with the windshield; blade is not securely attached to wiper arm.

5. Wiper does not operate freely; or if it is an electrically or mechanically operated wiper which must be operated by hand.

NOTE: Inspect only wipers found on the front windshield. Rear or other wipers will not be considered.

B. Windshield defroster. Vehicles manufactured after January 1, 1969, must be equipped with windshield defroster systems.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any 1969 or subsequent model is not equipped with a windshield defroster system;

2. Defroster fan fails to function;

3. Fan functions, but a warm stream of air cannot be felt blowing against the windshield. Engine must be warm and all elements of the defroster system must be in the on position. Switch is not convenient to the driver and working properly.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 23, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-240. Horns and other warning devices.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Vehicle is not equipped with a horn in good working order, capable of emitting a sound audible under normal conditions over a distance of not less than 200 feet and is not firmly mounted.

2. A horn operating mechanism installed at a location readily accessible to the vehicle operator is not provided. Electrically operated horn, wiring, or electrical connections are defective.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 24, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-250. Doors.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. If each door located at the left and right side of the driver's seat is not equipped with an opening device similar to that installed by vehicle manufacturers that will permit the opening of the door from the outside and inside of the vehicle.

NOTE: A door opening device on customized vehicles may be converted to either a remote, push button or other similar opening switch.

2. If each door located to the left and right side of the driver's seat is not equipped with a latching system similar to that installed by vehicle manufacturers which will hold the door in its proper closed position.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 25, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 12, Issue 21, eff. August 7, 1996; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004.

19VAC30-70-260. Hood latch system; batteries..

A. "Hood" means any exterior movable body panel forward of the windshield that is used to cover an engine, luggage, storage or battery compartment.

B. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Each hood is not provided with a hood latch system that will securely hold the hood in its proper fully-closed position.

2. A latch release mechanism or its parts are broken, missing or badly adjusted so that the hood cannot be opened and closed properly.

NOTE: The hood latch release inside the passenger compartment is only for security and shall not be rejected under this section. If the hood latch cable can be accessed from either the inside or outside of the vehicle and opened by pliers or similar method, then it will pass.

3. Latching system on a vehicle equipped with a tilt cab is defective, broken, missing, or not properly adjusted so that the tilt cab is held securely when it is in its latched position.

C. Battery mounting and storage. Inspect for and reject if:

1. A battery is not securely attached to a fixed part of the motor vehicle or trailer. A battery is not protected by a removable cover or enclosure if the battery is installed in a location other than the engine compartment.

2. All brackets, hardware, bolts, and bushings used for securely mounting the battery to the vehicle are not present.

3. Removable covers or enclosures are not substantial and are not securely latched or fastened.

4. The battery compartment does not have openings to provide ample battery ventilation and drainage.

5. Whenever the cable to the starting motor passes through a metal compartment, the cable shall be protected against grounding by an acid and waterproof insulating bushing.

6. Whenever a battery and a fuel tank are both placed under the driver's seat, (i) the battery and fuel tank are not partitioned from each other or (ii) each compartment is not provided with an independent cover, ventilation, and drainage.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 26, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-270. Floor pan.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. The floor pan or inner side panels, front or rear, are rusted out or have any holes other than normal drain holes that allow exhaust gases to enter the occupant compartment or trunk.

2. The floor pan is rusted through or is in such condition to create a hazard to the occupants. A hole in the floor pan which has been properly repaired by welding, or through the utilization of a metal patch riveted, screwed or welded to its surface is not prohibited. If the floor pan was initially constructed from wood, it may be patched with wood.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 27, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-280. Seat.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any motor vehicle is not equipped with a seat to accommodate the operator.

2. The seat is not securely anchored.

3. Seat adjusting mechanism slips out of set position or the seat back will not lock in the proper upright position. Do not reject if it will not adjust as long as it does not violate subdivision 4 of this section.

4. The seat is not located to permit the operator to have adequate control of the steering and braking mechanisms and other instruments necessary for the safe operation of the motor vehicle.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 28, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-290. Seat belts; definitions.

A. Definitions:

"Bus" means a motor vehicle with motive power designed to carry more than 10 persons.

"Designated seating position" means any plain view (looking down from the top) location intended by the manufacturer to provide seating accommodations while the vehicle is in motion, except auxiliary seating accommodations as temporary or folding jump seats.

"Front outboard designated seating positions" means those designated seating positions for the driver and outside front seat passenger (except for trucks which have the passenger seat nearest the passenger side door separated from the door by a passageway used to access the cargo area).

"GVWR" means Gross Vehicle Weight Rating as specified by the manufacturer (loaded weight of a single vehicle).

"Multi-purpose passenger vehicle" means any motor vehicle that is (i) designed to carry no more than 10 persons and (ii) constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road use. This shall include a mini-van.

"Open-body type vehicle" means a vehicle having no occupant compartment top or an occupant compartment top that can be installed or removed by the user at the user's convenience.

"Passenger car" means a motor vehicle with motive power except a multipurpose passenger vehicle or motorcycle designed for carrying 10 persons or less.

"Rear outboard front facing designated seating positions" means those designated seating positions for passengers in outside front facing seats behind the driver and front passenger seat, except any designated seating position adjacent to a walk-way, that is located between the seat and the near side of the vehicle and is designated to allow access to more rearward seating positions.

"Truck" means a motor vehicle with motive power designed primarily for the transportation of property or special purpose equipment.

B. Passive restraint system.

1. Inflatable occupant restraint (commonly known as air bags).

2. Passive belt system (automatic deployment around the occupant after the occupant enters the vehicle and closes the door).

C. Inspect for and reject if:

1. Not of an approved type; (see approved equipment section for seat belts)

2. Installation not in compliance as follows:

a. All motor vehicle seat belt anchorages and attachment hardware must meet the standards and specifications set forth by the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (49 CFR 571.209), for such anchorages and attachment hardware;

b. Any questions concerning the proper installation of seat belt assemblies should be directed to the nearest Safety Division office.

3. Any 1963 and subsequent model vehicle, designed and licensed primarily for private passenger use, is not equipped with adult safety lap belts for at least two front seats or a combination of lap belts and shoulder straps or harnesses.

4. Any passenger car manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, is not equipped with lap/shoulder or harness seat belt assemblies located at the front outboard designated seating positions (except in convertibles) and lap seat belt assemblies located at all other designated seating positions.

5. Any convertible passenger car manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, does not have a lap seat belt assembly for each designated seating position.

6. Any passenger car manufactured on or after December 11, 1989, (except convertibles) not equipped with lap/shoulder seat belt assemblies located at all forward facing rear outboard designated seating positions.

a. Any passenger car manufactured on or after September 1, 1991, (including convertibles) is not equipped with a lap/shoulder seatbelt assembly located at all forward facing rear outboard designated seating positions.

b. Any truck, multipurpose vehicle, or bus (except school buses and motor homes) with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less, manufactured on or after September 1, 1991, is not equipped with a lap/shoulder seatbelt assembly at all forward facing rear outboard designated seating positions.

c. Any of the heretofore described vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1992, are not equipped with lap/shoulder seatbelt assembly located at all forward facing rear outboard designated seating positions on a readily removable seat.

7. Any of the following motor vehicles manufactured on or after July 1, 1971, do not have a lap seat belt assembly for each designated seating position:

a. Open-body type vehicles;

b. Walk-in van type trucks;

c. Trucks (GVWR in excess of 10,000 pounds);

d. Multipurpose passenger vehicles (GVWR in excess of 10,000 pounds).

8. Any buses manufactured on or after July 1, 1971, do not have a lap seat belt assembly for the driver's seating position.

9. All other motor vehicles manufactured on or after January 1, 1976, except those for which requirements are specified in subdivisions 3 and 4 of this subsection, do not have lap/shoulder or harness seat belt assemblies installed for each front outboard designated seating position. Those vehicles originally equipped and sold by the manufacturer with only a lap belt installed for each designated seating position in compliance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (49 CFR Part 571) will be deemed to be in compliance with this section.

10. Any seat belt buckle, webbing, or mounting is cut, torn, frayed, or no longer operates properly.

11. Any seat belt anchorage is loose, badly corroded, missing, or not fastened to belt.

D. Safety belts (motorized). Enter the vehicle and close the door. Insert the key into the ignition and turn to the on position. A motor causes the shoulder belt to slide along a track (Figure 1) starting at the front body "A" pillar and moving rearward to its locked position at the "B" pillar. The seat belt warning indicator lamp should illuminate with the lap belt unbuckled. When the ignition is turned to the off position and the door is opened, the shoulder belt moves forward to the "A" pillar.

NOTE: Do not reject if the motor is inoperative and the shoulder belt is permanently "locked" at pillar "B."

Description: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/RISImages/399201759042VSPRE_files/image001.gif

E. Air bag and air bag readiness light.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any defects in the air bag system are visible or obvious;

2. The air bag has been deployed and has not been replaced (and is not deactivated because of a medical or other exemption and a notice is posted to indicate that it has been deactivated); or

3. Any part of the air bag system has been removed from the vehicle.

NOTE: Airbag readiness light check is advisory only and not cause for rejection. Advise customer to make them aware, but do not reject.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 29, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 35, Issue 1, eff. October 4, 2018; Volume 40, Issue 10, eff. February 1, 2024.

19VAC30-70-300. Muffler, exhaust system and trailer venting.

A. Flexible tubing may be used anywhere in the exhaust system.

B. Inspection of exhaust system does not concern noise level.

C. Inspect for and reject if:

1. There is any leakage of exhaust gases at any point in the system. Do not reject "built-in" drain holes in muffler or tailpipe.

2. A muffler or catalytic converter has been repaired in any manner. The exhaust pipe may be welded to the muffler or catalytic converter. Holes or cracks in the exhaust line have been repaired with a patch or caulking.

NOTE: If a vehicle is inspected that does not have a muffler, the inspector should explain to the customer that although the vehicle will pass inspection without a muffler, it is a violation of state law for the vehicle to be operated on the highway without it.

NOTE: Nissan has designed an exhaust repair for leak or noise at the front tube for the 2002-03 Nissan Pathfinders. The repair may require the application of a specially designed caulk to the front tube of the exhaust system. Since Nissan has designed the repair for their vehicles and trained Nissan technicians would perform the repair, this would be acceptable and should not be rejected. This exception would not preclude the rejection of exhaust systems repaired in a manner that is not designed or approved by the manufacturer and not performed by trained persons.

3. Tailpipe opening is mashed or pinched.

4. Any components of the exhaust system are not properly secured. Brackets or hangers are loose, broken, or missing.

5. The exhaust system fails to discharge the exhaust to the rear or sides of the passenger and trunk compartment of passenger vehicles unless such design is consistent with the original vehicle manufacturer exhaust system.

6. The exhaust system fails to discharge the exhaust to the rear or sides of the passenger compartment that is designed for and normally used for the driver and passengers of a property-carrying vehicle.

D. Trailers and semitrailer venting. Inspection of trailers and semitrailers will include a visual inspection of the venting of cooking or heating appliances to the outside of the trailer or semitrailer to determine if the heating and cooking appliances are adequately vented to the outside to prevent the asphyxiation of occupants of any trailer or semitrailer by the operation of the heating or cooking appliances.

1. Reject the trailer or semitrailer if not equipped with a vent or venting system to the outside.

2. Reject the trailer or semitrailer if there is any complete or partial obstruction of the vent or venting system.

NOTE: Exhaust pipes must direct the fumes to exit from underneath of the vehicle to the sides or rear most area.

NOTE: Exhaust pipes must extend behind the cab or rear axle of pickup trucks or utility trucks.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 30, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 21, Issue 4, eff. September 22, 2004; Volume 24, Issue 8, eff. March 1, 2008; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016; Volume 35, Issue 25, eff. September 1, 2019.

19VAC30-70-310. Air pollution control system or device.

A. No motor vehicle manufactured for the model year 1973 or for subsequent model years shall be operated on the highways of this Commonwealth unless it is equipped with an air pollution control system or device, or combination of such systems or devices installed in accordance with federal laws and regulations.

B. The provisions of this section shall not prohibit or prevent shop adjustments or replacements of equipment for maintenance or repair or the conversion of engines to low polluting fuels, such as, but not limited to, natural gas or propane, so long as such action does not degrade in any manner or to any degree the anti-pollution capabilities of the vehicle power system.

C. Inspect for and reject if:

1. The air pollution control system or device on motor vehicles manufactured for the model year 1973 or for subsequent model years has been removed or otherwise rendered inoperable. The conversion of an engine to utilize low polluting fuels such as natural gas or propane may result in the removal of some part of the pollution control system; however, if the engine is converted to utilize both low polluting fuels and/or gasoline no part of the pollution control system or device can be removed or otherwise rendered inoperable.

2. Any of the essential parts of the pollution control system or devices on vehicles manufactured for the model year 1973 or for subsequent model years have been removed, rendered inoperable or disconnected. This includes any belt, valve, pump, hose line, cap, canister, catalytic converter and the restrictor in the gasoline tank filler neck on vehicles required to use unleaded fuel.

NOTE: In order to determine if a motor vehicle was originally equipped with emissions control equipment, refer to the vehicle's emissions control information label which is usually located in the engine compartment.

3. The emission control system or device on motor vehicles manufactured for the model year 1973 or for subsequent model years is not comparable to that designed for use upon the particular vehicle as standard factory equipment.

Any new or used after market catalytic converter installed on a vehicle after December 31, 1987, shall meet and be installed in accordance with specifications established by the Environmental Protection Agency. A catalytic converter so installed shall be identified with a visible, permanent, nondestructible label or stamp which will identify the manufacturer, vehicle application and month and year of manufacture. The label shall be in accordance with the following format:

a. New converters - N/XX/YYYY/ZZZZ

b. Used converters - U/XX/YYYY/ZZZZ

N - New converter designation

U - Used converter designation

XX - Manufacturer code issued by EPA

YYYY - Numerical designation of vehicle application

ZZZZ - Month and year of manufacture (i.e. - 0188 for January, 1988)

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 31, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 28, Issue 24, eff. August 1, 2012; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

19VAC30-70-320. Fuel system.

Inspect for and reject if:

1. Any part of the fuel system is not securely fastened.

2. There is fuel leakage at any point in the fuel system.

3. The fuel tank filler cap is missing.

4. The fuel tank crossover lines are not protected.

5. Any part of the fuel system comes in contact with the exhaust system.

6. Fuel lines or hoses have any cracks, crimps, or restrictions or are abraded, exposing inner fabric.

Statutory Authority

§ 46.2-1165 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR545-01-07 § 32, eff. May 1, 1990; amended, Virginia Register Volume 10, Issue 8, eff. February 9, 1994; Volume 32, Issue 24, eff. October 3, 2016.

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