Code of Virginia

Code of Virginia
7/6/2020

Virginia College Building Authority

§ 23.1-1200. Definitions; findings.

A. As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Authority" means the Virginia College Building Authority.

"Bond" means any bond, note, or other evidences of indebtedness or obligation of the Authority pursuant to this article.

"Eligible institution" means public institutions of higher education, as that term is defined in § 23.1-100; Eastern Virginia Medical School; the Institute for Advanced Learning and Research; the New College Institute; the Roanoke Higher Education Authority; the Southern Virginia Higher Education Center; the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center; the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind; and the Wilson Workforce and Rehabilitation Center.

"Equipment" means any personal property, including computer hardware and software, and any other improvements, including infrastructure improvements relating to equipment, used to support academic instruction and research at eligible institutions.

"Project" has the same meaning as set forth in § 23.1-1100.

B. Providing funds for the construction of projects at eligible institutions is or may be hindered, impeded, and delayed by the high financing costs resulting from the sale of bonds of such eligible institutions in the open market, and it is desirable that the Authority may (i) serve the purposes of eligible institutions by purchasing such bonds and financing the construction of projects at a lower cost, which facilitates such construction and (ii) issue its own revenue bonds for the purpose of paying the costs of such projects.

C. There is an urgent need to provide substantial amounts of new scientific, technical, and other equipment for academic instruction, research, and related activities at eligible institutions so that they may remain competitive in attracting high-quality faculty and obtaining research grants, and it is desirable that the Authority may finance the purchase of such equipment to provide eligible institutions with such equipment at the lowest possible cost, which facilitates the acquisition and supply of such equipment to eligible institutions and increases the purchasing power of their funds, including funds provided by tuition and fees and appropriations from the General Assembly.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.24; 1966, c. 685; 1986, c. 597; 1996, cc. 672, 689; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1201. Virginia College Building Authority established.

A. The Virginia College Building Authority is established as a public body corporate and a political subdivision, agency, and instrumentality of the Commonwealth. The Authority is vested with the powers, rights, and duties conferred in this chapter.

B. The Authority shall consist of the State Treasurer, the State Comptroller, the Director of the Department of Planning and Budget, and the Director of the Council, all of whom shall serve ex officio, and seven additional members appointed by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly. Each member shall serve at the pleasure of the Governor. Appointed members shall serve for a term of four years. Ex officio members shall serve terms coincident with their terms of office. Vacancies occurring other than by expiration of a term shall be filled for the unexpired term. No appointed member shall serve more than two consecutive terms.

C. The Governor shall appoint one member as chairman who shall serve a two-year term. No member is eligible to serve more than two consecutive terms as chairman. The chairman shall be the chief executive officer of the Authority and shall receive such compensation as the Governor determines. No ex officio member is eligible to serve as chairman.

D. The Authority shall elect one appointed member as vice-chairman, who shall exercise the powers of the chairman in the absence of the chairman.

E. The Authority shall elect a treasurer, a secretary, and an assistant secretary to perform the duties and functions commonly performed by such officers. All such officers, except the secretary and the assistant secretary, shall be selected from members of the Authority. The secretary and the assistant secretary may receive such compensation as the Authority provides.

F. Each appointed member of the Authority and the secretary and the assistant secretary shall execute a surety bond in such penal sum as shall be determined by the Attorney General to be (i) conditioned upon the faithful performance of the duties of his office, (ii) executed by a surety company authorized to transact business in the Commonwealth as surety, (iii) approved by the Attorney General, and (iv) filed in the office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth.

G. Six members of the Authority shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of all business of the Authority.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.25; 1966, c. 685; 1980, c. 728; 1986, c. 597; 2011, cc. 691, 714; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1202. Action by Authority may be authorized by resolution.

The Authority may authorize any action taken by the Authority pursuant to the provisions of this article by resolution at any regular or special meeting, and each such resolution shall take effect immediately and need not be published or posted.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.35; 1966, c. 685; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1203. Powers of Authority generally.

To enable the Authority to carry out the purposes for which it is established, the Authority may:

1. Sue and be sued;

2. Make contracts;

3. Adopt, use, and alter a common seal;

4. Have perpetual succession as a public body corporate;

5. Adopt bylaws and regulations for the conduct of its affairs;

6. Maintain an office at such place as it may designate;

7. Collect, or authorize the trustee under any trust indenture securing any bonds of the Authority to collect, (i) the principal of and the interest on all obligations transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly and (ii) other assets or moneys transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly or eligible institutions, including lease payments and other sources of revenue, as such principal, interest, and other assets or moneys become due;

8. Conduct a program of purchasing equipment for eligible institutions as authorized by this article;

9. Collect, or authorize the trustee under any trust indenture securing any bonds of the Authority to collect, (i) payments due under leases or agreements of sale of equipment or leases or other obligations of real property by the Authority to eligible institutions as such payments become due and (ii) the principal of and the interest on all bonds of eligible institutions purchased by the Authority;

10. Repossess and sell, or authorize the trustee under any trust indenture securing any bonds of the Authority to repossess and sell, any equipment upon any default under the lease or agreement for the sale of such equipment;

11. Repossess and re-lease, or authorize the trustee under any trust indenture securing any bonds of the Authority to repossess and re-lease, any project upon any default under the lease of such project;

12. Assist eligible institutions in applying for grants from, or entering into other agreements with, the federal or state government, foundations, or other entities that are designed to provide (i) guarantees of or funds for payments under leases or contracts of sale or (ii) other benefits;

13. Enter into agreements with the federal or state government, foundations, or other entities that are designed to provide (i) guarantees of or funds for payments under leases or contracts of sale or (ii) other benefits;

14. Select, appoint, and employ financial experts, corporate depositories, trustees, paying agents, attorneys, accountants, consulting engineers, construction experts, and other individuals to perform such other services as may be necessary in the judgment of the Authority and pay their compensation and reasonable expenses either from moneys received by the Authority under the provisions of this article or from appropriations made by the General Assembly for such purposes;

15. Issue bonds of the Authority as authorized by this article and refund any such bonds;

16. Receive and accept any grants, aid, or contributions of money, property, labor, or other things of value from any source or reject any such grants, aid, or contributions; and

17. Perform any other act necessary, appropriate, incidental, or convenient to carrying out the powers expressly granted in this article.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.31; 1966, c. 685; 1986, c. 597; 1996, cc. 672, 689; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1204. Duties; administration of assets, moneys, or obligations.

The Authority shall manage and administer all assets, moneys, or obligations set aside and transferred to it by the General Assembly or eligible institutions as provided in this article.

1966, c. 685, § 23-30.26; 1996, cc. 672, 689; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1205. Powers; purchase or sale of bonds or other obligations of eligible institutions.

A. The Authority may purchase, with any funds of the Authority available for such purpose, at public or private sale and for such price and on such terms as it determines, bonds or other obligations issued by eligible institutions pursuant to Chapter 11 (§ 23.1-1100 et seq.).

B. The Authority may pledge to the payment of the interest on and the principal of any bonds of the Authority all or any part of the bonds of eligible institutions so purchased, including payments of principal and interest thereon, as such payments become due. The Authority may, subject to any such pledge, sell any such bonds so purchased and apply the proceeds of such sale (i) to purchase like bonds of other eligible institutions or (ii) for the purpose and in the manner provided by any resolution authorizing the issuance of bonds of the Authority.

1966, c. 685, § 23-30.27; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1206. Powers; acquisition or disposition of equipment.

A. The Authority may (i) acquire equipment or any interest in equipment by purchase, exchange, gift, lease, or otherwise; (ii) sell, exchange, donate, convey, lease, and dispose of such equipment or any portion of or interest in such equipment, including security interests in such equipment; and (iii) retain or receive security interests in such equipment.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, eligible institutions may grant security interests in or other liens on equipment held or acquired by the eligible institution under any lease or agreement of sale with the Authority.

C. The Authority may acquire equipment with any funds of the Authority available for such purpose. Acquisition and disposition of equipment may be at public or private sale and for such price and on such terms as the Authority determines, provided that the Authority finances the acquisition of equipment for sale to eligible institutions only pursuant to standards and procedures approved through the Commonwealth's budget and appropriation process. The budget document shall present any lease payments and the corresponding total value of equipment to be acquired by each eligible institution. Each eligible institution shall make available such additional detail on specific equipment to be purchased as may be requested by the Governor or the General Assembly. If emergency acquisitions and leases are necessary when the General Assembly is not in session, the Governor may approve such acquisitions and leases. Prior to such acquisitions and leases, the Governor shall submit such proposed acquisitions and leases to the House Appropriations Committee and the Senate Finance Committee for their review and approval.

D. The Authority may establish and maintain such accounts as it deems appropriate to provide funds for acquisition of equipment on a continuing basis. The Authority may deposit in such accounts such funds as it deems appropriate, including the proceeds of any Authority bonds issued to finance the purchase of equipment and payments made to the Authority under equipment lease or sale agreements with eligible institutions or other entities. Any moneys held in such accounts may be (i) used to secure payment of principal of and interest on any Authority bonds, whether issued to finance the purchase of equipment, issued to pay administrative costs of the authority, or incurred in connection with the purchase, lease, or sale of equipment, or (ii) transferred by the Authority to be used in connection with any other program of the Authority. No funds of the Authority derived from the equipment program authorized under this section may be used in connection with the issuance or securing of indebtedness for the benefit of private institutions of higher education pursuant to Article 2 (§ 23.1-1220 et seq.).

E. The Authority may (i) determine and charge rent or determine sale prices for equipment that it leases or sells to eligible institutions and terminate such lease or sale agreements upon the failure of an eligible institution to comply with any obligations contained in such agreements or (ii) include in such lease agreements options for the eligible institution to renew the lease or purchase any or all of the leased equipment and provisions for the Authority to repossess and sell equipment leased or sold upon any default under the lease or sale agreement.

1986, c. 597, § 23-30.27:1; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1207. Powers; bonds of Authority generally.

A. To provide funds for the purchase of bonds of eligible institutions as authorized by § 23.1-1205, the acquisition of equipment as authorized by § 23.1-1206, the reimbursement of the Central Capital Planning Fund established pursuant to § 2.2-1520, the payment of pre-planning or detailed planning expenses for all projects that have been approved for construction by the General Assembly, or the payment of all or any part of the cost of any project or any portion of a project, the Authority may provide by resolution for the issuance of bonds of the Authority in such amount as the Authority determines. Such bonds of the Authority are payable solely from funds of the Authority, including (i) payments of principal of and interest on bonds of eligible institutions purchased by the Authority; (ii) the proceeds of the sale of any such bonds; (iii) payments of principal of and interest on obligations transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly or from other assets or moneys transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly or eligible institutions, including lease payments or any other source of revenue; (iv) the proceeds of the sale of any such obligations or assets; (v) the proceeds from the sale of bonds of the Authority; (vi) payments made by eligible institutions under leases or sales of equipment by the Authority; (vii) funds realized from the enforcement of security interests or other liens securing such bonds; (viii) payments due under letters of credit, policies of bond insurance, bond purchase agreements, or other credit enhancements securing payment of principal of and interest on bonds of the Authority; (ix) any moneys held in funds established by the Authority pursuant to § 23.1-1206; (x) any reserve or sinking fund created to secure such payment; and (xi) other available funds of the Authority.

B. Bonds of the Authority issued under the provisions of this article do not constitute a debt of the Commonwealth or a pledge of the faith or credit of the Commonwealth, and all bonds of the Authority shall contain on their face a statement to the effect that neither the faith and credit nor the taxing power of the Commonwealth or of any political subdivision of the Commonwealth shall be pledged to pay the principal of or the interest on such bonds.

C. The bonds of each issue shall be dated and mature at such time as may be determined by the Authority but not to exceed 40 years from their date, and may be made redeemable before maturity, at the option of the Authority, at such price or prices and under such terms and conditions as may be fixed by the Authority prior to the issuance of the bonds. The bonds may bear interest payable at such time, at such rate or rates, and in such manner as may be determined by the Authority, including the determination by agents designated by the Authority under guidelines established by it. The principal of and interest on such bonds may be made payable in any lawful medium. The Authority shall determine the form, manner of execution, denomination, and place of payment of principal and interest for the bonds, which may be at the office of the State Treasurer or at any bank or trust company within or outside the Commonwealth.

D. If any officer whose signature or a facsimile of whose signature appears on any bonds or coupons ceases to be such officer before the delivery of such bonds, such signature or such facsimile shall nevertheless be valid and sufficient for all purposes the same as if he had remained in office until such delivery.

E. All revenue bonds issued under the provisions of this article, other than bonds registered as to principal or in registered form, are negotiable instruments. Revenue bonds shall be in such form and bear interest at such rate or rates, either fixed rates or rates established by formula or other method, and may contain such other provisions as the Authority may determine. The principal of and premium, if any, and interest on revenue bonds are payable in United States currency. The Authority shall fix the denomination of revenue bonds and place of payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest at any bank or trust company within or outside the Commonwealth.

F. Bonds may be issued under a system of book entry for recording the ownership and transfer of ownership of rights to receive payments of principal of and premium, if any, and interest on the bonds.

G. The Authority may sell bonds issued under the provisions of this article in such manner, either at public or private sale, and for such price as it determines to be in its best interest. The proceeds of such bonds shall be disbursed for the purposes for which such bonds are issued and under such restrictions, if any, as the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or the trust indenture may provide.

H. Prior to the preparation of definitive bonds, the Authority may under like restrictions issue temporary bonds, with or without coupons, exchangeable for definitive bonds when such bonds have been executed and are available for delivery. The Authority may also provide for the replacement of any bond that becomes mutilated or is destroyed or lost. Such revenue bonds may be issued without any other proceedings or the happening of any other conditions or things than the proceedings, conditions, and things that are specified and required by this article.

I. Neither the members of the Authority nor any person executing any bonds issued under the provisions of this article is liable personally on such bonds or is subject to any personal liability or accountability by reason of the issuance of such bonds.

J. The Authority shall not undertake a project for an eligible institution if such project was not approved by the General Assembly pursuant to a bill, and any such project to be financed by bonds issued by the Authority secured by a pledge of any revenue source cited in subdivision C 1 a, b, c, or d of § 23.1-1106 shall be designated by the eligible institution's governing board as a project to be undertaken by the Authority.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.28; 1966, c. 685; 1986, c. 597; 1994, cc. 191, 219; 1996, cc. 672, 689; 2000, cc. 414, 445; 2004, c. 711; 2008, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 1, 2; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1208. Security for bonds.

A. The Authority may secure any bonds issued under the provisions of this article by a trust indenture by and between the Authority and a corporate trustee, which may be any trust company or bank having the powers of a trust company within or outside the Commonwealth. Such trust indenture or the resolution providing for the issuance of such bonds may:

1. Pledge or assign all or part of the funds of the Authority available for such purpose, including (i) payments of principal of and interest on bonds of eligible institutions purchased by the Authority; (ii) proceeds of the sale of any such bonds; (iii) payments of principal of and interest on obligations transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly or from other assets or moneys transferred to the Authority by the General Assembly or eligible institutions, including lease payments and other sources of revenue; (iv) proceeds of the sale of any such obligations or assets; (v) proceeds from the sale of bonds of the Authority; (vi) security interests granted by the Authority or any eligible institution in, or other liens on, equipment, whether such equipment has been leased or sold to an eligible institution; (vii) all or part of the payments due the Authority from eligible institutions under any lease, sale agreement, loan, or other agreement between the Authority and eligible institutions pursuant to § 23.1-1206, and any funds realized from enforcing security for such payments; (viii) payments due under policies of bond insurance, letters of credit, or other credit enhancement securing payment of principal of and interest on bonds of the Authority; (ix) any moneys in any fund established pursuant to § 23.1-1206; (x) any reserve or sinking fund created by the Authority to secure such bonds; and (xi) other available funds of the Authority;

2. Pledge or assign any other rights of the Authority in equipment owned by, or leases or sales of equipment made by, the Authority;

3. Contain such provisions for protecting and enforcing the rights and remedies of the bondholders as may be reasonable and proper and not in violation of law;

4. Provide for the creation and maintenance of such reserves as the Authority determines to be proper;

5. Include covenants setting forth the duties of the Authority in relation to the acquisition of any equipment or bonds of eligible institutions; the care, leasing, or sale of equipment to eligible institutions; the substitution of any bonds of eligible institutions, equipment, lease, security interest, or other security as security for the payment of the bonds of the Authority; the care, use, and insurance of equipment; the repossession and sale of leased or sold equipment by the Authority or the trustee under any trust indenture upon any default under the lease or sale of such equipment; and the collection of (i) payments due the Authority under leases or agreements of sale of equipment and (ii) payments of principal of and interest on any bonds of eligible institutions or obligations or other assets held by the Authority. Any bank or trust company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth that acts as depository of the proceeds of bonds or revenues may furnish such indemnifying bonds or pledge such securities as may be required by the Authority;

6. Set forth the rights and remedies of the bondholders and the trustee;

7. Restrict the individual right of action by bondholders; and

8. Contain such other provisions as the Authority deems reasonable and proper for the security of the bondholders.

B. All expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of any such trust indenture or resolution may be treated as a part of the administration costs of the Authority.

C. Neither the resolution nor any trust indenture by which a pledge is created need be filed or recorded except in the records of the Authority.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.29; 1966, c. 685; 1986, c. 597; 1996, cc. 672, 689; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1209. Reserve fund; limitations.

A. If the Authority deems it proper to create a reserve fund from its bond proceeds or other funds to support an issuance of bonds in accordance with the provisions of this section, all moneys held in such reserve fund, except as otherwise provided in this section, shall be pledged solely for the payment of the principal of and interest on the bonds secured in whole or in part by such a fund. The Authority may transfer income or interest earned on, or increment to, any reserve fund to its other funds or accounts if such transfer does not reduce the amount of the reserve fund below its minimum requirement.

B. To ensure further the maintenance of reserve funds established in accordance with the provisions of this section, the chairman of the Authority shall annually, on or before November 15, make and deliver to the Governor and the Secretary of Finance a certificate stating the sum, if any, required to restore each reserve fund to its minimum requirement. The Governor shall submit to the presiding officer of each house of the General Assembly printed copies of a budget including the sum, if any, required to restore each reserve fund to its minimum requirement. Such submission shall be made at the time the Governor presents his budget and budget bill to the General Assembly pursuant to §§ 2.2-1508 and 2.2-1509. Any sum that may be appropriated by the General Assembly for any restoration and paid to the Authority shall be deposited by the Authority in the applicable reserve fund. All sums paid to the Authority pursuant to this section shall constitute and be accounted for as advances by the Commonwealth to the Authority and, subject to the rights of the holders of any bonds of the Authority, shall be repaid to the Commonwealth without interest from available revenues of the Authority in excess of the amounts required for payment of bonds or other obligations of the Authority, maintenance of reserve funds, and operating expenses.

C. The Authority shall not at any time issue bonds secured in whole or in part by any reserve fund referred to in subsection A if, upon the issuance of the bonds, the amount in the reserve fund will be less than its minimum requirement unless the Authority, at the time of the issuance of the bonds, deposits in the fund an amount that, together with the amount then in the fund, will not be less than the fund's minimum reserve requirement.

D. The total principal amount of bonds outstanding at any one time, secured by a reserve fund in accordance with the provisions of this section, shall not exceed the sum of $300 million without the prior approval of the General Assembly.

E. Nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting the power of the Authority to issue bonds (i) not secured by a reserve fund or (ii) secured by a reserve fund not described in this section.

1996, cc. 672, 689, § 23-30.29:1; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1210. Payment on bonds; pledge of revenues.

To provide funds for the repayment of bonds issued by the Authority to (i) purchase any eligible institution's bonds or (ii) provide funds to pay all or part of the cost of any project or any portion of a project, each eligible institution may agree to pledge and transfer to the Authority all or part of the eligible institution's revenues derived from any source mentioned in subdivision C 1 a, b, c, or d of § 23.1-1106. Any agreement relating to such transfer may contain other provisions that the Authority and eligible institution deem reasonable and proper and are not in violation of law. No such agreement shall constitute a debt of the Commonwealth or a pledge of the full faith and credit of the Commonwealth. Neither the full faith and credit of the Commonwealth nor the taxing power of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth shall be pledged to the payment of the principal of and interest on bonds so secured by such agreement. Prior to execution, any such agreement shall be approved by the Secretary of Finance and the Secretary of Education.

1996, cc. 672, 689, § 23-30.29:2; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1211. Default on payments.

A. Whenever it appears to the Governor from an affidavit filed with him by the paying agent for the bonds issued by the Authority that an eligible institution has defaulted on the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on its bonds pursuant to this article, the Governor shall immediately make a summary investigation into the facts set forth in the affidavit. If it is established to the satisfaction of the Governor that the eligible institution is in default in the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on its bonds, the Governor immediately shall make an order directing the State Comptroller to make payment immediately to the owners or paying agent of the bonds in default on behalf of the eligible institution from any appropriation available to the eligible institution in the amount due and remaining unpaid by the eligible institution on its bonds.

B. Any payment so made by the State Comptroller to the owners or paying agent of the bonds in default shall be credited as if made directly by the eligible institution and charged by the State Comptroller against the appropriations of the eligible institution. The owners or paying agent of the bonds in default at the time of payment shall deliver to the State Comptroller, in a form satisfactory to the State Comptroller, a receipt for payment of the principal, premium, or interest satisfied by the payment. The State Comptroller shall report each payment made to the governing board of the defaulting eligible institution under the provisions of this section.

C. The Governor shall direct the State Comptroller to (i) charge against the appropriations available to any eligible institution that has defaulted on its bonds pursuant to this section all future payments of principal of and interest on the eligible institution's bonds when due and payable and (ii) make such payments to the owners or paying agent of the bonds on behalf of the eligible institution to ensure that no future default will occur on such bonds. The charge and payment shall be made upon receipt of documentation that the State Comptroller deems to be satisfactory evidence of the claim. The owners or paying agent of the bonds at the time of each payment shall deliver to the State Comptroller, in a form satisfactory to the State Comptroller, a receipt for payment of the principal or interest satisfied by the payment.

D. Nothing in this section shall be construed to create any obligation on the part of the State Comptroller or the Commonwealth to make any payment on behalf of the defaulting eligible institution other than from funds appropriated to the defaulting eligible institution.

1996, cc. 672, 689, § 23-30.29:3; 2016, c. 588; 2017, c. 314.

§ 23.1-1212. Investment of funds.

Any moneys or funds held by the Authority or the trustee under any trust indenture under the provisions of this article may be invested and reinvested in securities that are legal investments under the laws of the Commonwealth for moneys or funds held by fiduciaries.

1966, c. 685, § 23-30.30; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1213. Enforcement of rights and duties by bondholder or trustee under trust indenture.

Any (i) holder of bonds issued under the provisions of this article or any of the coupons appertaining to such bonds and (ii) trustee under any trust indenture may, either at law or in equity, by suit, action, mandamus, or other proceeding, (a) protect and enforce any and all rights under the laws of the Commonwealth, the trust indenture, or the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds and (b) enforce and compel the performance of all duties required by this article or such trust indenture or resolution to be performed by the Authority or by any officer of the Authority, except to the extent that such rights are restricted by the trust indenture or the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.32; 1966, c. 685; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1214. Exemption of bonds from taxation.

The bonds issued by the Authority under the provisions of this article, the transfer of such bonds, and the income from such bonds, including any profit made on the sale of such bonds, is exempt from taxation by the Commonwealth and any locality or political subdivision of the Commonwealth.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.33; 1966, c. 685; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1215. Bonds made lawful investments.

All bonds issued by the Authority under the provisions of this article are securities (i) in which all public officers and bodies of the Commonwealth and its localities and political subdivisions and all insurance companies and associations, savings banks and savings institutions, including savings and loan associations, commercial banks and trust companies, beneficial and benevolent associations, administrators, guardians, executors, trustees, and other fiduciaries in the Commonwealth may properly and legally invest funds under their control and (ii) that may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state officer or officer of a locality or any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds or obligations is authorized by law.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.34; 1966, c. 685; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1216. Annual report; examination of records, books, and accounts.

A. The Authority shall submit to the Governor and General Assembly an annual report of the interim activity and work of the Authority on or before November 1 of each year. Such report shall be submitted as a report document as provided in the procedures of the Division of Legislative Automated Systems for the processing of legislative documents and reports and shall be posted on the General Assembly's website. Such report shall contain, at a minimum, the annual financial statements of the Authority for the year ending the preceding June 30.

B. The records, books, and accounts of the Authority are subject to examination and inspection by duly authorized representatives of the General Assembly and any bondholder at any reasonable time, provided that such examination and inspection do not unduly interrupt or interfere with the business of the Authority.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.36; 1966, c. 685; 1984, c. 734; 1985, c. 146; 2004, c. 650; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1217. Annual audit.

The Auditor of Public Accounts or his legally authorized representatives shall annually audit the accounts of the Authority, and the cost of such audit shall be borne by the Authority.

1987, c. 74, § 23-30.36:1; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1218. Article liberally construed; powers of Authority not subject to supervision by certain entities.

A. This article, being necessary for the welfare of the Commonwealth and its inhabitants, shall be liberally construed to effect the purpose of this article.

B. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this article, none of the powers granted to the Authority under the provisions of this article are subject to the supervision or regulation or require the approval or consent of (i) any locality or political subdivision of the Commonwealth or (ii) any commission, board, bureau, official, or agency of (a) any such locality or political subdivision or (b) the Commonwealth.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.37; 1966, c. 685; 2015, c. 709; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1219. Jurisdiction of suits against Authority; service of process.

The Circuit Court of the City of Richmond has exclusive jurisdiction over any suit brought in the Commonwealth against the Authority, and process in such suit shall be served either on the State Comptroller or on the chairman of the Authority.

1964, c. 607, § 23-30.38; 1966, c. 685; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1220. Definitions.

As used in this article, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Authority" means the Virginia College Building Authority established in § 23.1-1200.

"Bonds" or "revenue bonds" means revenue bonds of the Authority issued under the provisions of this article, including revenue refunding bonds, notes, and other obligations that may be secured by a mortgage, the full faith and credit, or any other lawfully pledged security of a participating institution.

"Costs" means (i) all or any part of the cost of construction, acquisition, alteration, enlargement, reconstruction, and remodeling of a project, including all lands, structures, real or personal property, rights, rights-of-way, air rights, franchises, easements, and interests acquired or used in connection with a project; (ii) the cost of demolishing or removing any building or structure on land acquired in connection with a project, including the cost of acquiring any lands to which such building or structure may be moved, the cost of all machinery and equipment, financing charges, interest prior to, during, and for a period after completion of such construction and acquisition, provisions for reserves for principal and interest, and provisions for extensions, enlargements, additions, replacements, renovations, and improvements; (iii) the cost of architectural, engineering, financial, and legal services, plans, specifications, studies, surveys, and estimates of cost and revenues; (iv) administrative expenses; (v) expenses necessary or incident to determining the feasibility or practicability of constructing the project; and (vi) such other expenses as may be necessary or incident to constructing and acquiring the project, financing such construction, acquiring the project, and placing the project in operation.

"Participating institution" means any (i) organization that is exempt from federal income taxation pursuant to § 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and that is owned or controlled by a public institution of higher education or whose purpose is to support or otherwise benefit a public institution of higher education or (ii) nonprofit private institution of higher education in the Commonwealth whose primary purpose is to provide collegiate or graduate education and not to provide religious training or theological education that (a)(1) finances and constructs or (2) acquires a project or (b) refunds or refinances obligations, a mortgage, or advances as provided in this article.

"Project" means a structure suitable for use as a dormitory or other multi-unit housing facility for students, faculty, officers, or employees, a dining hall, student union, administration building, academic building, library, laboratory, research facility, classroom, athletics facility, health care facility, maintenance, storage or utility facility, any related structure or facility, or any other structure or facility required or useful for instructing students, conducting research, or operating an institution of higher education, including parking facilities and other facilities or structures essential or convenient for the orderly conduct of such institution of higher education. "Project" includes landscaping, site preparation, furniture, equipment and machinery, and other similar items necessary or convenient for the intended use of a particular facility or structure. "Project" does not include books, fuel, supplies, or other items whose costs are customarily deemed to result in a current operating charge, any facility used for sectarian instruction or as a place of religious worship, or any facility used primarily in connection with any part of the program of a school or department of divinity for any religious denomination.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.41; 1973, c. 205; 2016, cc. 532, 588, 658.

§ 23.1-1221. Declaration of policy and purpose.

A. For the benefit of the people of the Commonwealth, the increase of their commerce, welfare, and prosperity, and the improvement of their health and living conditions, it is essential that (i) this and future generations of youth be given the fullest opportunity to learn and develop their intellectual and mental capacities and (ii) participating institutions be provided with appropriate additional means to assist such youth in achieving the required levels of learning and development of their intellectual and mental capacities.

B. The purpose of this article is to provide a measure of assistance and an alternative method to enable participating institutions to provide the facilities and structures that are sorely needed to accomplish the purposes of this article, all to the public benefit and good, to the extent and manner provided in this article.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.39; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1222. Expenses of administering article.

All expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of this article shall be payable solely from funds provided under the provisions of this article, and no liability or obligation shall be incurred by the Authority pursuant to this article beyond the extent to which moneys have been provided under the provisions of this article.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.43; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1223. Powers and duties of Authority.

A. The Authority shall assist participating institutions in the acquisition, construction, financing, and refinancing of projects.

B. The Authority may:

1. Determine the location and character of any project to be financed under the provisions of this article;

2. Construct, reconstruct, remodel, maintain, manage, enlarge, alter, add to, repair, operate, lease, as lessee or lessor, and regulate any project to be financed under the provisions of this article;

3. Enter into contracts for any purpose set forth in subdivision 2;

4. Enter into contracts for the management and operation of any project;

5. Issue bonds, bond anticipation notes, and other obligations of the Authority for any of its corporate purposes and fund or refund such bonds, bond anticipation notes, or other obligations as provided in this article;

6. Fix, revise, charge, and collect rates, rents, fees, and charges for the use of and for the services furnished by a project or any portion of a project;

7. Contract with any person, partnership, association, corporation, or other entity to fix, revise, charge, and collect rates, rents, fees, and charges pursuant to subdivision 9;

8. Designate a participating institution as its agent to take actions pursuant to subdivisions 1 through 4, 6, and 7;

9. Establish regulations for the use of a project or any portion of a project or designate a participating institution as its agent to establish regulations for the use of a project in which such institution is participating;

10. Employ consulting engineers, architects, attorneys, accountants, construction and financial experts, superintendents, managers, and such other employees and agents as it deems necessary and determine their compensation;

11. Receive and accept from any public agency loans or grants for or in aid of the construction of a project or any portion of a project;

12. Receive and accept from any source loans, grants, aid, or contributions of money, property, labor, or other things of value to be held, used, and applied only for the purposes for which such loans, grants, aid, and contributions are made;

13. Mortgage any project and the site of any project for the benefit of the holders of revenue bonds issued to finance such project;

14. Make loans to any participating institution for the cost of a project in accordance with an agreement between the Authority and such institution, but no such loan shall exceed the total cost of the project as determined by such institution and approved by the Authority;

15. Make loans to participating institutions to refund outstanding obligations, mortgages, or advances issued, made, or given by such participating institutions for the cost of a project;

16. Charge to and equitably apportion among participating institutions its administrative costs and expenses incurred in the exercise of the powers and duties conferred by this article; and

17. Do all things necessary or convenient to carry out the purposes of this article.

C. In carrying out the purposes of this article, the Authority may undertake a joint project for two or more participating institutions, and all other provisions of this article shall apply to and for the benefit of the Authority and the institutions of higher education participating in such joint project.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.42; 2016, cc. 532, 588, 658.

§ 23.1-1224. Duties; conveyance of title to projects.

When (i)(a) the principal of and interest on revenue bonds of the Authority issued to finance the cost of a project for any participating institutions, including any revenue refunding bonds issued to refund and refinance such revenue bonds, have been fully paid and retired or (b) adequate provision has been made to fully pay and retire such bonds; (ii) all other conditions of the resolution or trust agreement authorizing and securing the same have been satisfied; and (iii) the lien of such resolution or trust agreement has been released in accordance with the provisions of such resolution or trust agreement, the Authority shall convey title to such project to such participating institution free and clear of all liens and encumbrances if title to such project is not yet vested in such participating institution.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.45; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1225. Powers; acquisition of property.

The Authority may, directly or through a participating institution as its agent, acquire by (i) purchase solely from funds provided under the provisions of this article, (ii) gift, or (iii) devise, such lands, structures, property, real or personal, rights, rights-of-way, air rights, franchises, easements, and other interests in lands, including lands lying under water and riparian rights, that are located within the Commonwealth as it may deem necessary or convenient for the acquisition, construction, or operation of a project, upon such terms and at such prices as it deems reasonable and can be agreed upon between it and the owner of the property and take title to the property in the name of the Authority or any participating institution as its agent.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.44; 2016, c. 588; 2017, c. 314.

§ 23.1-1226. Powers; issuance of negotiable notes.

The Authority may issue negotiable notes for any corporate purpose or renew any notes by the issuance of new notes, whether or not the notes to be renewed have matured. The Authority may issue notes partly to renew notes or to discharge other obligations then outstanding and partly for any other purpose. Such notes may be authorized, sold, executed, and delivered in the same manner as bonds. Any resolution authorizing notes or any issuance of notes by the Authority may contain any provision that the Authority may include in any resolution authorizing revenue bonds or any issuance of revenue bonds by the Authority, and the Authority may include in any note any term, covenant, or condition that it may include in any bond. All such notes are payable solely from the revenues of the Authority, subject only to any contractual rights of the holders of any of its notes or other obligations then outstanding.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.46; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1227. Powers; issuance of revenue bonds.

A. The Authority may issue revenue bonds for any corporate purpose, and all such revenue bonds, notes, bond anticipation notes, or other obligations of the Authority issued pursuant to this article are negotiable for all purposes, notwithstanding their payment from a limited source and without regard to any other law.

B. In anticipation of the sale of such revenue bonds, the Authority may issue and renew negotiable bond anticipation notes, but the maximum maturity of any such note, including renewals, shall not exceed five years from the date on which the original note was issued. Such notes shall be paid from any revenues of the Authority available for such purpose and not otherwise pledged or from the proceeds of sale of the Authority's revenue bonds issued in anticipation of such sale. Such notes shall be issued in the same manner as the revenue bonds. Such notes and the resolution authorizing such notes may contain any provisions, conditions, or limitations that the Authority may include in a bond resolution.

C. The revenue bonds and notes of every issue are payable solely out of revenues to the Authority, subject only to any agreement with (i) the holders of particular revenue bonds or notes to pledge any particular revenues or (ii) any participating institution.

D. Revenue bonds and notes are negotiable instruments that are subject only to the provisions of the revenue bonds and notes for registration but may be payable from a special fund.

E. Revenue bonds may be issued as serial bonds, term bonds, or both. Revenue bonds shall be authorized by resolution of the members of the Authority and bear such date, mature at such time, not exceeding 50 years from such date, bear interest at such rate or rates that is payable at such time, be in such denomination, be in such form, either coupon or registered, carry such registration privileges, be executed in such manner, be payable in lawful United States currency at such place, and be subject to such terms of redemption as such resolution provides. Revenue bonds or notes may be sold at public or private sale for such price or prices as the Authority determines. Pending preparation of the definitive bonds, the Authority may issue interim receipts or certificates that shall be exchanged for such definitive bonds.

F. Any resolution authorizing revenue bonds or any issue of revenue bonds may contain provisions, which shall be a part of the contract with the holders of such revenue bonds, relating to:

1. Pledging all or any part of the revenues of a project, to any revenue-producing contract made by the Authority with any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other public or private body to secure the payment of the revenue bonds or any particular issue of revenue bonds, subject to any existing agreements with bondholders;

2. Charging rentals, fees, and other charges and setting forth the amounts to be raised annually with such charges and the use and disposition of the revenues;

3. Establishing, setting aside, regulating, and disposing of reserves or sinking funds;

4. Limiting the right of the Authority or its agent to restrict and regulate the use of the project;

5. Limiting the purpose to which the proceeds of the sale of any issue of revenue bonds to be issued may be applied and pledging such proceeds to secure the payment of the revenue bonds or any issue of the revenue bonds;

6. Limiting the issuance of additional bonds, the terms upon which additional bonds may be issued and secured, and the refunding of outstanding bonds;

7. Establishing a procedure by which the terms of any contract with bondholders may be amended or abrogated that includes the number of bondholders required to consent to such amendment or abrogation and the manner in which such consent may be given;

8. Limiting the amount of moneys derived from the project to be expended for operating, administrative, or other expenses of the Authority;

9. Defining the acts or omissions that constitute a default in the duties of the Authority to holders of its obligations and providing the rights and remedies of such holders in the event of a default;

10. Setting forth the duties, obligations, and liabilities of any trustee or paying agent; and

11. Mortgaging a project and the site of such project for the purpose of securing the bondholders.

G. Neither the members of the Authority nor any person executing revenue bonds or notes is liable personally on the revenue bonds or notes or is subject to any personal liability or accountability by reason of the issuance of such revenue bonds or notes.

H. The Authority may purchase its bonds or notes with funds available for such purpose. The Authority may hold, pledge, cancel, or resell such bonds or notes subject to and in accordance with agreements with bondholders.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.47; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1228. Powers; security for revenue bonds.

A. The Authority may secure any revenue bonds issued under the provisions of this article by a trust agreement between the Authority and a corporate trustee that may be any trust company or bank having the powers of a trust company within or outside the Commonwealth. Such trust agreement or the resolution providing for the issuance of such revenue bonds may (i) pledge or assign the revenues to be received or proceeds of any contract pledged, (ii) convey or mortgage the project or any portion of the project, or (iii) contain provisions for protecting and enforcing the rights and remedies of the bondholders that the Authority deems reasonable and proper and are not in violation of law, including provisions that may be included in any resolution of the Authority authorizing revenue bonds pursuant to this article.

B. Any bank or trust company incorporated under the laws of the Commonwealth that may act as depository of the proceeds of bonds, revenues, or other moneys may furnish such indemnifying bonds or pledge such securities as may be required by the Authority.

C. Any such trust agreement may set forth the rights and remedies of the bondholders and the trustee and restrict the individual right of action by bondholders.

D. Any such trust agreement or resolution may contain such other provisions as the Authority deems reasonable and proper for the security of the bondholders.

E. All expenses incurred in carrying out the provisions of such trust agreement or resolution may be treated as a part of the cost of the operation of a project.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.48; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1229. Powers and duties; rates, rents, fees and charges; sinking fund.

A. The Authority may fix, revise, charge, and collect rates, rents, fees, and charges for the use of and the services furnished by each project and contract with any person, partnership, association, corporation, or other public or private body to perform such acts. The aggregate of such rates, rents, fees, and charges shall be fixed and adjusted to provide funds that, when combined with other revenues, is sufficient to (i) pay the uncovered cost of maintaining, repairing, and operating each portion of the project; (ii) pay the principal of and the interest on outstanding revenue bonds of the Authority as such principal and interest becomes due and payable; and (iii) create and maintain reserves required or provided for in any resolution authorizing, or trust agreement securing, such revenue bonds of the Authority. No such rate, rent, fee, or charge shall be subject to supervision or regulation by any department, commission, board, body, bureau, or agency of the Commonwealth other than the Authority.

B. The Authority shall set aside in a sinking fund or other similar fund a sufficient amount of the revenues derived from a project, except the part of such revenues that is necessary to pay the cost of maintenance, repair, and operation of the project, provide reserves, or make renewals, replacements, extensions, enlargements, and improvements as set forth in the resolution authorizing the issuance of any revenue bonds of the Authority or in the trust agreement securing such revenue bonds. The Authority shall pledge such sinking fund or other similar fund to pay the principal of and the interest on such revenue bonds as such principal and interest becomes due and the redemption or purchase price of bonds retired by call or purchase as provided in the resolution authorizing the issuance of any revenue bonds of the Authority or in the trust agreement securing such revenue bonds. Such pledge is valid and binding from the time when the pledge is made. The rates, rents, fees, and charges and other revenues or moneys so pledged and received by the Authority shall immediately be subject to the lien of such pledge without any physical delivery or further act. The lien of any such pledge is valid and binding against all parties having claims of any kind in tort, contract, or otherwise against the Authority, irrespective of whether such parties have notice of such lien. No resolution authorizing the issuance of any revenue bonds of the Authority or trust agreement by which a pledge is created need be filed or recorded except in the records of the Authority. The use and disposition of moneys to the credit of such sinking fund or other similar fund is subject to the provisions of the resolution authorizing the issuance of such bonds or of such trust agreement. Such sinking fund or other similar fund is a fund for all such revenue bonds issued to finance a project by a participating institution, without distinction or priority of one revenue bond over another, but the Authority may provide in any such resolution or trust agreement (i) that such sinking fund or other similar fund is the fund for a particular project by a participating institution and the revenue bonds issued to finance a particular project and (ii) for the issuance of revenue bonds having a subordinate lien to other revenue bonds of the Authority with respect to the security authorized and, in such case, the Authority may create separate or other similar funds with respect to such subordinate lien bonds.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.50; 2016, cc. 532, 588, 658.

§ 23.1-1230. Powers; issuance of refunding revenue bonds.

A. The Authority may provide for the issuance of revenue bonds to (i) refund any of its outstanding revenue bonds, including the payment of any redemption premium thereon and any interest accrued or to accrue on the earliest or any subsequent date of redemption, purchase, or maturity of such revenue bonds or (ii) pay all or any part of the cost of constructing and acquiring additions, improvements, extensions, or enlargements of a project or any portion of a project.

B. The Authority may (i) apply the proceeds of any revenue bonds issued to refund outstanding revenue bonds to purchase, retire at maturity, or redeem such outstanding revenue bonds either on their earliest or any subsequent redemption date, upon their purchase, or at their maturity and (ii) place the proceeds of revenue bonds issued to refund outstanding revenue bonds in escrow pending such application to be applied to such purchase, retirement, or redemption on the date that it determines.

C. The Authority may invest and reinvest proceeds placed in escrow pursuant to subsection B in direct obligations of the United States, certificates of deposit, or time deposits secured by direct obligations of the United States that mature at such time as is appropriate to ensure the prompt payment of principal, interest, and any redemption premium of the outstanding revenue bonds to be so refunded, pending the purchase, retirement at maturity, or redemption of such outstanding revenue bonds. The Authority may apply interest, income, and any profits earned or realized on any such investment to pay the outstanding revenue bonds to be so refunded. After the terms of the escrow have been fully satisfied and carried out, any balance of such proceeds and any interest, income, and profits earned or realized on the investments on such proceeds may be returned to the Authority for its lawful use.

D. The Authority may invest or reinvest the portion of the proceeds of any revenue bonds issued to pay all or any part of the cost of constructing and acquiring additions, improvements, extensions, or enlargements of a project in direct obligations of the United States or certificates of deposit or time deposits secured by direct obligations of the United States that mature not later than the time when such proceeds are needed to pay all or any part of such cost. The Authority may apply any interest, income, and profits earned or realized on such investment to the payment of all or any part of such cost or use such interest, income, and profits in any lawful manner.

E. All refunding revenue bonds issued pursuant to this section are subject to the provisions of this article in the same manner and to the same extent as other revenue bonds issued pursuant to this article.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.54; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1231. Revenue bonds not obligations of Commonwealth or political subdivision.

Revenue bonds issued under the provisions of this article (i) do not constitute a debt, liability, or pledge of the faith and credit of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth and (ii) are payable solely from the funds provided from revenues as set forth in this article. Each such revenue bond shall state on its face that (a) neither the Commonwealth nor the Authority is obligated to pay such revenue bonds or the interest thereon except from revenues of the project or the portion of the project for which they are issued and (b) neither the faith and credit nor the taxing power of the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth is pledged to the payment of the principal of or the interest on such bonds. The issuance of revenue bonds under the provisions of this article shall not directly, indirectly, or contingently obligate the Commonwealth or any political subdivision of the Commonwealth to levy or pledge any form of taxation for such bonds or make any appropriation for their payment.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.49; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1232. Moneys received deemed trust funds.

All moneys that the Authority receives pursuant to this article, whether as proceeds from the sale of bonds or as revenues, are trust funds to be held and applied solely as provided in this article. Any officer with whom, or any bank or trust company with which, such moneys are deposited shall act as trustee of such moneys and shall hold and apply the same for the purposes of this article, the resolution authorizing the bonds of any issue, or the trust agreement securing such bonds.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.51; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1233. Remedies of bondholders or holders of other obligations.

Any (i) holder of revenue bonds, notes, bond anticipation notes, other notes, or other obligations of the Authority issued under the provisions of this article or any of the coupons appertaining to any such obligation and (ii) trustee under any trust agreement, except to the extent that such rights are restricted by any resolution authorizing the issuance of, or any such trust agreement securing, such bonds or other obligations, may, either at law or in equity, by suit, action, mandamus, or other proceedings, (a) protect and enforce all rights under the laws of the Commonwealth or such resolution or trust agreement and (b) enforce and compel the performance of all duties required by this article or by such resolution or trust agreement to be performed by the Authority or any officer, employee, or agent of the Authority, including the fixing, charging, and collecting of the rates, rents, fees, and charges authorized by this article and required by the provisions of such resolution or trust agreement to be fixed, charged, and collected.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.52; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1234. Exemption from taxation.

Neither the Authority nor its agent are required to pay any taxes or assessments upon or with respect to a project, any property acquired or used by the Authority or its agent under the provisions of this article, or the income from any such project or property. Any bonds issued under the provisions of this article, the transfer of such bonds, and the income from such bonds, including any profit made on the sale of such bonds, are exempt from taxation of any kind by the Commonwealth and the localities and other political subdivisions of the Commonwealth.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.53; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1235. Bonds as legal investments.

Bonds issued by the Authority under the provisions of this article are securities (i) in which all public officers and bodies of the Commonwealth and its political subdivisions, insurance companies, trust companies, banking associations, investment companies, executors, administrators, trustees, and other fiduciaries may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them and (ii) that may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any officer of the Commonwealth or any of its localities or any agency or political subdivision of the Commonwealth for any lawful purpose.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.55; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1236. Nature of article.

This article is supplemental and additional to powers conferred by other laws, but the issuance of revenue bonds and revenue refunding bonds under the provisions of this article need not comply with the requirements of any other law applicable to the issuance of bonds. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this article, no power granted to the Authority under the provisions of this article is subject to the supervision or regulation of or requires the approval or consent of the Commonwealth, any locality or political subdivision of the Commonwealth, or any department, division, commission, board, body, bureau, official, or agency of any such locality or political subdivision.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.56; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1237. Article liberally construed.

This article, being necessary for the welfare of the Commonwealth and its inhabitants, shall be liberally construed to effect the purposes of this article.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.57; 2016, c. 588.

§ 23.1-1238. Article controls inconsistent laws.

To the extent that the provisions of this article are inconsistent with the provisions of any general statute or special act or parts thereof, the provisions of this article control.

1972, c. 686, § 23-30.58; 1973, c. 205; 2015, c. 709; 2016, c. 588.

The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of these sections may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

The Virginia General Assembly is offering access to the Code of Virginia on the Internet as a service to the public. We are unable to assist users of this service with legal questions nor respond to requests for legal advice or the application of the law to specific facts. Therefore, to understand and protect your legal rights, you should consult an attorney.

The Code of Virginia online database excludes material copyrighted by the publisher, Michie, a division of Matthew Bender. Copyrighted material includes annotations and revisors' notes, which may be found in the print version of the Code of Virginia. Annotated print copies of the Code of Virginia are available in most Virginia public library systems, from LexisNexis (1-800-446-3410), and from West, a Thomson-Reuters business (1-800-344-5008).