Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 421. Food Regulations

12VAC5-421-1700. Manual and mechanical warewashing equipment, chemical sanitization - 2011 temperature, pH, concentration, and hardness.

A chemical sanitizer used in a sanitizing solution for a manual or mechanical operation at contact times specified under subdivision 3 of 12VAC5-421-1900 shall meet the criteria as specified under 12VAC5-421-3380, shall be used in accordance with the EPA-registered label use instructions,P and shall be used as follows:

1. A chlorine solution shall have a minimum temperature based on the concentration and pH of the solution as listed in the following chart:P



mg/L (ppm)

pH 10 or less
°F (°C)

pH 8 or less
°F (°C)


120 (49)

120 (49)


100 (38)

75 (24)


55 (13)

55 (13)

2. An iodine solution shall have a:

a. Minimum temperature of 68°F (20°C);P

b. pH of 5.0 or less or a pH no higher than the level for which the manufacturer specifies the solution is effective;P and

c. Concentration between 12.5 mg/L (ppm) and 25 mg/L (ppm);P

3. A quaternary ammonium compound solution shall:

a. Have a minimum temperature of 75°F (24°C);P

b. Have a concentration as specified under 12VAC5-421-3380 and as indicated by the manufacturer's use directions included in the labeling;P and

c. Be used only in water with 500 mg/L hardness or less or in water having a hardness no greater than specified by the manufacturer's label;P

4. If another solution of a chemical specified under subdivisions 1, 2 and 3 of this section is used, the permit holder shall demonstrate to the department that the solution achieves sanitization and the use of the solution shall be approved;P

5. If a chemical sanitizer other than chlorine, iodine, or a quaternary ammonium compound is used, it shall be applied in accordance with the EPA-registered label use instructions;P and

6. If a chemical sanitizer is generated by a device located on site at the food establishment it shall be used as specified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this section and shall be produced by a device that:

a. Complies with regulation as specified in §§ 2(q)(1) and 12 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),P

b. Complies with 40 CFR 152.500 and 40 CFR 156.10,P

c. Displays the EPA device manufacturing facility registration number on the device,Pf and

d. Is operated and maintained in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

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