Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations

12VAC5-590-10. Definitions and units of measurement.

A. Definitions. As used in this chapter, the following words, terms, and abbreviations shall have meanings respectively set forth unless the context clearly requires a different meaning:

"Action level" or "AL" means the concentration of lead or copper in water specified in 12VAC5-590-385, which determines, in some cases, the treatment requirements contained in 12VAC5-590-405 that an owner is required to complete.

"Administrative Process Act" or "APA" means Chapter 40 (§ 2.2-4000 et seq.) of Title 2.2 of the Code of Virginia. The APA is the basic law conferring authority on agencies either to make regulations or case decisions as well as to standardize court review thereof.

"Air gap separation" means the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest point of the potable water outlet and the flood rim of the receiving vessel.

"ANSI" means the American National Standards Institute.

"Applied water" means water that is ready for filtration.

"ASME" means the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

"ASSE" means the American Society of Sanitary Engineering.

"ASTM" means the American Society for Testing and Materials.

"Auxiliary water system" means any water supply or system on or available to the premises of the consumer other than the waterworks. These may be polluted or contaminated, objectionable, or of questionable quality and constitute an unapproved water supply or system over which the waterworks owner does not have control.

"AWWA" means the American Water Works Association.

"Backflow" means the undesirable reversal of flow of water or mixtures of water and other liquids, gases, or other substances into a waterworks.

"Backflow elimination method" means the air gap separation or physical disconnection that will eliminate the cross-connection.

"Backflow prevention assembly" means a mechanical unit, designed to control various cross-connections and stop the reversal of flow that includes an inlet and outlet shutoff valve and test cocks to facilitate testing of the assembly. Backflow prevention assemblies include the reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly, the double check valve assembly, and the pressure vacuum breaker assembly.

"Backflow prevention device" means a mechanical unit designed to control cross-connections and stop the reversal of flow that is not testable because it does not have inlet and outlet shutoff valves or test cocks. A backflow prevention device is not generally designed or constructed to withstand continuous pressure over 12 hours, or to control high hazards. A backflow prevention device generally includes the atmospheric type vacuum breakers and the dual check valve type devices.

"Backpressure backflow" means backflow caused by pressure in the downstream piping that is superior to the supply pressure at the point of consideration.

"Backsiphonage" means backflow caused by a reduction in pressure that causes a partial vacuum, creating a siphon effect.

"Bag filters" means pressure-driven separation devices that remove particulate matter larger than one micrometer using an engineered porous filtration media. Bag filters are typically constructed of a nonrigid, fabric filtration media housed in a pressure vessel in which the direction of flow is from the inside of the bag to outside.

"Bank filtration" means a water treatment process that uses a well to recover surface water that has naturally infiltrated into groundwater through a river bed or bank. Infiltration is typically enhanced by the hydraulic gradient imposed by a nearby pumping water supply or other well.

"Best available technology" or "BAT" means the best practicable technology, treatment techniques, or other means that the department finds, after examination for efficacy under field conditions and not solely under laboratory conditions, that are available (taking cost into consideration).

"Board" means the State Board of Health.

"Boil water advisory" and "boil water notice" mean a statement that informs consumers that drinking water is or may be contaminated and that the water should be boiled before being used for human consumption.

"BSSP" means a bacteriological sample siting plan.

"CAP" means a corrective action plan.

"Cartridge filters" means pressure-driven separation devices that remove particulate matter larger than one micrometer using an engineered porous filtration media. Cartridge filters are typically constructed as rigid or semi-rigid, self-supporting filter elements housed in pressure vessels in which flow is from the outside of the cartridge to the inside.

"Case decision" means an agency determination as defined in § 2.2-4001 of the Code of Virginia.

"CCCP" means a cross-connection control program.

"CCR" means consumer confidence report.

"CDC" means the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"CFE" means the combined filter effluent.

"CFR" means the Code of Federal Regulations.

"Clean compliance history" means a record of no PMCL violations for microbiological contaminants, no monitoring violations under 12VAC5-590-370, and no coliform treatment technique trigger exceedances or treatment technique violations under 12VAC5-590-392.

"Coagulation" means a process using coagulant chemicals and mixing by which colloidal and suspended materials are destabilized and agglomerated into floc.

"Combined distribution system" means the interconnected distribution system consisting of the distribution systems of wholesale waterworks and of the consecutive waterworks that receive finished water.

"Commissioner" means the State Health Commissioner, who is the executive officer of the board.

"Community waterworks" means a waterworks that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.

"Compliance cycle" means the nine-year calendar year cycle during which a waterworks shall monitor. Each compliance cycle consists of three three-year compliance periods. The first calendar year cycle began January 1, 1993, and ended December 31, 2001, with subsequent compliance cycles continuing thereafter.

"Compliance period" means a three-year calendar year period within a compliance cycle. Each compliance cycle consists of three three-year compliance periods. The first compliance period began January 1, 1993, and ended December 31, 1995, with subsequent compliance periods continuing thereafter.

"Comprehensive business plan" means a plan detailing the technical, managerial, and financial commitments that the owner will make in order to assure that the waterworks will have the capability to provide water that complies with this chapter over the long term.

"Confirmation sample" means a sample to be collected by the owner within a specified time after the results of the initial sample are known to have exceeded a specified limit or standard in order to validate the initial result and to determine compliance.

"Confluent growth" means a continuous bacterial growth covering the entire filtration area of a membrane filter, or a portion thereof, in which bacterial colonies are not discrete.

"Consecutive waterworks" means a waterworks that receives some or all of its finished water from one or more waterworks. Consecutive waterworks may provide additional treatment to finished water. Delivery may be through a direct connection or through the distribution system of one or more consecutive waterworks.

"Consolidated" means rock made from sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic materials that have been metamorphosed or cemented together forming strata or bodies of rock.

"Consumer" means any person receiving water for human consumption from a waterworks.

"Consumer's water system" means any water system located on the consumer's premises, supplied by or in any manner connected to a waterworks.

"Containment" means the safeguard against backflow into a waterworks from a consumer's water system by installing an appropriate backflow prevention assembly, backflow prevention device, or backflow elimination method at the service connection or downstream of the service connection but before any unprotected takeoffs.

"Contaminant" means any objectionable or hazardous physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance or matter in water.

"Conventional filtration treatment" means a series of processes including coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration resulting in substantial particulate removal.

"Corrosion inhibitor" means a substance capable of reducing the corrosivity of water toward metal plumbing materials, especially lead and copper, by forming a protective film on the interior surface of those materials.

"Cross-connection" means any actual or potential link, connection, or physical arrangement, direct or indirect, between used water, an auxiliary water system, or other source of contamination or pollution to the waterworks through which backflow can occur.

"DBPPs" means disinfection byproduct precursors.

"DBPs" means disinfection byproducts.

"DCLS" means the Virginia Department of General Services, Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Health.

"DEQ" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Diatomaceous earth filtration" means a process resulting in substantial particulate removal in which (i) a precoat cake of diatomaceous earth filter media is deposited on a support membrane (septum), and (ii) while the water is filtered by passing through the cake on the septum, additional filter media known as body feed is continuously added to the feed water to maintain the permeability of the filter cake.

"Direct filtration" means a series of processes including coagulation and filtration but excluding sedimentation resulting in substantial particulate removal.

"Disinfectant" means any chemical and physical agents, including chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, ozone, and UV light, added to water in any part of the treatment or distribution process for the purpose of killing or inactivating pathogenic organisms.

"Disinfection" means a process that inactivates or destroys pathogenic organisms in water by use of a disinfectant.

"Disinfection profile" means a summary of Giardia lamblia or virus inactivation through the water treatment plant.

"Distribution main" means a water pipeline whose primary purpose is to convey drinking water to service connections.

"Distribution system" means a network of pipelines and appurtenances by which a waterworks delivers drinking water to its consumers.

"DOC" means the dissolved organic carbon in a water sample.

"Double check valve assembly" or "double check detector backflow assembly" means a backflow prevention assembly composed of two single independently acting check valves including tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly and test cocks to facilitate testing of the assembly, used for low hazard situations.

"DPOR" means the Virginia Department of Professional and Occupational Regulation.

"Drawdown" means the difference, measured vertically, between the static water level in the well and the water level during pumping.

"Dual sample set" means a set of two samples collected at the same time and same location, with one sample analyzed for TTHM and the other sample analyzed for HAA5.

"Enhanced coagulation" means the addition of sufficient coagulant for improved removal of disinfection byproduct precursors by conventional filtration treatment.

"Enhanced softening" means the improved removal of disinfection byproduct precursors by precipitative softening.

"Entry point" means the place where water from the source after application of any treatment is delivered to the distribution system. Where two or more sources are combined before distribution, the entry point is the location that is representative of the blended water following all treatment.

"EPA" means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

"Exemption" means allowing a waterworks that satisfies the criteria in 12VAC5-590-150 to deviate from a specific PMCL or treatment technique requirement that is granted to the waterworks for a limited period of time.

"Filter profile" means a graphical representation of individual filter performance, based on continuous turbidity measurements or total particle counts versus time for an entire filter run, from start-up to backwash inclusively, that includes an assessment of filter performance while another filter is being backwashed.

"Filtration" means a process for removing particulate matter from water by passage through porous media.

"Finished water" means water that is introduced into the distribution system of a waterworks and is intended for distribution and consumption without further treatment, except as treatment is necessary to maintain water quality in the distribution system (e.g., booster disinfection).

"Flocculation" means a process to enhance agglomeration or collection of smaller floc particles into larger, more easily settleable particles through gentle stirring by hydraulic or mechanical means.

"Flowing stream" means a course of running water flowing in a definite channel.

"Free available chlorine" means that portion of the total chlorine residual remaining in water at the end of a specified contact period that will react chemically and biologically as hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite ion.

"GAC" means granular activated carbon.

"Gross alpha particle activity" means the total radioactivity due to alpha particle emission as inferred from measurements on a dry sample.

"Gross beta particle activity" means the total radioactivity due to beta particle emission as inferred from measurements on a dry sample.

"Groundwater" means all water obtained from sources not classified as surface water.

"Groundwater system" means any waterworks that uses groundwater as its source of supply; however, a waterworks that combines all its groundwater with surface water or with groundwater under the direct influence of surface water before treatment is not a groundwater system. Groundwater systems include consecutive waterworks that receive potable water from another groundwater source.

"Groundwater under the direct influence of surface water" or "GUDI" means any water beneath the surface of the ground with (i) significant occurrence of insects or other macroorganisms, algae, or large-diameter pathogens such as Giardia lamblia or Cryptosporidium or (ii) significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics such as turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH that closely correlate to climatological or surface water conditions. GUDI source determinations shall be made by the department in accordance with 12VAC5-590-430.

"GWMA" means the groundwater management area designation by the State Water Control Board.

"Haloacetic acids (five)" or "HAA5" means the sum of the concentrations of the haloacetic acids, expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) as rounded to two significant figures. For the purpose of this chapter the HAA5 shall mean monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid.

"Halogen" means one of the chemical elements chlorine, bromine, fluorine, astatine, or iodine.

"Health hazard" means any condition, device, or practice in a waterworks or its operation that creates, or may create, a danger to the health and well-being of the water consumer.

"HPC" means the heterotrophic plate count of a bacterial population.

"Human consumption" means drinking, food preparation, dishwashing, bathing, showering, hand washing, teeth brushing, and maintaining oral hygiene.

"Hypochlorite" means the ionic component from the disassociation of hypochlorous acid that performs the function of disinfection. It is the available active ingredient in liquid hypochlorite disinfectants such as sodium and calcium hypochlorite.

"Initial compliance period" means the compliance period in which chemical and radiological monitoring began, and it is represented by the first full three-year compliance period beginning at least 18 months after rule promulgation. It applies to inorganic, organic, and radionuclide contaminants listed in Tables 340.1, 340.2, and 340.4, respectively.

"Isolation" means the safeguard against backflow into a waterworks from a consumer's water system by installing an appropriate backflow prevention assembly or device or by installing a backflow elimination method at the sources of potential contamination in the consumer's water system. This is also called point-of-use isolation.

"Karst geology" means an area predominantly underlain by limestone, dolomite, or gypsum and characterized by rapid underground drainage. These areas often feature sinkholes, caverns, and sinking or disappearing creeks.

"Lake or reservoir" means a natural or man-made basin or hollow on the Earth's surface in which water collects or is stored that may or may not have a current or single direction of flow.

"Lead free" means the following: (i) when used with respect to solders and flux, refers to solders and flux containing not more than 0.2% lead; and (ii) when used with respect to pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and plumbing fixtures, refers to the weighted average of wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and plumbing fixtures containing not more than 0.25% lead.

"Lead service line" means a pipeline made of lead that connects the distribution main to the building inlet and any lead pigtail, gooseneck, or other fitting that is connected to the lead pipeline.

"Leakage" means the loss of potable water from the distribution system, up to the points of service connections, through breaks or defects in piping and piping appurtenances.

"Legionella" means a genus of bacteria, some species of which cause a type of pneumonia called Legionnaires disease.

"Level 1 assessment" means an evaluation to identify the possible presence of sanitary defects, defects in distribution system coliform monitoring practices, and, when possible, the likely reason that the waterworks triggered the assessment.

"Level 2 assessment" means an evaluation to identify the possible presence of sanitary defects, defects in distribution system coliform monitoring practices, and, when possible, the likely reason that the waterworks triggered the assessment in a more comprehensive investigation than a Level 1 assessment.

"Locational running annual average" or "LRAA" means the average of sample analytical results for samples taken at a particular monitoring location during the previous four calendar quarters.

"Log inactivation" means the inactivation of organisms expressed on a logarithmic scale. For example, a 99.9% inactivation is a 3-log inactivation; whereas a 99.99% inactivation is a 4-log inactivation.

"Log removal" means the removal of organisms expressed on a logarithmic scale. For example, a 99.9% is a 3-log removal; whereas a 99.99% removal is a 4-log removal.

"Maximum contaminant level" or "MCL" means the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in potable water that is delivered to any consumer of a waterworks. MCLs are set as close to the MCLGs as feasible using the BAT. MCLs may be either "primary" (PMCL), meaning based on health considerations, or "secondary" (SMCL), meaning based on aesthetic considerations.

"Maximum contaminant level goal" or "MCLG" means the maximum level of a contaminant in drinking water at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons would occur and that allows an adequate margin of safety. Maximum contaminant level goals are nonenforceable health goals.

"Maximum residual disinfectant level" or "MRDL" means a level of a disinfectant added for water treatment that may not be exceeded at the consumer's tap without an unacceptable possibility of adverse health effects.

"Maximum residual disinfectant level goal" or "MRDLG" means the maximum level of a disinfectant added for water treatment at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons would occur, and that allows an adequate margin of safety. MRDLGs are nonenforceable health goals and do not reflect the benefit of the addition of the chemical for control of waterborne microbial contaminants.

"Maximum total trihalomethane potential" or "MTP" means the maximum concentration of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) produced in a given water containing a residual disinfectant after seven days at a temperature of 25°C or above.

"Membrane filtration" means a pressure or vacuum-driven separation process in which particulate matter larger than one micrometer is rejected by an engineered barrier, primarily through a size exclusion mechanism, and that has a measurable removal efficiency of a target organism that can be verified through the application of a direct integrity test. Included in this definition are the common membrane classifications of microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO).

"Membrane module" means the smallest component of a membrane unit in which a specific membrane surface area is housed in a device with a filtrate outlet.

"Membrane technology" means a process that uses a permeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, or particles from the process stream, such as MF, UF, NF, RO, and electrodialysis reversal (EDR).

"Membrane unit" means a group of membrane modules that share common valving that allows the unit to be isolated from the rest of the system for the purpose of integrity testing or other maintenance.

"Method detection limit" or "MDL" means the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero and is determined from analysis of a sample in a given matrix containing the analyte.

"Microfiltration" or "MF" means a pressure-driven membrane technology that separates particles, based on the pore-size rating of the membrane, from a feed stream by using a sieving mechanism. Typically, MF can remove particles down to 0.1 micrometer in size.

"Most probable number" or "MPN" means the density or number of organisms per unit volume most likely to be present in a water sample and obtained from method-specific statistical MPN tables.

"MPA" means the microscopic particulate analysis method approved by EPA for use in the determination of whether a groundwater is under the influence of surface water.

"Nanofiltration" or "NF" means a pressure-driven membrane technology designed to remove multivalent ions ("softening") and other constituents based on the pore size, which ranges from one to 10 nanometers. Nanofiltration membranes typically operate under a pressure range of 600 to 1100 psi.

"Noncommunity waterworks" means a waterworks that is not a community waterworks, but operates at least 60 days out of the year.

"Nonpotable water" means water not classified as pure water.

"Nontransient noncommunity waterworks" or "NTNC" means a waterworks that is not a community waterworks and that regularly serves at least 25 of the same persons over six months out of the year. When used in the context of an NTNC, "regularly serves" means four or more hours per day, for four or more days per week, for 26 or more weeks per year.

"NSF" means NSF International, formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation. NSF collaborates with ANSI and Canadian authorities on drinking water standards development (NSF/ANSI/CAN).

"One hundred year flood elevation" or "100-year flood elevation" means flood elevation that has a 1.0% probability of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

"Operating staff" means individuals employed or appointed by an owner to work at a waterworks. Included in this definition are operators, whether or not the operator's license is appropriate for the classification and category of the waterworks, and unlicensed individuals.

"Operator" means any individual with the requisite skills, employed or appointed by any owner, who is designated by the owner to be the person having full responsibility for the waterworks operations and any subordinate operating staff. The individual may be a supervisor, a shift operator, or a substitute in charge, and have duties including testing or evaluation to control waterworks operations. Not included in this definition are superintendents or directors of public works, city engineers, or other municipal or industrial officials whose duties do not include the actual operation or direct supervision of waterworks.

"Optimal corrosion control treatment" means the corrosion control treatment that minimizes the lead and copper concentrations at consumers' taps while ensuring that the treatment does not cause the waterworks to violate any other section of this chapter.

"Optimum fluoride ion concentration" means that fluoride ion concentration recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for protection from dental caries.

"Owner" means an individual, group of individuals, partnership, firm, association, institution, corporation, governmental entity, or the federal government that supplies or proposes to supply water to any person within the Commonwealth from or by means of any waterworks.

"PAC" means powdered activated carbon.

"PCBs" means polychlorinated biphenyls.

"PER" means a preliminary engineering report.

"Permit" means an authorization granted by the commissioner to construct or operate a waterworks.

"Permitted capacity" means the limiting hydraulic capability of the waterworks, taking into consideration the source water capacity, treatment facilities, finished water storage, delivery, and distribution system.

"Person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, association, cooperative, limited liability company, trust, joint venture, government, political subdivision, or any other legal or commercial entity and any successor, representative, agent, or instrumentality thereof.

"pH" means the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution.

"Physical disconnection" means the removal or absence of pipes, fittings, or fixtures that connect a waterworks directly or indirectly to any other water system.

"Picocurie" or "pCi" means that quantity of radioactive material producing 2.22 nuclear transformations per minute.

"PMCL" means the primary maximum contaminant level of a contaminant based on health considerations.

"Point of disinfectant application" means the point where the disinfectant is applied and water downstream of that point is not subject to recontamination by surface runoff.

"Point-of-entry device" or "POE device" means a treatment device applied to the water entering a house or building for the purpose of reducing contaminants in the water distributed throughout the house or building.

"Point-of-use device" or "POU device" means a treatment device applied to a single tap for the purpose of reducing contaminants in the water at that one tap.

"Pollution" means the presence of any foreign substance (chemical, physical, radiological, or biological) in water that tends to degrade its quality so as to constitute an unnecessary risk to human health or impair the usefulness of the water.

"Potable water" means the same as "pure water."

"Practical quantitation level" or "PQL" means the lowest level that can be reliably measured within specified limits of precision and accuracy during routine laboratory conditions.

"Prechlorination" means the application of chlorine to water before filtration.

"Presedimentation" means a preliminary treatment process used to remove gravel, sand, and other particulate material from the source water through settling before the water enters the primary clarification and filtration processes in a water treatment plant.

"Pressure vacuum breaker assembly" means a backflow prevention assembly (i) designed to prevent backsiphonage and used for high hazard or low hazard situations; (ii) composed of an independently operating spring-loaded check valve, an independently operating spring-loaded air-inlet valve, and tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the assembly; and (iii) fitted with properly located test cocks to facilitate testing of the assembly.

"Primary disinfection" means disinfection to achieve a desired level of inactivation of targeted pathogenic organisms in water by chemical or physical agents as an integral part of the treatment process.

"Process fluids" means any fluid or solution that may be chemically, biologically, or otherwise contaminated or polluted that would constitute a health, environmental, or system hazard if introduced into the waterworks. This includes (i) polluted or contaminated water; (ii) used waters; (iii) cooling waters; (iv) contaminated natural waters taken from wells, lakes or reservoirs, streams, or irrigation systems; (v) chemicals in solution or suspension; or (vi) oils, gases, acids, alkalis, and other liquid and gaseous fluid used in industrial or other processes.

"Process water" means water used for dissolving dry chemicals; diluting liquid chemicals; and operating chemical feeders, treatment facilities, or equipment.

"Project documents" means the engineer's report, design criteria, preliminary and final plans, specifications, and procurement documents for the construction of new waterworks or modifications to existing waterworks.

"Pure water" means water fit for human consumption that is (i) sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances, and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts and (ii) adequate in quantity and quality for the minimum health requirements of the persons served.

"QCRV" means the quality control release value used in challenge tests of microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters.

"RAA" means running annual average.

"Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly" or "reduced pressure zone backflow prevention assembly" or "RPZ assembly" means an assembly designed to prevent backsiphonage or backpressure backflow and used for high or low hazard situations, composed of two independently operating spring-loaded check valves together with an independent, hydraulically operating pressure differential relief valve located between the two check valves. During normal flow and at the cessation of normal flow, the pressure between these two checks shall be less than the supply pressure. The assembly shall include tightly closing shutoff valves located at each end of the RPZ assembly and shall be fitted with properly located test cocks to facilitate testing of the assembly.

"REM" means the unit of dose equivalent from ionizing radiation to the total body or any internal organ or organ system. A millirem (mrem) is 1/1000 of an REM.

"Repeat compliance period" means any subsequent compliance period after the initial compliance period.

"Residual disinfectant concentration" means the concentration of disinfectant measured in mg/L in a representative sample of water.

"Reverse osmosis" or "RO" means a membrane technology designed to remove salts, low-molecular weight solutes, and all other constituents up to 0.0001 micron in size by applying a pressure in excess of osmotic pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high solution concentration to a region of lower solution concentration.

"Sanitary defect" means a defect that could provide a pathway of entry for microbial contamination into the distribution system or that is indicative of a failure or imminent failure in a protective barrier that is already in place.

"Sanitary survey" means an evaluation conducted by the department of a waterworks' water supply, facilities, equipment, operation, maintenance, monitoring records, and overall management to ensure the provision of potable water.

"SDWA" means the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 USC § 300f et seq.) and its amendments.

"Seasonal waterworks" means a noncommunity waterworks that is not operated as a waterworks on a year-round basis, and starts up and shuts down at the beginning and end of each operating season.

"Secondary disinfection" means disinfection by chemical oxidants or equivalent agents applied at the entry point or in the distribution system to provide a residual disinfectant in water to maintain water quality and safeguard against chance contamination from permeation, leaching, intrusion, regrowth, or biofilms.

"Sedimentation" means a process for removal of solids before filtration by gravity or separation.

"Service connection" means the point of delivery of finished water from a waterworks to a consumer's water system, fire protection system, irrigation system, and to all other points where finished water is delivered through the distribution system to a consumer. Generally, the service connection occurs at the water meter, or at the distribution main if no water meter is installed, or in the case of an owner of both the waterworks and the building supplied, the point of entry into the building. Service connections may be permanent, temporary, or emergency.

"Service line" means the pipeline or service pipe between the service connection and the building connection.

"Sewer" means any pipe or conduit used to convey sanitary sewage, stormwater, or industrial waste streams. Combined sewers convey both stormwater and sanitary sewage.

"Significant deficiency" means any defect in a waterworks' design, operation, maintenance, or administration, as well as the failure or malfunction of any waterworks component that may cause or has the potential to cause, an unacceptable risk to health or could affect the reliable delivery of potable water to consumers.

"Single-family structure" means, for the purpose of 12VAC5-590-375 B only, a building constructed as a single-family residence that is currently used as either a residence or a place of business.

"Site visit" means a tour of a waterworks by the department or other authorized persons for purposes including assessing and documenting its physical condition, operations, and compliance activities.

"Slow sand filtration" means a process involving passage of source water through a bed of sand at low velocity (generally less than 0.4 m/h), resulting in substantial particulate removal by physical and biological mechanisms.

"SMCL" means the secondary maximum contaminant level of a contaminant. SMCLs are based on aesthetic qualities related to the public acceptance of drinking water.

"SOP" means standard operating procedure.

"Source water" means water as it is pumped or otherwise withdrawn from a well, spring, stream, lake or reservoir, or any body of surface water (natural or impounded), and before any treatment.

"Supervisory control and data acquisition" or "SCADA" means a computer-controlled system used by a waterworks to monitor its operations. Typical design features may be specific to individual waterworks and include alarm, response, control, and data acquisition.

"Surface water" means all water open to the atmosphere and subject to surface runoff.

"SUVA" means specific ultraviolet absorption at 254 nanometers (nm), an indicator of the humic content of the water. It is a calculated parameter obtained by dividing a sample's ultraviolet absorption at a wavelength of 254 nm (UV254) (in m-1) by its concentration of DOC (in mg/L).

"Synthetic organic chemical" or "SOC" means a man-made organic compound, generally utilized for agriculture or industrial purposes. Table 340.2 lists SOCs regulated as contaminants.

"System hazard" means a condition posing an actual, or threat of, damage to the physical properties of the waterworks or a consumer's water system.

"TDS" means total dissolved solids.

"TMF" means the technical, managerial, and financial capabilities to operate and maintain a waterworks.

"Too numerous to count" or "TNTC" means that the total number of bacterial colonies exceeds 200 on a 47-mm diameter membrane filter used for coliform detection.

"Total organic carbon" or "TOC" means total organic carbon in milligrams per liter (mg/l) measured using heat, oxygen, ultraviolet irradiation, chemical oxidants, or combinations of these oxidants that convert organic carbon to carbon dioxide, rounded to two significant figures.

"Total trihalomethanes" or "TTHM" means the sum of the concentrations of the trihalomethanes (THMs) expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) and rounded to two significant figures. For the purpose of this chapter, TTHM shall mean trichloromethane (chloroform), dibromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane, and tribromomethane (bromoform).

"Transient noncommunity waterworks" or "TNC" means a noncommunity waterworks that is not a nontransient noncommunity waterworks (NTNC). A TNC serves at least 25 persons daily for at least 60 days out of the year.

"Treatment" means any process that changes the chemical, physical, radiological, or bacteriological quality of water.

"Treatment technique" or "TT" means a technology or process demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department to lead to a reduction in the level of a specific contaminant sufficient to comply with this chapter.

"Triggered source water monitoring" means monitoring required of any groundwater system as a result of a total coliform-positive sample in the distribution system.

"Trihalomethane" or "THM" means one of the family of organic compounds, named as derivatives of methane, wherein three of the four hydrogen atoms in methane are each substituted by a halogen atom in the molecular structure.

"Ultrafiltration" or "UF" means a membrane technology designed to remove particles up to 0.01 micron in size.

"Unconsolidated" means loose sediment that has not been compacted, cemented, lithified, or metamorphosed into rock. Sediment may be derived from a sedimentary-type, igneous-type, metamorphic-type rock, which includes clay, silt, sand, gravel, and mixtures of these particle types.

"Uncovered finished water storage facility" means a tank, reservoir, or other facility used to store water that will undergo no further treatment to reduce microbial pathogens (except residual disinfection) and is directly open to the atmosphere.

"Unregulated contaminant" or "UC" means a contaminant for which a monitoring requirement has been established, but for which no MCL or treatment technique requirement has been established.

"USBC" means the Uniform Statewide Building Code (13VAC5-63).

"Used water" means any water supplied by a waterworks to a consumer's water system after it has passed through the service connection and is no longer under the control of the owner.

"UV" means ultraviolet.

"Variance" means allowing a waterworks that satisfies the criteria in 12VAC5-590-140 to provide drinking water that does not fully comply with this chapter. A PMCL variance is a variance to a primary maximum contaminant level, or a treatment technique requirement. An operational variance is a variance to an operational regulation or a SMCL.

"Virus" means a virus of fecal origin that is infectious to humans by waterborne transmission and must be preemptively inactivated through disinfection before human consumption.

"Volatile organic chemical" or "VOC" means an organic compound generally characterized by its low molecular weight and its tendency to vaporize rapidly at relatively low temperatures and pressures. Table 340.2 lists VOCs regulated as contaminants.

"VOSH" means the Virginia Occupational Safety and Health program.

"Waiver" means permission from the department to deviate from the monitoring and reporting requirements in this chapter for a specific contaminant.

"Waterborne disease outbreak" means the significant occurrence of acute infectious illness, epidemiologically associated with the ingestion of water from a waterworks that is deficient in treatment, as determined by the commissioner or the State Epidemiologist.

"Water supply" means the source of water taken into a waterworks including wells, streams, springs, lakes or reservoirs, and other bodies of surface waters (natural or impounded), and the tributaries thereto, and all impounded groundwater. The term "water supply" shall not include any waters above the point of intake of the waterworks.

"Water treatment plant" means that portion of a waterworks intended specifically for water treatment; it may include, among other operations, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection.

"Waterworks" means a system that serves piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections or 25 or more individuals for at least 60 days out of the year. "Waterworks" includes all structures, equipment, and appurtenances used in the storage, collection, purification, treatment, and distribution of potable water except the piping and fixtures inside the building where such water is delivered.

"Waterworks business operation plan" means the same as "comprehensive business plan."

"Wholesale waterworks" means a waterworks that treats source water as necessary to produce potable water and then delivers some or all of that potable water to another waterworks. Delivery may be through a direct connection or through the distribution system of one or more consecutive waterworks.

B. As used in this chapter, the following units of measurement shall use the abbreviations as shown in this subsection:

C – degrees Celsius

CU – color units

ft2 – square feet of area

ft/min – feet per minute

ft/sec – feet per second

gpd – gallons per day

gpd/ft2 – gallons per day per square foot

gpm – gallons per minute

gpm/ft – gallons per minute per foot

gpm/ft2 – gallons per minute per square foot

in – inches

lb – pounds

lb/day – pounds per day

lb/ft2 – pounds per square foot

MFL – million fibers per liter

MGD – million gallons per day

mg/L – milligrams per liter

min – minutes

mJ/cm2 – millijoules per square centimeter

mrem – millirem

nm – nanometer (10-9 meter)

NTU – nephelometric turbidity units

pCi – picocuries

pCi/L – picocuries per liter

ppb – parts per billion, or micrograms per liter (μg/L)

ppm – parts per million, or milligrams per liter (mg/L)

ppq – parts per quadrillion, or pictograms per liter (pq/L)

ppt – parts per trillion, or nanograms per liter (ng/L)

psi – pounds per square inch

psig – pounds per square inch gauge

scfm/ft2 – standard cubic feet per minute per square foot

µm – micrometers (10-6 meter or microns)

µg/L – micrograms per liter

µS/cm – microSiemens per centimeter

W/m2 – Watts per square meter

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-001.02 § 1.1, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 12, Issue 2, eff. November 15, 1995; Volume 18, Issue 19, eff. July 3, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 17, eff. June 4, 2003; Volume 21, Issue 13, eff. April 6, 2005; Volume 22, Issue 24, eff. September 6, 2006; Volume 25, Issue 5, eff. December 10, 2008; Volume 27, Issue 1, eff. October 13, 2010; Volume 28, Issue 5, eff. December 7, 2011; Volume 28, Issue 19, eff. June 21, 2012; Volume 31, Issue 1, eff. October 10, 2014; Volume 33, Issue 3, eff. November 2, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021; Errata, 37:22 VA.R. 3447 June 21, 2021.

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