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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
10/3/2023

12VAC5-590-1001. Chlorination.

A. General design requirements.

1. Chlorine feed capacity shall be capable of meeting the disinfection requirements under all operating conditions.

a. Chlorine feed systems for primary disinfection at a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve the required microbial log inactivation specified in Table 500.1.

b. Chorine feed systems for primary disinfection at a waterworks using groundwater sources shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve 4-log virus inactivation and removal.

c. Chlorine feed systems for secondary disinfection at a waterworks shall provide sufficient capacity to achieve a minimum chlorine residual at the entry point of 0.2 mg/L for more than 4 hours.

2. Chlorine feed systems for disinfection at a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall be sized to deliver the required dose with the largest unit out of operation. Small hypochlorination installations for groundwater source waterworks shall have a spare metering pump, unless it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department that spare equipment is readily available from a local supplier. Spare parts shall be available for all chlorinators to replace parts that are subject to wear and breakage.

3. Consideration shall be given to providing multiple chlorine feed points at all waterworks. For conventional filtration treatment plants, chlorine feed points shall be provided for the source water, applied water to the filters, and filter effluent.

4. The piping providing the water for preparing the chlorine solution shall be designed to prevent contamination of the "bulk treated" finished water.

a. At all facilities treating surface water, pre-filtration and post-filtration disinfection systems shall operate independently of each other to prevent possible siphoning of partially treated water into the clearwell.

b. The water piping to each ejector shall have a separate shutoff valve. A master shutoff valve is prohibited.

5. Provisions shall be made to ensure uniform mixing of the chlorine with the water near the point of application.

6. Residual and contact time.

a. The owner of a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall provide a minimum residual (C) and contact time (T) as calculated in accordance with 12VAC5-590-500.

b. The owner of a waterworks using a groundwater source that is required to disinfect shall provide a minimum residual (C) and contact time (T) to achieve 4-log virus inactivation and removal based on maximum design flow rate. Provisions shall be made to prevent short circuiting. The contact basin shall be designed utilizing the appropriate baffle factors referenced in Table 500.15 of 12VAC5-590-500.

7. Automatic proportioning chlorinators shall be provided where the rate of flow is not reasonably constant.

8. Equipment shall be provided for measuring the chlorine residual, employing any method specified in 12VAC5-590-440. The equipment shall be capable of a chlorine residual measurement to the nearest 0.1 mg/L.

9. Continuous chlorine residual analyzers shall be provided at all waterworks that are required to filter and that serve 3,300 or more persons or at any waterworks required by the department. Where a continuous chlorine residual analyzer is provided, the department may require that the design incorporate an operator-selected high or low chlorine residual alarm.

B. Gas chlorine feed systems.

1. Equipment.

a. An ample supply of potable water shall be available for operating the chlorinator. Where a booster pump is required, duplicate equipment shall be provided, and when necessary, standby power shall be provided as well. Equipment for backflow prevention shall be provided. A pressure gauge shall be provided on each chlorinator mixing water piping.

b. Scales for weighing cylinders shall be provided at all waterworks using chlorine gas. At large waterworks, scales of the indicating and recording type shall be considered. Scales shall be recessed unless they are of the low-platform type.

c. Where a manifold of several cylinders is required to evaporate sufficient chlorine, consideration shall be given to the installation of gas evaporators.

d. Automatic switch-over of chlorine cylinders shall be provided to assure continuous disinfection.

2. Chlorine gas leak detection.

a. Automatic chlorine gas leak detection with strategically located sensors and related alarm equipment shall be provided for all installations.

b. A bottle of ammonia hydroxide solution shall be provided for detecting chlorine gas leaks.

3. Emergency cylinder repair kits shall be provided.

4. Consideration shall be given to the provision of caustic soda solution reaction tanks for absorbing the contents of leaking one-ton cylinders where the cylinders are in use.

5. Piping and connections for chlorine gas.

a. Pressure gauges shall be installed on the piping to each chlorinator. Piping systems shall be well supported and adequately sloped to allow drainage. Suitable allowance shall be made for pipe expansion due to changes in temperature.

b. Fittings and appurtenances shall be suitable for handling dry chlorine.

6. Building design.

a. Any building to house chlorine equipment or containers shall be designed and constructed to protect all components of the chlorine system from fire hazards. See 12VAC5-590-720.

b. If gas chlorination equipment and chlorine cylinders are to be in a building used for other purposes, a gas-tight partition shall separate this room from any other portion of the building. Doors to this room shall open only to the outside of the building and shall be equipped with panic hardware. These rooms shall be at ground level and should be separated from the feed area.

c. At least two means of exit shall be considered from each separate room or building in which chlorine is stored, handled, or used. All exit doors shall open outward.

d. A clear glass, gas-tight window shall be installed in an interior wall of the chlorinator room to permit the chlorinators to be viewed without entering the room.

e. Feed lines shall not carry chlorine gas beyond the chlorine feeder room unless the chlorine is under vacuum.

f. Chlorinator rooms shall be provided with a means of heating so that a temperature of at least 60°F can be maintained, but the room should be protected from excess heat. Cylinders shall be kept at essentially room temperature for at least 24 hours before use unless an evaporator is employed.

g. Forced, mechanical ventilation that provides one complete air change per minute shall be installed in all chlorine feed rooms and rooms where chlorine cylinders are stored. The inlet to the air exhaust duct from the room shall be near the floor, and the point of discharge shall be located so as not to contaminate the air inlet to any building or inhabited areas. Air inlets shall be located so as to provide cross ventilation with air and at a temperature that will not adversely affect the chlorination equipment. The vent hose shall run without traps from the chlorinator and shall discharge to the outside atmosphere above grade.

h. The electrical controls for the fans and lights shall automatically operate when the door is opened and can be manually operated from the outside without opening the door.

C. Calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite feed systems.

1. Both calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite shall be acceptable for disinfection.

2. Hypochlorite solution feeders of the positive displacement type shall be provided.

3. Adequate mixing of the calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite solutions shall be provided.

4. Special design considerations for bulk delivery systems:

a. Bulk sodium hypochlorite storage tanks shall be constructed of corrosion-proof materials. Pumps, piping, materials, and appurtenances exposed to the sodium hypochlorite shall be suitable for such use.

b. Sodium hypochlorite storage facilities shall be designed to keep ambient temperature and lighting low. Sodium hypochlorite fumes are corrosive and tanks shall be vented to the outside. Tanks shall be designed for ease of filling, draining, and transfer of contents.

c. Piping, valves, pumps, and pipe accessories shall be designed and configured so as not to allow accumulation of gases that could cause air locking or loss of prime in chemical feed piping or pumps.

d. The design shall provide a system of local or general exhaust features to keep employee exposures below the airborne exposure limits, as described in the Safety Data Sheet for the chemical used, in accordance with federal occupational safety and health standards (29 CFR § 1910.1200 (g)). Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it controls contaminant emissions at the source and thus, preventing dispersion into the general work area which could result in corrosion or exposure. Exhaust equipment and accessories shall be corrosion proof.

e. An eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in the immediate work area shall be provided.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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