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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations

12VAC5-590-1005. Ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection.

A. All UV reactors shall conform to NSF/ANSI/CAN standards.

B. Each reactor train shall be equipped with an individual flow meter or a single flow meter in conjunction with differential pressure sensors in each treatment train. Reactors shall be sized to treat the design flow.

C. Hydraulic design shall ensure that lamps are submerged and that the entrance of air, negative pressure, or pressure surges in the reactors is prevented. Open channel flow reactors are prohibited.

D. A pressure gauge shall be provided upstream of each reactor. The design shall ensure that the reactor's maximum rated pressure cannot be exceeded.

E. Water quality parameters that may affect UV disinfection system performance shall be evaluated, including calcium, iron, manganese, hardness, and alkalinity. Pretreatment shall be considered for water quality parameters that may result in lamp sleeve fouling.

F. A building to enclose and protect all UV equipment shall be provided. Adequate space between control panels, power supply, and the reactor equipment shall be provided to allow for routine operation and maintenance, including removing lamp and wiper assemblies and for off-line chemical cleaning of reactor lamps.

G. An operation and maintenance manual shall be provided for all UV reactors.

H. UV systems may be used for primary disinfection and shall be granted log inactivation credit for Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and viruses in accordance with Table 401.7, provided that they meet the requirements of 12VAC5-590-401 E 7 c and this subsection.

1. Only UV reactors that have undergone independent, third-party oversight of the validation testing on a fully assembled system to determine the operating conditions under which the reactors deliver the required UV dose shall be considered for log inactivation credit.

2. The dose-monitoring strategy shall be either the UV intensity set point approach or the calculated dose approach as described in the "Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual For The Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule," Office of Water (4601), EPA 815-R-06-007, November 2006. The dose-monitoring strategy shall be demonstrated through the UV reactor validation testing.

3. At least two reactors shall be provided. Reactors shall be sized to treat the design flow with the largest reactor out of service.

4. Continuous monitoring sensors shall be provided to measure UV intensity. A continuous sensor shall also be provided to measure ultraviolet transmittance (UVT) if the calculated dose approach is utilized.

a. The number of sensors provided shall be the same as that used in validation testing of the reactor.

b. Output from a continuous UVT analyzer shall be capable of being input directly into a control loop for each UV reactor, a SCADA system, or both. A bench-top spectrophotometer may be provided instead of a continuous UVT analyzer.

c. All signals from the sensors shall be displayed for operator response and for recordation.

d. At least one reference sensor for calibration of online UV intensity sensors shall be provided. Reference sensors shall be capable of calibration against a traceable standard.

e. Continuous recording equipment shall be provided with the monitoring sensors to store in memory or print one data point at least every four hours.

5. A means of flow distribution and control among multiple reactors shall be provided. The hydraulic flow profiles and piping configuration shall be identical to or more protective than that tested during equipment validation.

a. For onsite validation, the inlet and outlet piping configuration for the UV facility shall be designed according to manufacturer recommendations and to accommodate any site-specific constraints.

b. To avoid jetting flow and swirling flow, consideration shall be given to exclude expansions for at least 10 pipe diameters upstream of the reactor and to exclude out-of-plane 90-degree bends in series.

c. Each UV reactor shall be capable of being isolated and removed from service. Isolation valves upstream and downstream of each reactor, a drain, and sample taps for each reactor treatment train shall be provided. If the isolation valves are also used for flow control, then the flow control valve shall be located downstream of the UV reactor to limit the disturbance of the flow entering the UV reactor. Bypass piping shall not be allowed.

d. The lateral piping for each UV reactor train shall be sized and configured to provide approximately equal head loss through each UV reactor train over the validated range of flow rates.

6. The control system shall be capable of meeting the monitoring and reporting requirements in 12VAC5-590-401 and 12VAC5-590-570.

7. Automatic shutdown capability under critical alarm conditions shall be provided, including lamp or ballast failure, low liquid level, and high temperature. Alarms shall be provided for low UV validated dose, low UV intensity, low UV transmittance, high flow rate, and mechanical wiper failure.

8. Ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be provided for all lamps. Backup power shall be considered.

9. The owner shall develop a start-up plan and submit the plan to the department for approval. The plan shall include functional testing, determination of validated operating conditions and control settings, performance testing, development of an operation and maintenance manual, and inspection schedules.

I. UV systems not intended for primary disinfection may be used provided that they meet the requirements of this subsection.

1. Continuous sensors to measure UV intensity shall be considered.

2. Each UV reactor shall be capable of being isolated, removed from service, and be provided with bypass piping.

3. Automatic shutdown capabilities shall be provided in the event of lamp or ballast failure.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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