Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
8/11/2022

12VAC5-590-401. Enhanced filtration and disinfection for Cryptosporidium treatment techniques.

A. A waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both shall comply with the requirements of this section based on their population or if the waterworks is a wholesaler, based on the population of the largest waterworks in the combined distribution system.

B. The owner shall conduct an initial and a second round of source water monitoring for each water treatment plant that treats a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both. This monitoring may include sampling for Cryptosporidium, E. coli, and turbidity to determine what level, if any, of additional Cryptosporidium treatment is required.

1. Initial round of source water monitoring. The owner shall conduct the following monitoring on the schedule in subdivision B 3 of this section unless the monitoring avoidance criteria in subdivision B 4 of this section are met.

a. The owner of a waterworks serving at least 10,000 people shall sample the source water for Cryptosporidium, E. coli, and turbidity at least monthly for 24 months.

b. The owner of a waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people:

(1) Shall sample the source water for E. coli at least once every two weeks for 12 months, or

(2) May avoid E. coli monitoring if the owner notifies the department that the owner will monitor for Cryptosporidium as described in subdivision B 1 c of this section. The owner shall notify the department no later than three months before the date at which the owner is otherwise required to start E. coli monitoring.

c. The owner of a waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people shall sample the source water for Cryptosporidium at least twice per month for 12 months or at least monthly for 24 months if the owner meets one of the following, based on monitoring conducted under subdivision B 1 b of this section:

(1) For a waterworks using source water from a lake or reservoir, the annual mean E. coli concentration is greater than 10 E. coli/100 mL.

(2) For a waterworks using source water from flowing stream, the annual mean E. coli concentration is greater than 50 E. coli/100 mL.

(3) The waterworks does not conduct E. coli monitoring as described in subdivision B 1 b of this section.

(4) The waterworks using a GUDI source shall comply with the requirements of this subdivision B 1 c based on the E. coli level that applies to the nearest surface water body. If no surface water body is nearby, the waterworks shall comply based on the requirements that apply to a waterworks using source water from a lake or reservoir.

d. For the waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people, the department may approve monitoring for an indicator other than E. coli under subdivision B 1 b (1) of this section. The department also may approve an alternative to the E. coli concentration in subdivision B 1 c (1), B 1 c (2), or B 1 c (4) of this section to trigger Cryptosporidium monitoring. This approval by the department shall be provided to the owner in writing and shall include the basis for the department's determination that the alternative indicator or trigger level will provide a more accurate identification of whether a waterworks will exceed the Bin 1 Cryptosporidium level in subdivision B 1 a of this section.

e. The waterworks may sample more frequently than required under this section if the sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period.

2. Second round of source water monitoring. The owner shall conduct a second round of source water monitoring that meets the requirements for monitoring parameters, frequency, and duration described in subdivision B 1 of this section, unless the monitoring exemption criteria in subdivision B 4 of this section are met. The owner shall conduct this monitoring on the schedule in subdivision B 3 of this section.

3. Monitoring schedule. The owner shall begin the monitoring required in subdivisions B 1 and B 2 of this section no later than the month beginning with the date listed in Table 401.1:

TABLE 401.1
Source Water Monitoring Starting Dates

OWNERS OF WATERWORKS THAT SERVE...

SHALL BEGIN THE FIRST ROUND OF SOURCE WATER MONITORING NO LATER THAN THE MONTH BEGINNING...

AND SHALL BEGIN THE SECOND ROUND OF SOURCE WATER MONITORING NO LATER THAN THE MONTH BEGINNING...

At least 100,000 people

October 1, 2006

April 1, 2015

From 50,000 - 99,999 people

April 1, 2007

October 1, 2015

From 10,000 - 49,999 people

April 1, 2008

October 1, 2016

Fewer than 10,000 and monitor for E. coli

October 1, 2008

October 1, 2017

Fewer than 10,000 and monitor for Cryptosporidiuma

April 1, 2010

April 1, 2019

aApplies to a waterworks that meet the conditions of subdivision B 1 c of this section.

4. Monitoring avoidance.

a. The owner is not required to conduct source water monitoring if the waterworks will provide a total of at least 5.5-log of treatment for Cryptosporidium, equivalent to meeting the treatment requirements of Bin 4 in subdivision D 2 of this section.

b. If the owner chooses to provide the level of treatment in subdivision B 4 a of this section, rather than start source water monitoring, then the owner shall notify the department in writing no later than the date the owner is otherwise required to submit a sampling schedule for monitoring under subdivision B 5 of this section. Alternatively, the owner may choose to stop sampling at any point after initiating monitoring if the owner notifies the department in writing that he will provide this level of treatment. The owner shall install and operate technologies to provide this level of treatment by the applicable treatment compliance date in subdivision D 3 of this section.

5. Sampling schedules.

a. The owner of a waterworks required to conduct source water monitoring in accordance with subsection B of this section shall submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the owner shall collect each required sample.

(1) The owner shall submit a sampling schedule to the department no later than three months before the applicable date listed in subdivision B 3 of this section for each round of required monitoring.

(2) If the department does not respond to the owner regarding the sampling schedule, then the owner shall sample at the reported schedule.

b. The owner shall collect samples within two days before or two days after the dates indicated in the sampling schedule (i.e., within a five-day period around the schedule date) unless one of the conditions of this subdivision b applies:

(1) If an extreme condition or situation exists that may pose danger to the sample collector or that cannot be avoided and causes the owner to be unable to sample in the scheduled five-day period, then the owner shall sample as close to the scheduled date as is feasible unless the department approves an alternative sampling date. The owner shall submit an explanation for the delayed sampling date to the department concurrent with the shipment of the sample to the laboratory.

(2) If the owner is unable to report a valid analytical result for a scheduled sampling date due to equipment failure, loss of or damage to the sample, failure to comply with the analytical method requirements, including the quality control requirements of 12VAC5-590-440, or the failure of an approved laboratory to analyze the sample, then the owner shall collect a replacement sample. The owner shall collect the replacement sample not later than 21 days after receiving information that an analytical result cannot be reported for the scheduled date unless the owner demonstrates that collecting a replacement sample within this timeframe is not feasible or the department approves an alternative resampling date. The owner shall submit an explanation for the delayed sampling date to the department concurrent with the shipment of the sample to the laboratory.

c. The owner of a waterworks that fails to meet the criteria of subdivision B 5 b of this section for any source water sample required under subsection B of this section shall revise the sampling schedule to add dates for collecting all missed samples. The owner shall submit the revised schedule to the department for approval before the owner begins collecting the missed samples.

6. Sampling locations.

a. The owner of a waterworks required to conduct source water monitoring under subsection B of this section shall collect samples for each water treatment plant that treats a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both. Where multiple water treatment plants draw source water from the same influent, such as the same pipe or intake, the department may approve one set of monitoring results to be used to satisfy the requirements of subsection B of this section for all water treatment plants.

b. The owner shall collect source water samples before chemical treatment, such as coagulants, oxidants, and disinfectants. However, the department may approve the collection of a source water sample after chemical treatment. To grant this approval, the department shall determine that collecting a sample before chemical treatment is not feasible for the owner and that the chemical treatment is unlikely to have a significant adverse effect on the analysis of the sample.

c. The owner of a waterworks that recycles filter backwash water shall collect source water samples before the point of filter backwash water addition.

d. Bank filtration.

(1) The owner that receives Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration under 12VAC5-590-395 A 2 b (1) shall collect source water samples from the surface water before bank filtration.

(2) The owner that uses bank filtration as pretreatment to a water treatment plant shall collect source water samples from the well (i.e., after bank filtration). The use of bank filtration during monitoring shall be consistent with routine operational practice. The owner collecting samples after a bank filtration process may not receive treatment credit for the bank filtration under subdivision E 4 c of this section.

e. Multiple sources. The owner of a waterworks that uses multiple source waters, including multiple surface water sources and blended surface water and groundwater sources, shall collect samples as specified in subdivision B 6 e (1) or B 6 e (2) of this section. The use of multiple source waters during monitoring shall be consistent with routine operational practice.

(1) If a sampling tap is available where the source waters are combined before treatment, then the owner shall collect samples from the tap.

(2) If a sampling tap is not available where the source waters are combined before treatment, then the owner shall collect samples at each source near the intake on the same day and shall follow either subdivision B 6 e (2) (a) or B 6 e (2) (b) of this section for sample analysis.

(a) The owner may composite samples from each source into one sample before analysis. The volume of sample from each source shall be weighted according to the proportion of the source water in the total water treatment plant flow at the time the sample is collected.

(b) The owner may choose to have samples analyzed from each source separately and calculate a weighted average of the analysis results for each sampling date. The weighted average shall be calculated by multiplying the analysis result for each source water by the fraction the source water contributed to the total water treatment plant flow at the time the sample was collected and then summing these values.

f. Additional requirements. The owner shall submit a description of each sampling location to the department at the same time as the sampling schedule required in subdivision B 3 of this section. This description shall address the position of the sampling location in relation to the waterworks' source waters and treatment processes, including pretreatment, points of chemical treatment, and filter backwash recycle. If the department does not respond to an owner regarding sampling location, then the owner shall sample at each reported location.

7. Analytical methods. All analytical methods shall be conducted in accordance with 12VAC5-590-440.

8. Approved laboratories.

a. Cryptosporidium. The owner shall have Cryptosporidium samples analyzed by a laboratory that has received reciprocal certification approved under the DCLS Laboratory Certification Program for Analysis of Cryptosporidium in Water.

b. E. coli. A laboratory certified by the DCLS for total coliform analysis under 12VAC5-590-440 is approved for E. coli analysis when the laboratory uses the same technique for E. coli that the laboratory uses under 12VAC5-590-440. Laboratories shall use methods for enumeration of E. coli in source water approved in 12VAC5-590-440.

c. Turbidity. Measurements of turbidity shall be made by a party approved by the department.

9. Reporting of the source water results shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-531.

10. The owner of a waterworks treating a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both, that operates for only part of the year shall conduct source water monitoring in accordance with this section, but with the following modifications:

a. The owner shall sample the source water only during the months that the waterworks operates unless the department specifies another monitoring period based on waterworks operating practices.

b. The owner of a waterworks that operates less than six months per year and that monitors for Cryptosporidium shall collect at least six Cryptosporidium samples per year during each of two years of monitoring. Samples shall be evenly spaced throughout the period the waterworks operates.

11. New sources.

a. The owner of a waterworks that begins using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both, is required to begin monitoring under subdivision B 3 of this section and shall monitor the new source on a schedule approved by the department. Source water monitoring shall meet the requirements of this section. The owner shall also meet the bin classification and Cryptosporidium treatment requirements of subdivisions D 1 and D 2 of this section, for the new source on a schedule approved by the department.

b. The requirements of this section apply to a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both, that begins operation after the monitoring start date applicable to the size of the waterworks under subdivision B 3 of this section.

c. The owner shall begin a second round of source water monitoring no later than six years following the initial bin classification under subdivision D 1 of this section.

12. Failure to collect any source water sample required under this section in accordance with the sampling schedule, sampling location, analytical method, approved laboratory, and reporting requirements of subdivisions B 5 through B 9 of this section is a monitoring violation.

13. Grandparenting monitoring data. The owner may use monitoring data collected before the applicable monitoring start date in subdivision B 3 of this section (grandparented data) to meet the initial source water monitoring requirements in subdivision B 1 of this section. Grandparented data may be substituted for an equivalent number of months at the end of the monitoring period. All data submitted under this subdivision B 13 shall meet the requirements in subdivisions B 13 a through B 13 h of this section and be approved by the department:

a. The owner may grandparent Cryptosporidium samples to meet the requirements of this section when the owner does not have corresponding E. coli and turbidity samples. The owner who grandparents Cryptosporidium samples without E. coli and turbidity samples is not required to collect E. coli and turbidity samples when the owner completes the requirements for Cryptosporidium monitoring under this section.

b. The analysis of E. coli samples shall meet the analytical method and approved laboratory requirements of subdivisions B 7 and B 8 of this section.

c. The analysis of Cryptosporidium samples shall meet the requirements of subdivision B 8 of this section.

d. The sampling location shall meet the conditions in subdivision B 6 of this section.

e. Cryptosporidium sample collection intervals may vary for the conditions specified in subdivisions B 5 b (1) and B 5 b (2) of this section if the owner provides documentation of the condition when reporting monitoring results.

(1) The department may approve grandparenting of previously collected data where there are time gaps in the sampling frequency if the owner conducts additional monitoring the department specifies to ensure that the data used to comply with the initial source water monitoring requirements of subsection B of this section are seasonally representative and unbiased.

(2) The owner may grandparent previously collected data where the sampling frequency within each month varied. If the Cryptosporidium sampling frequency varied, then the owner shall follow the monthly averaging procedure in subdivision D 1 a (5) of this section when calculating the bin classification for a filtered waterworks.

f. The owner of a waterworks that requests to grandparent previously collected monitoring results shall report the following information by the applicable dates listed in the following subdivisions. The owner shall report this information to the department.

(1) The owner shall report the intent to submit previously collected monitoring results for grandparenting. This report shall specify the number of previously collected results the owner shall submit, the dates of the first and last sample, and whether an owner shall conduct additional source water monitoring to meet the requirements in subsection B of this section. The owner shall report this information no later than the date the sampling schedule listed in subdivision B 3 of this section is required.

(2) The owner shall report previously collected monitoring results for grandparenting no later than two months after the applicable date listed in subdivision B 3 of this section.

(a) For each sample result, the owner shall report the applicable data elements in 12VAC5-590-531 A 5.

(b) The owner shall certify that the reported monitoring results include all results the waterworks generated during the time period beginning with the first reported result and ending with the final reported result. This applies to samples that were collected from the sampling location specified for source water monitoring under subdivision B 1 of this section, not spiked, and analyzed using the laboratory's routine process for the analytical methods listed in this section.

(c) The owner shall certify that the samples were representative of a waterworks' source waters and the source waters have not changed. The owner shall report a description of each sampling location, which shall address the position of the sampling location in relation to the waterworks' source waters and treatment processes, including points of chemical addition and filter backwash recycle.

(d) For Cryptosporidium samples, the laboratory that analyzed the samples shall provide a letter certifying that the quality control criteria specified in the methods listed in subdivision B 8 of this section were met for each sample batch associated with the reported results. Alternatively, the laboratory may provide bench sheets and sample examination report forms for each field, matrix spike, initial precision and recovery (IPR), ongoing precision and recovery (OPR), and method blank sample associated with the reported results.

g. If the department determines that a previously collected data set submitted for grandparenting was generated during source water conditions that were not normal for the waterworks, such as a drought, the department may disapprove the data. Alternatively, the department may approve the previously collected data if the owner reports additional source water monitoring data, as determined by the department, to ensure that the data set used under subdivision D 1 of this section represents average source water conditions for the waterworks.

h. If the owner submits previously collected data that fully meets the number of samples required for initial source water monitoring under subdivision B 1 of this section and some of the data are rejected due to not meeting the requirements of this section, then the owner shall conduct additional monitoring to replace rejected data on a schedule approved by the department. The owner is not required to begin this additional monitoring until two months after notification that data have been rejected and additional monitoring is necessary.

C. The owner of a waterworks that plans to make a significant change to the disinfection practice shall develop disinfection profiles and calculate disinfection benchmarks as described in 12VAC5-590-500.

1. The owner shall notify the department before changing the disinfection practice and shall include in this notice the following information:

a. A completed disinfection profile and disinfection benchmark for Giardia lamblia and viruses;

b. A description of the proposed change in disinfection practice; and

c. An analysis of how the proposed change will affect the current level of disinfection.

2. Significant changes to the disinfection practice are defined as follows:

a. Changes to the point of disinfection;

b. Changes to any disinfectant used in the water treatment plant;

c. Changes to the disinfection process; or

d. Any other modification identified by the department as a significant change to disinfection practice.

D. The owner shall determine the Cryptosporidium treatment bin classification as described in subdivision D 1 of this section and provide additional treatment for Cryptosporidium, if required, as described in subdivision D 2 of this section. The owner shall implement Cryptosporidium treatment according to the schedule in subdivision D 3 of this section.

1. Bin classification for waterworks.

a. Following completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under subdivision B 1 of this section, the owner shall calculate an initial Cryptosporidium bin concentration for each water treatment plant for which monitoring was required. Calculation of the bin concentration shall use the Cryptosporidium results reported under subdivision B 1 of this section and shall follow these procedures:

(1) For the owner who collects a total of at least 48 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations.

(2) For the owner who collects a total of at least 24 samples, but not more than 47 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the highest arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations in any 12 consecutive months during which Cryptosporidium samples were collected.

(3) For the owner of a waterworks that serves fewer than 10,000 people and monitors for Cryptosporidium for only one year (i.e., collect 24 samples in 12 months), the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations.

(4) For water treatment plants that operate only part of the year and that monitor fewer than 12 months per year under subdivision B 1 of this section, the bin concentration is equal to the highest arithmetic mean of all sample concentrations during any year of Cryptosporidium monitoring.

(5) If the monthly Cryptosporidium sampling frequency varies, then the owner shall first calculate a monthly average for each month of monitoring. The owner shall then use these monthly average concentrations, rather than individual sample concentrations, in the applicable calculation for bin classification in subdivisions D 1 a (1) through D 1 a (4) of this section.

b. The owner shall determine the initial bin classification from Table 401.2 using the Cryptosporidium bin concentration calculated under subdivision D 1 a of this section:

TABLE 401.2
Bin Classification for Filtered Waterworks

FOR OWNERS OF WATERWORKS THAT ARE...

WITH A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM BIN CONCENTRATION OFa...

THE BIN CLASSIFICATION IS...

Required to monitor for Cryptosporidium under subdivision B 1 of this section

Cryptosporidium less than 0.075 oocysts/L

Bin 1

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 0.075 oocysts/L but less than 1.0 oocysts/L

Bin 2

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 1.0 oocysts/L but less than 3.0 oocysts/L

Bin 3

Cryptosporidium equal to or greater than 3.0 oocysts/L

Bin 4

Serving fewer than 10,000 people and NOT required to monitor for Cryptosporidium under subdivision B 1 c of this section

Not Applicable

Bin 1

aBased on calculations in subdivision D 1 a or D 1 c of this section, as applicable.

c. Following completion of the second round of source water monitoring required under subdivision B 2 of this section, the owner shall recalculate the Cryptosporidium bin concentration using the Cryptosporidium results reported under subdivision B 2 of this section and following the procedures in subdivisions D 1 a (1) through D 1 a (4) of this section. The owner shall then redetermine the bin classification using this bin concentration and Table 401.3.

d. Reporting of bin classifications.

(1) The owner shall report the initial bin classification under subdivision D 1 b of this section to the department for approval no later than six months after the waterworks is required to complete the initial source water monitoring based on the schedule in subdivision B 3 of this section.

(2) The owner shall report the bin classification under subdivision D 1 c of this section to the department for approval no later than six months after the owner is required to complete the second round of source water monitoring based on the schedule in subdivision D 1 a (3) of this section.

(3) The bin classification report to the department shall include a summary of source water monitoring data and the calculation procedure used to determine bin classification.

e. Failure to comply with the conditions of subdivision D 1 d of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement.

2. Waterworks additional Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

a. A waterworks shall provide the level of additional treatment for Cryptosporidium specified in this subdivision based on the bin classification as determined under subdivision D 1 of this section and according to the schedule in subdivision D 3 b of this section.

TABLE 401.3.
Cryptosporidium Treatment Requirements

IF THE WATERWORKS BIN CLASSIFICATION IS...

AND THE WATERWORKS USES THE FOLLOWING FILTRATION TREATMENT IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH 12VAC5-590-395 A 1 AND 12VAC5-590-395 A 2, THEN THE ADDITIONAL CRYPTOSPORIDIUM TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS ARE...

Conventional filtration treatment (including softening)

Direct filtration

Slow sand or diatomaceous earth filtration

Alternative filtration technologies

Bin 1

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

No additional treatment

Bin 2

1-log treatment

1.5-log treatment

1-log treatment

a

Bin 3

2-log treatment

2.5-log treatment

2-log treatment

b

Bin 4

2.5-log treatment

3-log treatment

2.5-log treatment

c

aAs determined by the department such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 4.0-log.

bAs determined by the department such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 5.0-log.

cAs determined by the department such that the total Cryptosporidium removal and inactivation is at least 5.5-log.

b. Additional treatment.

(1) The owner shall use one or more of the treatment and management options listed in subsection E of this section, termed the microbial toolbox, to comply with the additional Cryptosporidium treatment required in subdivision D 2 a of this section.

(2) A waterworks classified in Bin 3 and Bin 4 shall achieve at least 1-log of the additional Cryptosporidium treatment required under subdivision D 2 a of this section using either one or a combination of the following: (i) bag filters, (ii) bank filtration, (iii) cartridge filters, (iv) chlorine dioxide, (v) membranes, (vi) ozone, or (vii) UV as described in subdivisions E 3 through E 7 of this section.

c. Failure by a waterworks in any month to achieve treatment credit by meeting criteria in subdivisions E 3 through E 7 of this section for microbial toolbox options that is at least equal to the level of treatment required in subdivision D 2 a of this section is a violation of the treatment technique requirement.

d. If the department determines during a sanitary survey or an equivalent source water assessment that after an owner completed the monitoring conducted under subdivision B 1 or B 2 of this section, significant changes occurred in the waterworks watershed that could lead to increased contamination of the source water by Cryptosporidium, then the owner shall take actions specified by the department to address the contamination. These actions may include additional source water monitoring or implementing microbial toolbox options listed in subdivision E 2 of this section.

3. Schedule for compliance with Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

a. Following the initial bin classification in accordance with subdivision D 1 b of this section, the owner shall provide the level of treatment for Cryptosporidium required under subdivision D 2 of this section according to the schedule in subdivision D 3 b of this section.

b. If the bin classification for a filtered waterworks changes following the second round of source water monitoring, as determined under subdivision D 1 c of this section, then the owner shall provide the level of treatment for Cryptosporidium required under subdivision D 2 of this section on a schedule approved by the department.

E. The owner of a waterworks required to provide additional treatment for Cryptosporidium shall implement microbial toolbox options that are designed and operated as described in subdivisions E 1 through E 7 of this section.

1. The owner receives the treatment credits listed in Table 401.4 by meeting the conditions for microbial toolbox options described in subdivisions E 3 through E 7 of this section. The owner shall apply these treatment credits to meet the treatment requirements in subdivision D 2 of this section.

2. Microbial Toolbox Summary Table: Options, Treatment Credits and Criteria.

TABLE 401.4
Microbial Toolbox Summary: Options, Treatment Credits and Criteria

TOOLBOX OPTION

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM TREATMENT CREDIT WITH DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION CRITERIA

Source Protection and Management Toolbox Options

Alternative source and intake management

No prescribed credit. The owner may conduct simultaneous monitoring for treatment bin classification at alternative intake locations or under alternative intake management strategies. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 3 b of this section.

Prefiltration Toolbox Options

Presedimentation basin with coagulation

0.5-log credit during any month that presedimentation basins achieve a monthly mean reduction of 0.5-log or greater in turbidity or alternative performance criteria approved by the department. To be eligible, basins shall be operated continuously with coagulant addition and all water treatment plant flow shall pass through basins. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 4 a of this section.

Two-stage lime softening

0.5-log credit for two-stage softening where chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in both stages. All water treatment plant flow shall pass through both stages. Single-stage softening is credited as equivalent to conventional treatment. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 4 b of this section.

Bank filtration

0.5-log credit for 25-foot setback; 1.0-log credit for 50-foot setback; aquifer shall be unconsolidated sand containing at least 10% fines; average turbidity in wells shall be less than 1 NTU. A waterworks using wells followed by filtration when conducting source water monitoring shall sample the well to determine bin classification and is not eligible for additional credit. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 4 c of this section.

Treatment Performance Toolbox Options

Combined filter performance

0.5-log credit for CFE turbidity less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of measurements each month. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 5 a of this section.

Individual filter performance

0.5-log credit (in addition to 0.5-log combined filter performance credit) if individual filter effluent turbidity is less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of samples each month in each filter and is never greater than 0.3 NTU in two consecutive measurements in any filter. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 5 b of this section.

Additional Filtration Toolbox Options

Bag or cartridge filters (individual filters)

Up to 2-log credit based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing with a 1.0-log factor of safety. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 6 a of this section.

Bag or cartridge filters (in series)

Up to 2.5-log credit based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing with a 0.5-log factor of safety. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 6 a of this section.

Membrane filtration

Log credit equivalent to removal efficiency demonstrated in challenge test for device if supported by direct integrity testing. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 6 b of this section.

Second stage filtration

0.5-log credit for second separate granular media filtration stage if treatment train includes coagulation before first filter. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 6 c of this section.

Slow sand filters

2.5-log credit as a secondary filtration step; 3.0-log credit as a primary filtration process. No prior chlorination for either option. Specific criteria are in subdivision E 6 d of this section.

Inactivation Toolbox Options

Chlorine dioxide

Log credit based on measured CT in relation to Table 401.5. Specific criteria in subdivision E 7 b of this section.

Ozone

Log credit based on measured CT in relation to Table 401.6. Specific criteria in subdivision E 7 b of this section.

UV

Log credit based on validated UV dose in relation to Table 401.7; reactor validation testing required to establish UV dose and associated operating conditions. Specific criteria in subdivision E 7 c of this section.

3. Source toolbox components.

a. Reserved.

b. Alternative source.

(1) The owner may conduct source water monitoring that reflects a different intake location (either in the same source or for an alternate source) or a different procedure for the timing or level of withdrawal from the source (alternative source water monitoring). If the department approves, then the owner may determine the bin classification under subdivision D 1 of this section based on the alternative source water monitoring results.

(2) If the owner conducts alternative source water monitoring under subdivision E 3 b (1) of this section, then the owner shall also monitor the current water treatment plant intake concurrently as described in subsection B of this section. "Plant intake" means the works or structures at the head of a conduit through which source water is diverted (e.g., river or lake) into the water treatment plant.

(3) Alternative source water monitoring under subdivision E 3 b (1) of this section shall meet the requirements for source water monitoring to determine bin classification, as described in subdivisions B 1 through B 13 of this section. The owner shall report the alternative source water monitoring results to the department, along with supporting information documenting the operating conditions under which the samples were collected.

(4) If the owner determines the bin classification under subdivision D 1 of this section using alternative source water monitoring results that reflect a different intake location or a different procedure for managing the timing or level of withdrawal from the source, then the owner shall relocate the intake or permanently adopt the withdrawal procedure, as applicable, no later than the applicable treatment compliance date in subdivision D 3 of this section.

4. Prefiltration treatment toolbox components.

a. Presedimentation. The owner receives 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a presedimentation basin during any month the process meets the following criteria:

(1) The presedimentation basin shall be in continuous operation and shall treat the entire water treatment plant flow at a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both.

(2) A coagulant shall be continuously added to the presedimentation basin.

(3) The presedimentation basin shall achieve the performance criteria in either of the following:

(a) Demonstrates at least 0.5-log mean reduction of influent turbidity. This reduction shall be determined using daily turbidity measurements in the presedimentation process influent and effluent and shall be calculated as follows: log10 (monthly mean of daily influent turbidity) - log10 (monthly mean of daily effluent turbidity).

(b) Complies with the performance criteria approved by the department that demonstrate at least 0.5-log mean removal of micron-sized particulate material through the presedimentation process.

b. Two-stage lime softening. The owner receives an additional 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a two-stage lime softening plant if chemical addition and hardness precipitation occur in two separate and sequential softening stages before filtration. Both softening stages shall treat the entire plant flow taken from a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both.

c. Bank filtration. The owner receives Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration that serves as pretreatment to a water filtration plant by meeting the criteria in this subdivision. The owner using bank filtration upon beginning source water monitoring under subdivision B 1 of this section shall collect samples as described in subdivision B 6 d of this section and is not eligible for this credit.

(1) Wells with a groundwater flow path of at least 25 feet receive 0.5-log treatment credit; and wells with a groundwater flow path of at least 50 feet receive 1.0-log treatment credit. The groundwater flow path shall be determined as specified in subdivision E 4 c (4) of this section.

(2) Only wells in granular aquifers are eligible for treatment credit. Granular aquifers are those comprised of sand, clay, silt, rock fragments, pebbles or larger particles, and minor cement. The owner shall characterize the aquifer at the well site to determine aquifer properties. The owner shall extract a core from the aquifer and demonstrate that in at least 90% of the core length, grains less than 1.0 mm in diameter constitute at least 10% of the core material.

(3) Only horizontal and vertical wells are eligible for treatment credit.

(4) For vertical wells, the groundwater flow path is the measured distance from the edge of the surface water body under high flow conditions (determined by the 100-year flood elevation boundary or by the floodway, as defined in Federal Emergency Management Agency flood hazard maps) to the well screen. For horizontal wells, the groundwater flow path is the measured distance from the bed of the river under normal flow conditions to the closest horizontal well lateral screen.

(5) The owner shall monitor each wellhead for turbidity at least once every four hours while the bank filtration process is in operation. If monthly average turbidity levels, based on daily maximum values in the well, exceed 1 NTU, the owner shall report this result to the department and conduct an assessment within 30 days to determine the cause of the high turbidity levels in the well. If the department determines that microbial removal has been compromised, the department may revoke treatment credit until the owner implements corrective actions approved by the department to remediate the problem.

(6) Springs and infiltration galleries are not eligible for treatment credit under this section.

(7) Bank filtration demonstration of performance. The department may approve Cryptosporidium treatment credit for bank filtration based on a demonstration-of-performance study that meets the criteria in this subdivision. This treatment credit may be greater than 1.0-log and may be awarded to bank filtration that does not meet the criteria in subdivisions E 4 c (1) through E 4 c (5) of this section.

(a) The study shall follow a protocol approved by the department and shall involve the collection of data on the removal of Cryptosporidium or a surrogate for Cryptosporidium and related hydrogeologic and water quality parameters during the full range of operating conditions.

(b) The study shall include sampling both from any production well and from monitoring wells that are screened and located along the shortest flow path between the surface water source and the production well.

5. Treatment performance toolbox components.

a. Combined filter performance. The owner using conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration treatment receives an additional 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit during any month the waterworks meets the criteria in this subdivision. Combined filter effluent (CFE) turbidity shall be less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of the measurements. Turbidity shall be measured as described in 12VAC5-590-376 B.

b. Individual filter performance. The owner using conventional filtration treatment or direct filtration treatment receives 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit, which can be in addition to the 0.5-log credit under subdivision E 5 a of this section, during any month the waterworks meets the criteria in this subdivision. Compliance with these criteria shall be based on individual filter turbidity monitoring as described in 12VAC5-590-376 B.

(1) The filtered water turbidity for each individual filter shall be less than or equal to 0.15 NTU in at least 95% of the measurements recorded each month.

(2) No individual filter may have a measured turbidity greater than 0.3 NTU in two consecutive measurements collected 15 minutes apart.

(3) The owner that has received treatment credit for individual filter performance and fails to meet the requirements of subdivision E 5 b (1) or E 5 b (2) of this section during any month does not receive a treatment technique violation under subdivision D 2 c of this section if the department determines the following:

(a) The failure was due to unusual and short-term circumstances that could not reasonably be prevented through optimizing water treatment plant design, operation, and maintenance.

(b) The waterworks has experienced no more than two failures in any calendar year.

6. Additional filtration toolbox components.

a. Bag and cartridge filters. The owner receives Cryptosporidium treatment credit of up to 2.0-log for individual bag or cartridge filters and up to 2.5-log for bag or cartridge filters operated in series by meeting the criteria in subdivisions E 6 a (1) through E 6 a (10) of this section. To be eligible for this credit, the owner shall report the results of challenge testing that meets the requirements of subdivisions E 6 a (2) through E 6 a (9) of this section to the department. The filters shall treat the entire water treatment plant flow taken from a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both.

(1) The Cryptosporidium treatment credit awarded to bag or cartridge filters shall be based on the removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing that is conducted according to the criteria in subdivisions E 6 a (2) through E 6 a (9) of this section. A factor of safety equal to 1-log for individual bag or cartridge filters and 0.5-log for bag or cartridge filters in series shall be applied to challenge testing results to determine removal credit. The owner may use the results from challenge testing conducted before January 5, 2006, if the prior testing was consistent with the criteria specified in subdivisions E 6 a (2) through E 6 a (9) of this section.

(2) Challenge testing shall be performed on full-scale bag or cartridge filters, and the associated filter housing or pressure vessel, that are identical in material and construction to the filters and housings the waterworks will use for removal of Cryptosporidium. Bag or cartridge filters shall be challenge tested in the same configuration that the waterworks will use, either as individual filters or as a series configuration of filters.

(3) Challenge testing shall be conducted using Cryptosporidium or a surrogate that is removed no more efficiently than Cryptosporidium. The microorganism or surrogate used during challenge testing is referred to as the challenge particulate. The concentration of the challenge particulate shall be determined using a method capable of discreetly quantifying the specific microorganism or surrogate used in the test; gross measurements such as turbidity shall not be used.

(4) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test shall be based on the detection limit of the challenge particulate in the filtrate (i.e., filtrate detection limit) and shall be calculated using the following equation:

Maximum Feed Concentration = 1 x 104 x (Filtrate Detection Limit)

(5) Challenge testing shall be conducted at the maximum design flow rate for the filter as specified by the manufacturer.

(6) Each filter evaluated shall be tested for a duration sufficient to reach 100% of the terminal pressure drop that establishes the maximum pressure drop under which the filter may be used to comply with the requirements of this subdivision E 6.

(7) Removal efficiency of a filter shall be determined from the results of the challenge test and expressed in terms of log removal values using the following equation:

LRV = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp),

where LRV = log removal value demonstrated during challenge testing;

Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and

Cp = the filtrate concentration measured during the challenge test.

In applying this equation, the same units shall be used for the feed and filtrate concentrations. If the challenge particulate is not detected in the filtrate, then the term Cp shall be set equal to the detection limit.

(8) Each filter tested shall be challenged with the challenge particulate during three periods over the filtration cycle: within two hours of start-up of a new filter; when the pressure drop is between 45% and 55% of the terminal pressure drop; and at the end of the cycle after the pressure drop has reached 100% of the terminal pressure drop. An LRV shall be calculated for each of these challenge periods for each filter tested. The LRV for the filter (LRV filter) shall be assigned the value of the minimum LRV observed during the three challenge periods for that filter.

(9) If fewer than 20 filters are tested, then the overall removal efficiency for the filter product line shall be set equal to the lowest LRV filter among the filters tested. If 20 or more filters are tested, then the overall removal efficiency for the filter product line shall be set equal to the 10th percentile of the set of LRV filter values for the various filters tested. The percentile is defined by (i/(n+1)), where i is the rank of n individual data points ordered lowest to highest. If necessary, the 10th percentile may be calculated using linear interpolation.

(10) If a previously tested filter is modified in a manner that could change the removal efficiency of the filter product line, then challenge testing to demonstrate the removal efficiency of the modified filter shall be conducted and submitted to the department.

b. Membrane filtration.

(1) The owner receives Cryptosporidium treatment credit for membrane filtration that meets the criteria of this subdivision E 6 b. Membrane cartridge filters that meet the definition of membrane filtration in 12VAC5-590-10 are eligible for this credit. The level of treatment credit the owner receives is equal to the lower of the values determined as follows:

(a) The removal efficiency demonstrated during challenge testing conducted under the conditions in subdivision E 6 b (2) of this section.

(b) The maximum removal efficiency that can be verified through direct integrity testing used with the membrane filtration process under the conditions in subdivision E 6 b (3) of this section.

(2) Challenge Testing. The membrane used by the waterworks shall undergo challenge testing to evaluate removal efficiency and the owner shall report the results of the challenge testing to the department. Challenge testing shall be conducted according to the criteria in subdivisions E 6 b (2) (a) through E 6 b (2) (g) of this section. The owner may use data from challenge testing conducted before January 5, 2006, if the prior testing was consistent with the following criteria:

(a) Challenge testing shall be conducted on either a full-scale membrane module, identical in material and construction to the membrane modules used in the waterworks treatment facility, or a smaller-scale membrane module, identical in material and similar in construction to the full-scale module. A module is defined as the smallest component of a membrane unit in which a specific membrane surface area is housed in a device with a filtrate outlet structure.

(b) Challenge testing shall be conducted using Cryptosporidium or a surrogate that is removed no more efficiently than Cryptosporidium. The organism or surrogate used during challenge testing is referred to as the challenge particulate. The concentration of the challenge particulate, in both the feed and filtrate water, shall be determined using a method capable of discretely quantifying the specific challenge particulate used in the test; gross measurements such as turbidity shall not be used.

(c) The maximum feed water concentration that can be used during a challenge test is based on the detection limit of the challenge particulate in the filtrate and shall be determined according to the following equation:

Maximum Feed Concentration = 3.16 x 106 x (Filtrate Detection Limit)

(d) Challenge testing shall be conducted under representative hydraulic conditions at the maximum design flux and maximum design process recovery specified by the manufacturer for the membrane module. Flux is defined as the throughput of a pressure-driven membrane process expressed as flow per unit of membrane area. Recovery is defined as the volumetric percent of feed water that is converted to filtrate over the course of an operating cycle uninterrupted by events such as chemical cleaning or a solids removal process (i.e., backwashing).

(e) Removal efficiency of a membrane module shall be calculated from the challenge test results and expressed as a log removal value according to the following equation:

LRV = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp),

where LRV = log removal value demonstrated during the challenge test;

Cf = the feed concentration measured during the challenge test; and

Cp = the filtrate concentration measured during the challenge test.

Equivalent units shall be used for the feed and filtrate concentrations. If the challenge particulate is not detected in the filtrate, then the term Cp is set equal to the detection limit for the purpose of calculating the LRV. An LRV shall be calculated for each membrane module evaluated during the challenge test.

(f) The removal efficiency of a membrane filtration process demonstrated during challenge testing shall be expressed as a log removal value (LRVC-Test). If fewer than 20 modules are tested, then LRVC-Test is equal to the lowest of the representative LRVs among the modules tested. If 20 or more modules are tested, then LRVC-Test is equal to the 10th percentile of the representative LRVs among the modules tested. The percentile is defined by (i/(n+1)), where i is the rank of n individual data points ordered lowest to highest. If necessary, the 10th percentile may be calculated using linear interpolation.

(g) The challenge test shall establish a QCRV for a nondestructive performance test that demonstrates the Cryptosporidium removal capability of the membrane filtration module. This performance test shall be applied to each production membrane module used by the waterworks that was not directly challenge tested to verify Cryptosporidium removal capability. Production modules that do not meet the established QCRV are not eligible for the treatment credit demonstrated during the challenge test.

(h) If a previously tested membrane is modified in a manner that could change the removal efficiency of the membrane or the applicability of the nondestructive performance test and associated QCRV, then additional challenge testing to demonstrate the removal efficiency of, and determine a new QCRV for, the modified membrane shall be conducted and submitted to the department.

(3) Direct integrity testing. The owner shall conduct direct integrity testing in a manner that demonstrates a removal efficiency equal to or greater than the removal credit awarded to the membrane filtration process and meets the requirements described in subdivisions E 6 b (3) (a) through E 6 b (3) (f) of this section. A direct integrity test is defined as a physical test applied to a membrane unit to identify and isolate integrity breaches (i.e., one or more leaks that could result in contamination of the filtrate).

(a) The direct integrity test shall be independently applied to each membrane unit in service. A membrane unit is defined as a group of membrane modules that share common valving that allows the unit to be isolated from the rest of the waterworks for the purpose of integrity testing or other maintenance.

(b) The direct integrity method shall have a resolution of three micrometers or less, where resolution is defined as the size of the smallest integrity breach that contributes to a response from the direct integrity test.

(c) The direct integrity test shall have a sensitivity sufficient to verify the log treatment credit awarded to the membrane filtration process by the department, where sensitivity is defined as the maximum log removal value that can be reliably verified by a direct integrity test. Sensitivity shall be determined using the approach in either of the following as applicable to the type of direct integrity test the waterworks uses:

(i) For direct integrity tests that use an applied pressure or vacuum, the direct integrity test sensitivity shall be calculated according to the following equation:

LRVDIT = LOG10(Qp /(VCF x Qbreach)),

where LRVDIT = the sensitivity of the direct integrity test;

Qp = total design filtrate flow from the membrane unit;

Qbreach = flow of water from an integrity breach associated with the smallest integrity test response that can be reliably measured; and

VCF = volumetric concentration factor.

The volumetric concentration factor is the ratio of the suspended solids concentration on the high-pressure side of the membrane relative to that in the feed water.

(ii) For direct integrity tests that use a particulate or molecular marker, the direct integrity test sensitivity shall be calculated according to the following equation:

LRVDIT = LOG10(Cf) - LOG10(Cp),

where LRVDIT = the sensitivity of the direct integrity test;

Cf = the typical feed concentration of the marker used in the test; and

Cp = the filtrate concentration of the marker from an integral membrane unit.

(d) The owner shall establish a control limit within the sensitivity limits of the direct integrity test that is indicative of an integral membrane unit capable of meeting the removal credit awarded by the department.

(e) If the result of a direct integrity test exceeds the control limit established under subdivision E 6 b (3) (d) of this section, then the owner shall remove the membrane unit from service. The owner shall conduct a direct integrity test to verify any repairs, and may return the membrane unit to service only if the direct integrity test is within the established control limit.

(f) The owner shall conduct direct integrity testing on each membrane unit at a frequency of not less than once each day that the membrane unit is in operation. The department may approve less frequent testing based on demonstrated process reliability, the use of multiple barriers effective for Cryptosporidium, or reliable process safeguards.

(4) Indirect integrity monitoring. The owner shall conduct continuous indirect integrity monitoring on each membrane unit according to the criteria in subdivisions E 6 b (4) (a) through E 6 b (4) (e). Indirect integrity monitoring is defined as monitoring some aspect of filtrate water quality that is indicative of the removal of particulate matter. The owner that implements continuous direct integrity testing of membrane units in accordance with the criteria in subdivisions E 6 b (3) (a) through E 6 b (3) (f) of this section is not subject to the requirements for continuous indirect integrity monitoring. The owner shall submit a monthly report to the department summarizing all continuous indirect integrity monitoring results triggering direct integrity testing and the corrective action that was taken in each case.

(a) Unless the department approves an alternative parameter, continuous indirect integrity monitoring shall include continuous filtrate turbidity monitoring.

(b) Continuous monitoring shall be conducted at a frequency of no less than once every 15 minutes.

(c) Continuous monitoring shall be separately conducted on each membrane unit.

(d) If indirect integrity monitoring includes turbidity and if the filtrate turbidity readings are above 0.15 NTU for a period greater than 15 minutes (i.e., two consecutive 15-minute readings above 0.15 NTU), direct integrity testing shall immediately be performed on the associated membrane unit as specified in subdivisions E 6 b (3) (a) through E 6 b (3) (f) of this section.

(e) If indirect integrity monitoring includes an alternative parameter approved by the department and if the alternative parameter exceeds a control limit approved by the department for a period greater than 15 minutes, then direct integrity testing shall immediately be performed on the associated membrane units as specified in subdivisions E 6 b (3) (a) through E 6 b (3) (f) of this section.

c. Second stage filtration. The owner receives 0.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a separate second stage of filtration that consists of sand, dual media, GAC, or other fine grain media following granular media filtration if approved by the department. To be eligible for this credit, the first stage of filtration shall be preceded by a coagulation step and both filtration stages shall treat the entire water treatment treatment plant flow taken from a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both. A cap, such as GAC, on a single stage of filtration is not eligible for this credit. The department shall approve the treatment credit based on an assessment of the design characteristics of the filtration process.

d. Slow sand filtration as secondary filter. The owner is eligible to receive 2.5-log Cryptosporidium treatment credit for a slow sand filtration process that follows a separate stage of filtration if both filtration stages treat the entire water treatment plant flow taken from a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both and no residual disinfectant is present in the influent water to the slow sand filtration process. The department shall approve the treatment credit based on an assessment of the design characteristics of the filtration process. This subdivision does not apply to treatment credit awarded to slow sand filtration used as a primary filtration process.

7. Inactivation toolbox components.

a. Calculation of CT values.

(1) CT is the product of the disinfectant contact time (T, in minutes) and disinfectant concentration (C, in milligrams per liter). The owner of a waterworks with treatment credit for chlorine dioxide or ozone under subdivision E 7 b of this section shall calculate CT at least once each day, with both C and T measured during peak hourly flow in accordance with the procedure listed in 12VAC5-590-500.

(2) A waterworks with several disinfection segments in sequence may calculate CT for each segment, where a disinfection segment is defined as a treatment unit process with a measurable residual disinfectant level and a liquid volume. Under this approach, the owner shall add the Cryptosporidium CT values in each segment to determine the total CT for the treatment plant.

b. CT values for chlorine dioxide and ozone.

(1) The owner receives the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in Table 401.5 by meeting the corresponding chlorine dioxide CT value for the applicable water temperature, as described in subdivision E 7 a of this section.

TABLE 401.5
CT Values (mg-min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Chlorine Dioxidea

WATER TEMPERATURE, oC

LOG CREDIT

≤0.5

1

2

3

5

7

0.25

159

153

140

128

107

90

0.5

319

305

279

256

214

180

1.0

637

610

558

511

429

360

1.5

956

915

838

767

643

539

2.0

1275

1220

1117

1023

858

719

2.5

1594

1525

1396

1278

1072

899

3.0

1912

1830

1675

1534

1286

1079

WATER TEMPERATURE, oC

LOG CREDIT

10

15

20

25

30

0.25

69

45

29

19

12

0.5

138

89

58

38

24

1.0

277

179

116

75

49

1.5

415

268

174

113

73

2.0

553

357

232

150

98

2.5

691

447

289

188

122

3.0

830

536

347

226

147

aThe owner may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values: Log credit = (0.001506×(1.09116)Temp)× CT.

(2) The owner receives the Cryptosporidium treatment credit listed in Table 401.6 by meeting the corresponding ozone CT values for the applicable water temperature, as described in subdivision E 7 a of this section.

TABLE 401.6
CT Values (mg-min/L) for Cryptosporidium Inactivation by Ozonea

LOG CREDIT

WATER TEMPERATURE, °C

≤0.5

1

2

3

5

7

10

15

20

25

30

0.25

6.0

5.8

5.2

4.8

4.0

3.3

2.5

1.6

1.0

0.6

0.39

0.5

12

12

10

9.5

7.9

6.5

4.9

3.1

2.0

1.2

0.78

1.0

24

23

21

19

16

13

9.9

6.2

3.9

2.5

1.6

1.5

36

35

31

29

24

20

15

9.3

5.9

3.7

2.4

2.0

48

46

42

38

32

26

20

12

7.8

4.9

3.1

2.5

60

58

52

48

40

33

25

16

9.8

6.2

3.9

3.0

72

69

63

57

47

39

30

19

12

7.4

4.7

aThe owner may use this equation to determine log credit between the indicated values: Log credit = (0.0397×(1.09757)Temp)× CT.

c. UV light. The owner receives Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and virus treatment credits for UV light reactors by achieving the corresponding UV dose values shown in subdivision E 7 c (1) of this section. The owner shall validate and monitor UV reactors as described in subdivisions E 7 c (2) and E 7 c (3) of this section to demonstrate that they are achieving a particular UV dose value for treatment credit.

(1) UV dose table. The treatment credits listed in Table 401.7 are for UV light at a wavelength of 254 nm as produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp. To receive treatment credit for other lamp types, the owner shall demonstrate an equivalent germicidal dose through reactor validation testing as described in subdivision E 7 c (2) of this section. The UV dose values listed in Table 401.7 are applicable only to post-filter applications of UV in filtered waterworks.

TABLE 401.7
UV Doses for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia and Virus Inactivation Credit

LOG CREDIT

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM UV DOSE (mJ/cm2)

GIARDIA LAMBLIA UV DOSE (mJ/cm2)

VIRUS UV DOSE (mJ/cm2)

0.5

1.6

1.5

39

1.0

2.5

2.1

58

1.5

3.9

3.0

79

2.0

5.8

5.2

100

2.5

8.5

7.7

121

3.0

12

11

143

3.5

15

15

163

4.0

22

22

186

(2) Reactor validation testing. The owner shall use UV reactors that have undergone validation testing to determine the operating conditions under which the reactor delivers the UV dose required in subdivision E 7 c (1) of this section (i.e., validated operating conditions). These operating conditions shall include flow rate, UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, and UV lamp status.

(a) When determining validated operating conditions, the owner shall account for the following factors: (i) UV absorbance of the water; (ii) lamp fouling and aging; (iii) measurement uncertainty of online sensors; (iv) UV dose distributions arising from the velocity profiles through the reactor; (v) failure of UV lamps or other critical waterworks components; and (vi) inlet and outlet piping or channel configurations of the UV reactor.

(b) Validation testing shall include the following: full-scale testing of a reactor that conforms uniformly to the UV reactors used by the waterworks and inactivation of a test microorganism whose dose-response characteristics have been quantified with a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp.

(c) UV reactor validation testing shall be in accordance with EPA's recommended validation protocol for UV reactors, as described in EPA's "Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual for the Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule," November 2006, EPA Office of Water. Alternative protocols may be considered for approval by the department on a case-by-case basis.

(d) Validation testing, whether onsite or offsite, shall be performed by a third party independent of the UV reactor manufacturer and the owner to ensure that validation testing and data analysis are conducted in a technically sound manner without bias.

(e) To receive credit for lamp types other than low-pressure types, the owner shall demonstrate an equivalent germicidal dose through reactor validation testing.

(f) A validation report shall be submitted and approved by the department to receive disinfection credit.

(3) UV reactor monitoring.

(a) The owner shall monitor the UV reactors to determine if the reactors are operating within validated conditions as determined under subdivision E 7 c (2) of this section. This monitoring shall include UV intensity as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate, lamp status, and other parameters the department designates based on UV reactor operation. The owner shall verify the calibration of UV sensors and shall recalibrate sensors in accordance with a protocol approved by the department.

(b) To receive treatment credit for UV light, the owner shall treat at least 95% of the water delivered to the public during each month by the UV reactors operating within validated conditions for the required UV dose as described in subdivisions E 7 c (1) and E 7 c (2) of this section. The owner shall demonstrate compliance with this condition by the monitoring required under subdivision E 7 c (3) (a) of this section.

F. The owner shall comply with the applicable recordkeeping and reporting requirements described in 12VAC5-590-530, 12VAC5-590-531, 12VAC5-590-550, and 12VAC5-590-570.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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