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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department Of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
11/25/2020

12VAC5-590-410. Determination of compliance.

For the purposes of determining compliance with a PMCL or action level, the following criteria shall be used:

A. Bacteriological results. Compliance with the PMCL for coliform bacteria shall be determined as specified in 12VAC5-590-380 B. Repeat samples shall be used as a basis for determining compliance with these regulations.

B. Inorganic chemicals.

1. Antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, and thallium. Where the results of sampling for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium exceed the PMCL, the owner shall take a confirmation sample, at the same sampling point, within two weeks of notification of the analytical results of the first sample.

a. The results of the initial and confirmation samples shall be averaged to determine compliance with subdivision B 1 c of this subsection. The commissioner has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors.

b. The commissioner may require more frequent monitoring.

c. Compliance with antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, and thallium in Table 2.2 of 12VAC5-590-440 shall be determined based on the analytical result(s) obtained at each sampling point.

(1) Owners that are conducting monitoring more frequently than annually, compliance with the PMCL for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, and thallium is determined by a running annual average at each sampling point. If the average at any sampling point is greater than the PMCL, then the waterworks is out of compliance. If any one sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the waterworks is out of compliance immediately. Any sample below the method detection limit shall be calculated at zero for the purpose of determining the annual average. If an owner fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance (average concentration) shall be based on the total number of samples collected.

(2) Owners that are monitoring annually, or less frequently, the waterworks is not out of compliance with the PMCL for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, and thallium if the average of the original sample and a confirmation sample of a contaminant at any sampling point is greater than the PMCL. Owners of waterworks monitoring annually or less frequently whose sample result exceeds the PMCL shall begin quarterly sampling. The waterworks shall not be considered in violation of the PMCL until it has completed one year of quarterly sampling. However, if the confirmation sample is not collected, the waterworks is in violation of the PMCL for antimony, arsenic, asbestos, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cyanide (as free cyanide), chromium, fluoride, mercury, nickel, selenium, or thallium. If an owner fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance (average concentration) shall be based on the total number of samples collected.

2. Nitrate and nitrite. Compliance with the PMCL is determined based on one sample from each sampling point if the levels of these contaminants are below the PMCLs. Where nitrate or nitrite sample results exceed the PMCL, the owner shall take a confirmation sample from the same sampling point that exceeded the PMCL within 24 hours of the owner's receipt of the analytical results of the first sample. The results of the initial and confirmation sample shall be averaged to determine compliance with this subdivision. Owners unable to comply with the 24-hour sampling requirement shall immediately notify the consumers in the area served by the waterworks in accordance with 12VAC5-590-540. Owners exercising this option shall take and analyze a confirmation sample within two weeks of notification of the analytical results of the first sample. The commissioner may require more frequent monitoring. The commissioner has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors.

C. Organic chemicals.

1. VOCs and SOCs. A confirmation sample shall be required for positive results for contaminants listed in Table 2.3. The commissioner has the discretion to delete results of obvious sampling errors from this calculation.

a. The results of the initial and confirmation sample shall be averaged to determine the waterworks' compliance in accordance with subdivision C 1 b of this subsection.

b. Compliance with Table 2.3 shall be determined based on the analytical results obtained at each sampling point. Any samples below the detection limit shall be calculated as zero for the purposes of determining the annual average. (Note: Refer to detection definition at 12VAC5-590-370 B 2 h.) If an owner fails to collect the required number of samples, compliance (average concentration) will be based on the total number of samples collected.

(1) Owners that are conducting monitoring more frequently than annually, compliance is determined by a running annual average of all samples taken at each sampling point. If the annual average of any sampling point is greater than the PMCL, then the waterworks is out of compliance. If the initial sample or a subsequent sample would cause the annual average to be exceeded, then the waterworks is out of compliance immediately. Any samples below the detection limit shall be calculated as zero for purposes of determining the annual average. (Note: Refer to detection definition at 12VAC5-590-370 B 2 h.)

(2) If monitoring is conducted annually, or less frequently, the waterworks is not in violation if the average of the initial and confirmation sample is greater than the PMCL for that contaminant; however, the owner shall begin quarterly sampling. The waterworks will not be considered in violation of the PMCL until the owner has completed one year of quarterly sampling. If any sample will cause the running annual average to exceed the PMCL at any sampling point, the waterworks is immediately out of compliance with the PMCL.

2. Disinfectant residuals, disinfection byproducts and disinfection byproduct precursors. Compliance with 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 a through B 3 k is as follows:

a. General requirements.

(1) Where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the owner fails to monitor for TTHM, HAA5, or bromate, this failure to monitor will be treated as a monitoring violation for the entire period covered by the annual average. Where compliance is based on a running annual average of monthly or quarterly samples or averages and the owner's failure to monitor makes it impossible to determine compliance with MRDLs for chlorine and chloramines, this failure to monitor shall be treated as a monitoring violation for the entire period covered by the annual average.

(2) All samples taken and analyzed under subdivision C 2 of this section shall be included in determining compliance, even if that number is greater than the minimum required.

(3) If during the first year of monitoring under 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 b, any individual quarter's average will cause the running annual average of that waterworks to exceed the PMCL in Table 2.12 and Table 2.13, the waterworks is out of compliance at the end of that quarter.

b. Disinfection byproducts.

(1) TTHMs and HAA5.

(a) Running Annual Average. All waterworks using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water serving 10,000 or more persons shall comply with this section beginning January 1, 2002. All waterworks using surface water or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water serving less than 10,000 persons and all waterworks using groundwater not under the direct influence of surface water shall comply with this section beginning January 1, 2004. All waterworks shall comply with this section until the dates listed in 12VAC5-590-370 B e (3) (c).

(i) For waterworks monitoring quarterly, compliance with PMCLs in Table 2.13 shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of quarterly arithmetic averages of all samples collected by the owner as prescribed by 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 e (1).

(ii) For waterworks monitoring less frequently than quarterly, the owner demonstrates PMCL compliance if the average of samples taken that year under the provisions of 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 e (1) does not exceed the PMCLs in Table 2.13. If the average of these samples exceeds the PMCL, the owner shall increase monitoring to once per quarter per treatment plant and such a waterworks is not in violation of the PMCL until it has completed one year of quarterly monitoring, unless the result of fewer than four quarter of monitoring will cause the running annual average to exceed the PMCL, in which case the waterworks is in violation at the end of that quarter. Owners of waterworks required to increase monitoring frequency to quarterly monitoring shall calculate compliance by including the sample that triggered the increase monitoring plus the following three quarter of monitoring.

(iii) If the running annual arithmetic average of quarterly averages covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the PMCL in Table 2.12 and Table 2.13, the waterworks is in violation of the PMCL and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530.

(iv) If an owner fails to complete four consecutive quarters of monitoring, compliance with the PMCL in Table 2.13 for the last four-quarter compliance period shall be based on an average of the available data.

(b) Locational Running Annual Average (LRAA). All waterworks shall comply with this section beginning on the dates listed in 12VAC5-590-370 B e (3) (c).

(i) Owners of waterworks required to monitor quarterly shall calculate LRAAs for TTHM and HAA5 using monitoring results collected under 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 e (3) and determine that each LRAA does not exceed the PMCL in order to comply with PMCLs in Table 2.13. If the owner fails to complete four consecutive quarters of monitoring, the owner shall calculate compliance with the PMCL based on the average of the available data from the most recent four quarters. If the owner takes more than one sample per quarter at a monitoring location, the owner shall average all samples taken in the quarter at that location to determine a quarterly average to be used in the LRAA calculation.

(ii) Owners of waterworks required to monitor yearly or less frequently shall determine that each sample taken is less than the PMCL in order to determine compliance with PMCLs in Table 2.13. If any sample exceeds the PMCL, the owner shall comply with the requirements of 12VAC5–590-370 B 3 e (3) (g). If no sample exceeds the PMCL, the sample result for each monitoring location is considered the LRAA for that monitoring location.

(iii) Waterworks are in violation of the monitoring requirements for each quarter that a monitoring result would be used in calculating an LRAA if the owner fails to monitor.

(iv) Waterworks have exceeded the operational evaluation level at any monitoring location where the sum of the two previous quarters' TTHM results plus twice the current quarter's TTHM result, divided by four to determine an average, exceeds 0.080 mg/L, or where the sum of the two previous quarters' HAA5 results plus twice the current quarter's HAA5 result, divided by four to determine an average, exceeds 0.060 mg/L.

((a)) Owners of waterworks that exceed the operational evaluation level shall conduct an operational evaluation and submit a written report of the evaluation to the commissioner no later than 90 days after being notified of the analytical result that causes the waterworks to exceed the operational evaluation level. The written report shall be made available to the public upon request.

((b)) The operational evaluation report shall include an examination of waterworks treatment and distribution operational practices, including storage tank operations, excess storage capacity, distribution system flushing, changes in sources or source water quality, and treatment changes or problems that may contribute to TTHM and HAA5 formation and what steps could be considered to minimize future exceedances.

((c)) The owner may request and the commissioner may allow waterworks to limit the scope of the evaluation if the owner is able to identify the cause of the operational evaluation level exceedance. The request to limit the scope of the evaluation does not extend the schedule in paragraph ((a)) of this section for submitting the written report. The commissioner shall approve this limited scope of evaluation in writing and the owner shall keep that approval with the completed report.

(2) Bromate. Compliance shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of monthly samples (or, for months in which the waterworks takes more than one sample, the average of all samples taken during the month) collected by the owner as prescribed by 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 g. If the average of samples covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the PMCL in Table 2.13, the waterworks is in violation of the PMCL and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to 12VAC5-590-540, in addition to reporting to the commissioner pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530. If an owner fails to complete 12 consecutive months' monitoring, compliance with the PMCL for the last four-quarter compliance period shall be based on an average of the available data.

(3) Chlorite. Compliance shall be based on an arithmetic average of each three sample set taken in the distribution system as prescribed by 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 f (1) (a), (b) and (c). If the arithmetic average of any three sample set exceeds the PMCL in Table 2.13, the waterworks is in violation of the PMCL and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to 12VAC5-590-540, in addition to reporting to the commissioner pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530.

c. Disinfectant residuals.

(1) Chlorine and chloramines.

(a) Compliance shall be based on a running annual arithmetic average, computed quarterly, of monthly averages of all samples collected by the waterworks under 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 h (1) (a). If the average covering any consecutive four-quarter period exceeds the MRDL in Table 2.12, the waterworks is in violation of the MRDL and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to 12VAC5-590-540, in addition to reporting to the commissioner pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530.

(b) In cases where waterworks switch between the use of chlorine and chloramines for residual disinfection during the year, compliance shall be determined by including together all monitoring results of both chlorine and chloramines in calculating compliance. Reports submitted pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530 shall clearly indicate which residual disinfectant was analyzed for each sample.

(2) Chlorine dioxide.

(a) Acute violations. Compliance shall be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the owner under 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 h (2) (a). If any daily sample taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceeds the MRDL in Table 2.12, and on the following day one (or more) of the three samples taken in the distribution system exceed the MRDL, the waterworks is in violation of the MRDL and the owner shall take immediate corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to the procedures for Tier 1 conditions in 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner in pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530. Failure to take samples in the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system will also be considered an MRDL violation and the owner shall notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for Tier 1 conditions in 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner in pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530.

(b) Nonacute violations. Compliance shall be based on consecutive daily samples collected by the owner under 12VAC5-590-370 B 3 h (2) (a). If any two consecutive daily samples taken at the entrance to the distribution system exceed the MRDL in Table 2.12 and all distribution system samples taken are below the MRDL, the waterworks is in violation of the MRDL and the owner shall take corrective action to lower the level of chlorine dioxide below the MRDL at the point of sampling and shall notify the public pursuant to the procedures for Tier 2 conditions in 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner in pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530. Failure to monitor at the entrance to the distribution system the day following an exceedance of the chlorine dioxide MRDL at the entrance to the distribution system is also an MRDL violation and the owner shall notify the public of the violation in accordance with the provisions for Tier 2 conditions in 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner in pursuant to 12VAC5-590-530.

d. Disinfection byproduct precursors (DBPP). Compliance shall be determined as specified by 12VAC5-590-420 H 3. Owners may begin monitoring to determine whether Step 1 TOC removals can be met 12 months prior to the compliance date for the waterworks. This monitoring is not required and failure to monitor during this period is not a violation. However, any owner that does not monitor during this period, and then determines in the first 12 months after the compliance date that it is not able to meet the Step 1 requirements in 12VAC5-590-420 H 2 b and shall therefore apply for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, is not eligible for retroactive approval of alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements as allowed pursuant to 12VAC5-590-420 H 2 c and is in violation. Owners may apply for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements any time after the compliance date. For waterworks required to meet Step 1 TOC removals, if the value calculated under 12VAC5-590-420 H 3 a (4) is less than 1.00, the waterworks is in violation of the treatment technique requirements and the owner shall notify the public pursuant to 12VAC5-590-540 in addition to reporting to the commissioner pursuant to 12VAC5-90-530.

D. Radiological results (gross alpha, combined radium-226 and radium-228, uranium and man-made radioactivity). Compliance with the radiological PMCLs shall be in accordance with 12VAC5-590-370 D 3 c. PMCLs are indicated in subsection B of Table 2.5. Sampling for radiological analysis shall be in compliance with 12VAC5-590-370 D 1 and D 2. Furthermore, compliance shall be determined by rounding off results to the same number of significant figures as the PMCL for the substance in question.

E. Reserved.

F. Turbidity. The requirements in this subsection apply to filtered waterworks until June 29, 1993. The requirements in this section apply to unfiltered waterworks with surface water sources or groundwater sources under the direct influence of surface water that are required to install filtration equipment until June 29, 1993, or until filtration is installed, whichever is later. When a sample exceeds the PMCL for turbidity a confirmation sample shall be collected for analysis as soon as possible. In cases where a turbidimeter is required at the waterworks, the preferable resampling time is within one hour of the initial sampling. The repeat sample shall be the sample used for the purpose of calculating the monthly average. Compliance for public notification purposes shall be based on the monthly averages of the daily samples. However, public notification is also required if the average of samples taken on two consecutive days exceeds five NTU.

G. All analyses for PMCL and action level compliance determinations shall be consistent with current Environmental Protection Agency Regulations found at 40 CFR Part 141.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-18-004.08 § 2.8, eff. August 1, 1991; amended, Volume 09, Issue 17, eff. June 23, 1993; Volume 12, Issue 02, eff. November 15, 1995; Volume 18, Issue 19, eff. July 3, 2002; Volume 19, Issue 24, eff. September 10, 2003; Volume 21, Issue 13, eff. April 6, 2005; Volume 22, Issue 15, eff. May 3, 2006; Volume 22, Issue 24, eff. September 6, 2006; Volume 25, Issue 05, eff. December 10, 2008; Volume 27, Issue 01, eff. October 13, 2010; Volume 28, Issue 05, eff. December 7, 2011.

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