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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department of Health
Chapter 590. Waterworks Regulations
9/28/2022

12VAC5-590-411. Disinfection byproduct precursors, disinfection byproducts, and maximum residual disinfection level treatment techniques.

A. Treatment technique for control of DBPPs.

1. Applicability.

a. The owner of a community waterworks or a NTNC shall comply with treatment techniques for the control of DBPPs.

b. A waterworks that uses a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both using conventional filtration treatment shall operate with enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening to achieve the TOC percentage removal levels specified in subdivision A 2 of this section unless the waterworks meets at least one of the alternative compliance criteria listed in subdivision A 1 c or A 1 d of this section.

c. Alternative compliance criteria for enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening waterworks. A waterworks that uses a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both provided with conventional filtration treatment may use the alternative compliance criteria in subdivisions A 1 c (1) through A 1 c (6) of this section to comply with this section instead of complying with subdivision A 2 of this section. The owner shall comply with monitoring requirements in 12VAC5-590-374 I.

(1) The waterworks' source water TOC level is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as an RAA.

(2) The waterworks' treated water TOC level is less than 2.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as an RAA.

(3) The waterworks' source water TOC level is less than 4.0 mg/L, calculated quarterly as an RAA; the source water alkalinity is greater than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), calculated quarterly as an RAA; and no TTHM and HAA5 LRAAs are greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively.

(4) No TTHM and HAA5 LRAAs are greater than 0.040 mg/L and 0.030 mg/L, respectively, and the waterworks uses only chlorine for primary disinfection and maintains a residual in the distribution system.

(5) The waterworks' source water SUVA, before any treatment and measured monthly, is less than or equal to 2.0 liters per milligram-meter (L/mg-m), calculated quarterly as an RAA.

(6) The waterworks' finished water SUVA, measured monthly, is less than or equal to 2.0 L/mg-m, calculated quarterly as an RAA.

d. Additional alternative compliance criteria for softening waterworks. A waterworks practicing enhanced softening that cannot achieve the TOC removals required by subdivision A 2 b of this section may use the alternative compliance criteria in subdivisions A 1 c (1) and A 1 c (2) instead of complying with subdivision A 2 of this section. A waterworks shall comply with monitoring requirements in 12VAC5-590-374 J.

(1) Softening that results in lowering the treated water alkalinity to less than 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), measured monthly and calculated quarterly as an RAA.

(2) Softening that results in removing at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), measured monthly and calculated quarterly as an RAA.

2. Enhanced coagulation and enhanced softening performance requirements.

a. A waterworks shall achieve the percentage reduction of TOC specified in subdivision A 2 b of this section between the source water and the CFE, unless the department approves an owner's request for alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under subdivision A 2 c of this section.

Required Step 1 TOC reductions, indicated in Table 411.1, are based upon specified source water parameters. A waterworks practicing softening is required to meet the Step 1 TOC reductions in the far-right column (source water alkalinity greater than 120 mg/L) for the specified source water TOC.

b. Required Step 1 TOC reductions are indicated in Table 411.1, Required Percentage Removals of TOC.

TABLE 411.1
Required Percentage Removals of TOCa,b

SOURCE WATER TOC, mg/L

SOURCE WATER ALKALINITY, mg/L as CaCO3

0 - 60

>60 - 120

>120c

>2.0 - 4.0

35.0%

25.0%

15.0%

>4.0 - 8.0

45.0%

35.0%

25.0%

>8.0

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

aA waterworks meeting at least one of the conditions in subdivisions A 1 c (1) through A 1 c (6) of this section is not required to operate with enhanced coagulation.

bA waterworks utilizing softening and meeting one of the alternative compliance criteria in subdivision A 1 d of this section is not required to operate with enhanced softening.

cA waterworks practicing softening shall meet the TOC removal requirements in this column.

c. A waterworks that uses a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both with conventional treatment that cannot achieve the Step 1 TOC removals required by subdivision A 2 b due to water quality parameters or operational constraints shall apply to the department within three months of failure to achieve the TOC removals required by subdivision A 2 b of this section for approval of alternative minimum TOC (Step 2) removal requirements submitted by the owner. If the department approves the alternative minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, then the department may make those requirements retroactive for the purposes of determining compliance. Until the department approves the alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements, the waterworks shall meet the Step 1 TOC removals contained in subdivision A 2 b of this section.

d. Alternate minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements. Applications made to the department by the owner of a waterworks using enhanced coagulation for approval of alternative minimum TOC removal (Step 2) requirements under subdivision A 2 c of this section shall include, at a minimum, results of bench-scale or pilot-scale testing conducted under subdivision A 2 d (1) of this section. The submitted bench-scale or pilot-scale testing shall be used to determine the alternate enhanced coagulation level.

(1) Alternate enhanced coagulation level is defined as coagulation at a coagulant dose and pH as determined by the method described in subdivisions A 2 d (1) through A 2 d (5) of this section so that an incremental addition of 10 mg/L of alum (or equivalent amount of ferric salt) results in a TOC removal of equal to or less than 0.3 mg/L. The percentage removal of TOC at this point on the "TOC removal versus coagulant dose" curve is then defined as the minimum TOC removal required for the waterworks. Once approved by the department, this minimum requirement supersedes the minimum TOC removal requirements listed in Table 411.1. This requirement shall be effective until the department approves a new value based on the results of a new bench-scale and pilot-scale test. Failure to achieve the alternative minimum TOC removal levels set by the department is a violation of this section.

(2) Bench-scale or pilot-scale testing of enhanced coagulation shall be conducted by using representative water samples and adding 10 mg/L increments of alum (or equivalent amounts of ferric salt) until the pH is reduced to a level less than or equal to the enhanced coagulation Step 2 target pH shown in Table 411.2.

TABLE 411.2
Enhanced Coagulation

ALKALINITY (mg/L as CaCO3)

TARGET pH

0 - 60

5.5

>60 -120

6.3

>120 - 240

7.0

>240

7.5

(3) For source waters with alkalinities of less than 60 mg/L for which addition of small amounts of alum or equivalent addition of iron coagulant drives the pH below 5.5 before significant TOC removal occurs, the waterworks shall add necessary chemicals to maintain the pH between 5.3 and 5.7 in samples until the TOC removal of 0.3 mg/L per 10 mg/L alum added (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant) is reached.

(4) The waterworks may operate at any coagulant dose or pH necessary (consistent with other sections of this chapter) to achieve the minimum TOC percentage removal approved under subdivision A 2 c of this section.

(5) If the TOC removal is consistently less than 0.3 mg/L of TOC per 10 mg/L of incremental alum dose at all dosages of alum (or equivalent addition of iron coagulant), then the water is deemed to contain TOC not amenable to enhanced coagulation. The owner may then apply to the department for a waiver of enhanced coagulation requirements.

3. Compliance calculations.

a. A waterworks that uses a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both other than those identified in subdivision A 1 b or A 1 c of this section shall comply with requirements contained in subdivision A 2 b or A 2 c of this section. The owner shall calculate compliance quarterly, beginning after the waterworks has collected 12 months of data, by determining an annual average using the following method:

(1) Determine actual monthly TOC percentage removal, equal to:

[1-(treated water TOC/source water TOC)] X 100.

(2) Determine the required monthly TOC percentage removal (from either Table 411.1 or from subdivision A 2 c of this section).

(3) Divide the value in subdivision A 3 a (1) of this section by the value in subdivision A 3 a (2) of this section.

(4) Add together the results of subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section for the last 12 months and divide by 12.

(5) If the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (4) of this section is less than 1.00, then the waterworks is not in compliance with the TOC percentage removal requirements.

b. The owner may use the provisions in subdivisions A 3 b (1) through A 3 b (5) of this section instead of the calculations in subdivisions A 3 a (1) through A 3 a (5) of this section to determine compliance with TOC percentage removal requirements.

(1) In any month that the waterworks' treated or source water TOC level is less than 2.0 mg/L, the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (instead of the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision A 3 a of this section.

(2) In any month that a waterworks practicing softening removes at least 10 mg/L of magnesium hardness (as CaCO3), the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (instead of the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision A 3 a of this section.

(3) In any month that the waterworks source water SUVA before any treatment is equal to or less than 2.0 L/mg-m, the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (instead of the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision A 3 a of this section.

(4) In any month that the waterworks finished water SUVA is equal to or less than 2.0 L/mg-m, the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (instead of the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision A 3 a of this section.

(5) In any month that the waterworks practicing enhanced softening lowers the alkalinity below 60 mg/L (as CaCO3), the waterworks may assign a monthly value of 1.0 (instead of the value calculated in subdivision A 3 a (3) of this section) when calculating compliance under the provisions of subdivision A 3 a of this section.

c. A waterworks that uses a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both and uses conventional treatment may also comply with the requirements of this section by meeting the criteria in subdivision A 1 b or A 1 c of this section.

4. Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening is the treatment technique required to control the level of DBP precursors in water treatment and distribution system for a waterworks using a surface water source, a GUDI source, or both and using conventional treatment.

B. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the PMCLs for DBPs shown in Table 340.6 are listed in this subsection:

1. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the PMCLs for bromate and chlorite:

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

Bromate

Control of ozone treatment process to reduce production of bromate

Chlorite

Control of treatment processes to reduce disinfectant demand and control of disinfection treatment processes to reduce disinfectant levels

2. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the RAA PMCLs for TTHM and HAA5:

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

TTHM and HAA5

Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening or GAC10, with chlorine as the primary and residual disinfectant

3. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the LRAA PMCLs for TTHM and HAA5 for a waterworks that disinfects its source water:

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

TTHM and HAA5

Enhanced coagulation or enhanced softening, plus GAC10; or NF with a molecular weight cutoff fewer than or equal to 1,000 Daltons; or GAC20

4. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the LRAA MCLs for TTHM and HAA5 for a a consecutive waterworks and applies only to the disinfected water that a consecutive waterworks buys or otherwise receives:

DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT

BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY

TTHM and HAA5

A waterworks serving equal to or greater than 10,000 people: Improved distribution system and storage tank management to reduce residence time, plus the use of chloramines for residual disinfectant maintenance

A waterworks serving fewer than 10,000 people: Improved distribution system and storage tank management to reduce residence time

C. The BAT, treatment techniques, or other means available for achieving compliance with the MRDLs identified in Table 340.7 are the controls of treatment processes to reduce disinfectant demand and controls of disinfection treatment processes to reduce disinfectant levels.

Statutory Authority

§§ 32.1-12 and 32.1-170 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 20, eff. June 23, 2021.

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