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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 12. Health
Agency 5. Department Of Health
Chapter 90. Regulations for Disease Reporting and Control
2/28/2021

12VAC5-90-80. List of diseases that shall be reported.

A. Reportable disease list. The board declares suspected or confirmed cases of the following named diseases, toxic effects, and conditions to be reportable by the persons enumerated in 12VAC5-90-90. Conditions identified by an asterisk (*) require immediate communication to the local health department by the most rapid means available upon suspicion or confirmation, as defined in subsection C of this section. Other conditions should be reported within three days of suspected or confirmed diagnosis, unless otherwise specified in this section. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome shall be reported as specified in subsection E of this section.

Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)

*Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Arboviral infections (e.g., CHIK, dengue, EEE, LAC, SLE, WNV, Zika)

Babesiosis (Babesia spp.)

*Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

*Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter spp.)

Candida auris, infection or colonization

Carbapenemase-producing organism, infection or colonization

Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

Chickenpox (Varicella virus)

Chlamydia trachomatis infection

*Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139)

*Coronavirus infection, severe

Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium spp.)

Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora spp.)

*Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

*Disease caused by an agent that may have been used as a weapon

Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis (Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

Giardiasis (Giardia spp.)

Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)

Granuloma inguinale (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)

*Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

*Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B (acute and chronic)

Hepatitis C (acute and chronic)

Hepatitis, other acute viral

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

Influenza, confirmed

*Influenza-associated deaths if younger than 18 years of age

Lead, blood levels

Legionellosis (Legionella spp.)

Leprosy (Hansen's disease) (Mycobacterium leprae)

Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans)

Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)

Lyme disease (Borrelia spp.)

Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.)

*Measles (Rubeola)

*Meningococcal disease (Neisseria meningitidis)

Mumps

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)

Ophthalmia neonatorum

*Outbreaks, all (including foodborne, health care-associated, occupational, toxic substance-related, waterborne, and any other outbreak)

*Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis)

*Plague (Yersinia pestis)

*Poliovirus infection, including poliomyelitis

*Psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)

*Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

*Rabies, human and animal

Rabies treatment, post-exposure

*Rubella, including congenital rubella syndrome

Salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection

Shigellosis (Shigella spp.)

*Smallpox (Variola virus)

Spotted fever rickettsiosis (Rickettsia spp.)

Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive or toxic shock

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, invasive if younger than five years of age

Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) report *congenital, *primary, *secondary, and other

Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)

Toxic substance-related illness

Trichinosis (Trichinellosis) (Trichinella spiralis)

*Tuberculosis, active disease (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex)

Tuberculosis infection

*Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

*Typhoid/Paratyphoid infection (Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi)

*Unusual occurrence of disease of public health concern

*Vaccinia, disease or adverse event

Vancomycin-intermediate or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection

*Vibriosis (Vibrio spp.)

*Viral hemorrhagic fever

*Yellow fever

Yersiniosis (Yersinia spp.)

B. Conditions reportable by directors of laboratories. Laboratories shall report all test results indicative of and specific for the diseases, infections, microorganisms, conditions, and toxic effects specified in this subsection for humans. Such tests include microbiological culture, isolation, or identification; assays for specific antibodies; and identification of specific antigens, toxins, or nucleic acid sequences. Additional condition-specific requirements are noted in this subsection and subsection D of this section. Conditions identified by an asterisk (*) require immediate communication to the local health department by the most rapid means available upon suspicion or confirmation, as defined in subsection C of this section. Other conditions should be reported within three days of suspected or confirmed diagnosis.

Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)

*Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Arboviral infection, for example, CHIK, dengue, EEE, LAC, SLE, WNV, or Zika

Babesiosis (Babesia spp.)

*Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

*Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter spp.)

Candida auris - Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

Carbapenemase-producing organism - Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

Chickenpox (Varicella virus)

Chlamydia trachomatis infection

*Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139)

*Coronavirus infection, severe (e.g., SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV)

Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium spp.)

Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora spp.)

*Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis (Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

Giardiasis (Giardia spp.)

Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) - Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

*Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

*Hepatitis A

Hepatitis B (acute and chronic) - For All hepatitis B patients, also report available results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Hepatitis C (acute and chronic) - For all patients with any positive HCV test, also report all results of HCV viral load tests, including undetectable viral loads and report available results of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Hepatitis, other acute viral - Any finding indicative of acute infection with hepatitis D, E, or other cause of viral hepatitis. For any reportable hepatitis finding, submit all available results from the hepatitis panel.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection - For HIV-infected patients, report all results of CD4 and HIV viral load tests, including undetectable viral loads. For HIV-infected patients, report all HIV genetic nucleotide sequence data associated with HIV drug resistance tests by electronic submission. For children younger than three years of age, report all tests regardless of the test findings (e.g., negative or positive).

Influenza, confirmed - By culture, antigen detection by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), or nucleic acid detection.

Lead, blood levels - All lead results from tests of venous or capillary blood performed by a laboratory certified by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in accordance with 42 USC § 263a, the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment of 1988 (CLIA-certified).

Legionellosis (Legionella spp.)

Leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans)

Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes), invasive or if associated with miscarriage or stillbirth from placental or fetal tissue

Lyme disease (Borrelia spp.)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.)

*Measles (Rubeola)

*Meningococcal disease (Neisseria meningitidis), invasive - Include identification of gram-negative diplococci.

Mumps

*Mycobacterial diseases - (See 12VAC5-90-225 B) Report any of the following:

1. Acid fast bacilli;

2. M. tuberculosis complex or any other mycobacteria;

3. Antimicrobial susceptibility results for M. tuberculosis complex.

*Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis)

*Plague (Yersinia pestis)

*Poliovirus infection

*Psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)

*Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

*Rabies, human and animal

*Rubella

Salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection

Shigellosis (Shigella spp.)

*Smallpox (Variola virus)

Spotted fever rickettsiosis (Rickettsia spp.)

Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive or toxic shock

Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, invasive if younger than five years of age

*Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

Toxic substance-related illness - By blood or urine laboratory findings above the normal range, including heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial-type solvents and gases. When applicable and available, report speciation of metals when blood or urine levels are elevated in order to differentiate the chemical species (elemental, organic, or inorganic).

Trichinosis (Trichinellosis) (Trichinella spiralis)

Tuberculosis infection

*Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

*Typhoid/Paratyphoid infection (Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B, Salmonella Paratyphi C)

*Vaccinia, disease or adverse event

Vancomycin-intermediate or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection - Include available antimicrobial susceptibility findings in report.

*Vibriosis (Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae, Grimontia hollisae), other than toxigenic Vibrio cholera O1 or O139, which are reportable as cholera

*Viral hemorrhagic fever

*Yellow fever

Yersiniosis (Yersinia spp.)

C. Reportable diseases requiring rapid communication. Certain of the diseases in the list of reportable diseases because of their extremely contagious nature, potential for greater harm, or availability of a specific intervention that must be administered in a timely manner require immediate identification and control. Reporting of persons confirmed or suspected of having these diseases, listed in this subsection, shall be made immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone to the local health department. (These same diseases are also identified by an asterisk (*) in subsections A and B, where applicable, of this section.)

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139)

Coronavirus infection, severe

Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

Disease caused by an agent that may have been used as a weapon

Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Hepatitis A

Influenza-associated deaths if younger than 18 years of age

Influenza A, novel virus

Measles (Rubeola virus)

Meningococcal disease (Neisseria meningitidis)

Outbreaks, all

Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis)

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Poliovirus infection, including poliomyelitis

Psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Rabies, human and animal

Rubella, including congenital rubella syndrome

Smallpox (Variola virus)

Syphilis, congenital, primary, and secondary (Treponema pallidum)

Tuberculosis, active disease (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex)

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Typhoid/Paratyphoid infection (Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi (all types))

Unusual occurrence of disease of public health concern

Vaccinia, disease or adverse event

Vibriosis (Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae, Grimontia hollisae), other than toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139, which are reportable as cholera

Viral hemorrhagic fever

Yellow fever

D. Submission of initial isolate or other specimen for further public health testing. A laboratory identifying evidence of any of the conditions in this subsection shall notify the local health department of the positive culture or other positive test result within the timeframes specified in subsection B of this section and submit the initial isolate (preferred) or other initial specimen to the Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services or other public health laboratory where specified in this subsection within seven days of identification. All specimens must be identified with the patient and physician information required in 12VAC5-90-90 B.

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)

Brucellosis (Brucella sp.)

Candida auris

Candida haemulonii

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Cholera (Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139)

Coronavirus infection, severe (e.g., SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV)

Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

Haemophilus influenzae infection, invasive

Influenza, unsubtypeable

Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)

Meningococcal disease (Neisseria meningitidis)

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Poliovirus infection

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Salmonellosis (Salmonella spp.)

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection (Laboratories that identify a Shiga toxin but do not perform simultaneous culture for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli should forward all positive stool specimens or positive enrichment broths to the Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services for confirmation and further characterization.)

Shigellosis (Shigella spp.)

Streptococcal disease, Group A, invasive

Tuberculosis (A laboratory identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (see 12VAC5-90-225) shall submit a representative and viable sample of the initial culture to the Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services or other laboratory designated by the board to receive such specimen.)

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Typhoid/Paratyphoid infection (Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi (all types))

Vancomycin-intermediate or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection

Vibriosis (Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae, Grimontia hollisae)

Yersiniosis (Yersinia spp.)

Other diseases as may be requested by the health department.

E. Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Neonatal abstinence syndrome shall be reported by physicians and directors of medical care facilities when a newborn has been diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition characterized by clinical signs of withdrawal from exposure to prescribed or illicit drugs. Reports shall be submitted within one month of diagnosis by entering the information into the Department of Health's online Confidential Morbidity Report portal (http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/clinicians).

F. Outbreaks. The occurrence of outbreaks or clusters of any illness that may represent a group expression of an illness that may be of public health concern shall be reported to the local health department immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone.

G. Toxic substance-related illnesses. All toxic substance-related illnesses, including pesticide and heavy metal poisoning or illness resulting from exposure to an occupational dust or fiber or radioactive substance, shall be reported.

If such illness is verified or suspected and presents an emergency or a serious threat to public health or safety, the report of such illness shall be made immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone.

H. Unusual occurrence of disease of public health concern. Unusual or emerging conditions of public health concern shall be reported to the local health department immediately by the most rapid means available, preferably by telephone. In addition, the commissioner or the commissioner's designee may establish surveillance systems for diseases or conditions that are not on the list of reportable diseases. Such surveillance may be established to identify cases (delineate the magnitude of the situation), to identify the mode of transmission and risk factors for the disease, and to identify and implement appropriate action to protect public health. Any person reporting information at the request of the department for special surveillance or other epidemiological studies shall be immune from liability as provided by § 32.1-38 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 32.1-42 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR355-28-100 § 3.1, eff. July 1, 1993; amended, Volume 15, Issue 06, eff. January 6, 1999; Volume 18, Issue 09, eff. December 18, 2001; Volume 20, Issue 21, eff. July 28, 2004; Volume 23, Issue 15, eff. May 2, 2007; Volume 25, Issue 11, eff. March 4, 2009; Errata, 25:12 VA.R. 2293 February 16, 2009; amended, Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 13, eff. March 28, 2011; Volume 33, Issue 02, eff. October 20, 2016; Volume 34, Issue 07, eff. December 27, 2017; Errata, 34:8 VA.R. 831 December 11, 2017; Volume 35, Issue 04, eff. November 14, 2018; amended Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 09, eff.

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