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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 16. Labor And Employment
Agency 20. Apprenticeship Council
Chapter 21. Regulations Governing the Administration of Apprenticeship Programs in the Commonwealth of Virginia

16VAC20-21-50. Standards of apprenticeship programs.

A. To be eligible for approval and registration by the department, an apprenticeship program must have an organized written plan (i.e., specific program standards) embodying the terms and conditions of employment, training, and supervision of one or more apprentices in an apprenticeable occupation as defined in this chapter and subscribed to by a sponsor who has undertaken to carry out the apprentice training program.

B. The program standards in the written plan must contain provisions that address:

1. The employment and training of the apprentice in a skilled occupation.

2. The term of apprenticeship, which for an individual apprentice may be measured either through the completion of the industry standard for on-the-job learning (at least 2,000 hours) (time-based approach), the attainment of competency (competency-based approach), or a blend of the time-based and competency-based approaches (hybrid approach).

a. The time-based approach measures skill acquisition through the individual apprentice's completion of at least 2,000 hours of on-the-job learning as described in a work process schedule.

b. The competency-based approach measures skill acquisition through the individual apprentice's successful demonstration of acquired skills and knowledge, as verified by the program sponsor. Programs utilizing this approach must still require apprentices to complete an on-the-job learning component of registered apprenticeship. The program standards must address how on-the-job learning will be integrated into the program, describe competencies, and identify an appropriate means of testing and evaluation for such competencies.

c. The hybrid approach measures the individual apprentice's skill acquisition through a combination of specified minimum number of hours of on-the-job learning and the successful demonstration of competency as described in a work process schedule.

d. The determination of the appropriate approach for the program standards is made by the program sponsor, subject to approval by the department of the determination as appropriate to the apprenticeable occupation for which the program standards are registered.

3. An outline of the work processes in which the apprentice will receive supervised work experience and training on the job and the allocation of the approximate amount of time to be spent in each major process.

4. Organized, related instruction in technical subjects related to the occupation. A minimum of 144 hours for each year of apprenticeship is recommended. This instruction in technical subjects may be accomplished through media such as classroom, occupational or industry courses, electronic media, or other instruction approved by the department. Every apprenticeship instructor must:

a. Meet the Virginia Community College System requirements for an apprenticeship-related instruction instructor, or be a subject matter expert, who is an individual, such as a journeyworker, who is recognized within an industry as having expertise in a specific occupation; and

b. Have training in teaching techniques and adult learning styles, which may occur before or after the apprenticeship instructor has started to provide the related technical instruction.

5. A progressively increasing schedule of wages to be paid to the apprentice consistent with the skill acquired. The entry wage must not be less than the minimum wage prescribed by the Fair Labor Standards Act (29 USC § 206(a)(1)), where applicable, unless a higher wage is required by another federal or state statute, by regulation, or by a collective bargaining agreement.

6. Periodic review and evaluation of the apprentice's performance on the job and in related instruction, and the maintenance of appropriate progress records.

7. A numeric ratio of apprentices to journeyworkers consistent with proper supervision, training, safety, and continuity of employment, and applicable provisions in collective bargaining agreements, except where such ratios are expressly prohibited by the collective bargaining agreements. The ratio language must be specific and clearly described as to its application to the job site, workforce, department, or plant.

8. Provisions concerning the ratio of apprentices to journeyworkers.

a. The minimum numeric ratio of apprentices to journeyworkers shall be 1:1 except as noted in subdivision 9 of this subsection. As part of their apprenticeship standards, individual program sponsors shall propose a ratio of apprentices to journeyworkers consistent with (i) proper supervision training, safety, and continuity of employment; (ii) applicable provisions in collective bargaining agreements; and (iii) applicable requirements of recognized licensing boards or authorities.

b. The department will review and approve all ratio proposals based on the explanation and justification provided by each program sponsor. Consideration will be given, but not limited to, the following factors:

(1) Evidence of ability to assure proper supervision, training, safety, and continuity of employment under the proposed ratio;

(2) The specific nature of the industry and occupation involved;

(3) Proposed hiring or upgrading of minorities, females, older workers, dislocated workers, ex-offenders, the handicapped, and veterans; or

(4) Evidence of ability to train under the proposed ratio.

If a ratio proposal is disapproved by the department, the sponsor may appeal the decision in writing to the council. The decision of the council shall be final.

9. Provisions concerning Davis-Bacon job sites.

a. Apprenticeship ratio on Davis-Bacon job sites. Effective July 1, 1993, the minimum numeric ratio of apprentices to journeyworkers for individual program sponsors and for individual contractors signatory to joint and nonjoint apprenticeship programs performing work under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 USC § 3141 et seq.) and related federal prevailing wage laws shall be job site specific and shall be as follows:

(1) One apprentice to the first journeyworker (1:1).

(2) Two apprentices to the first two journeyworkers (2:2).

(3) Two apprentices to the first three journeyworkers (2:3).

(4) Two apprentices to the first four journeyworkers (2:4).

(5) Two apprentices to the first five journeyworkers (2:5).

(6) Three apprentices to the first six journeyworkers (3:6).

(7) One additional apprentice for each two journeyworkers thereafter (3:7, 4:8, 5:10, 5:11, 6:12, etc.).

The ratio for service trucks on Davis-Bacon job sites shall be one apprentice to one journeyworker.

Bids submitted for Davis-Bacon work on or after July 1, 1993, must observe the minimum ratio requirements.

These ratio provisions shall apply until either the Congress of the United States or the USDOL mandates different or uniform ratios for Davis-Bacon work.

b. Other requirements related to Davis-Bacon job sites. Sponsors shall notify the department within 30 days of receipt of a citation alleging a violation of the Davis-Bacon Act affecting any apprentice. The notice must be in a form specified by the policies of the department. Failure to report citations shall be an omission for which the department may consider requiring a remedial action plan or deregistration of the sponsor's program.

The department may deregister sponsors who receive final orders of the USDOL or the courts confirming willful or repeated violations of the Davis-Bacon Act affecting registered apprentices.

10. A probationary period reasonable in relation to the full apprenticeship term, with full credit given for such period toward completion of apprenticeship. The probationary period cannot exceed 25% of the length of the program or one year, whichever is shorter.

11. Adequate and safe equipment and facilities for training and supervision, and safety training for apprentices on the job and in related instruction.

12. The minimum qualifications required by a sponsor for persons entering the apprenticeship program, with an eligible starting age not less than 16 years.

13. The placement of an apprentice under a written apprenticeship agreement that meets the requirements of applicable federal or state statutes or regulation of the department. The agreement must directly or by reference incorporate the standards of the program as part of the agreement.

14. The granting of advanced standing or credit for demonstrated competency, acquired experience, training, or skills for all applicants equally, with commensurate wages for any progression step so granted.

15. The transfer of an apprentice between apprenticeship programs and within an apprenticeship program, which must be based on agreement between the apprentice and the affected apprenticeship committees or program sponsors and must comply with all of the following requirements:

a. The transferring apprentice must be provided a transcript of related instruction and on-the-job learning by the committee or program sponsor.

b. Transfer must be to the same occupation.

c. A new apprenticeship agreement must be executed when the transfer occurs between program sponsors.

16. Assurance of qualified training personnel and adequate supervision on the job.

17. Recognition for successful completion of apprenticeship evidenced by an appropriate certificate issued by the department.

18. Program standards that utilize the competency-based or hybrid approach for progression through an apprenticeship and that choose to issue interim credentials, which must (i) clearly identify the interim credentials, (ii) demonstrate how these credentials link to the components of the apprenticeable occupation, and (iii) establish the process for assessing an individual apprentice's demonstration of competency associated with the particular interim credential. Further, interim credentials must only be issued for recognized components of an apprenticeable occupation, thereby linking interim credentials specifically to the knowledge, skills, and abilities associated with those components of the apprenticeable occupation.

19. Identification of the department as the registering agency.

20. Provision for the registration, cancellation, and deregistration of the program, and for the prompt submission of any program standard modification or amendment to the department for approval.

21. Provision for the registration of apprenticeship agreements modifications and amendments; notice to the department of persons who have successfully completed apprenticeship programs; and notice of transfers, suspensions, and cancellations of apprenticeship agreements and a statement of the reasons therefore.

22. The authority for the cancellation of an apprenticeship agreement during the probationary period by either party without stated cause. Cancellation during the probationary period will not have an adverse impact on the sponsor's completion rate.

23. Compliance with 29 CFR Part 30, including the equal opportunity pledge prescribed in 29 CFR 30(b); an affirmative action plan complying with 29 CFR 30.4; and a method for the selection of apprentices authorized by 29 CFR 30.5, or compliance with parallel requirements contained in a state plan for equal opportunity in apprenticeship adopted in conformity with 29 CFR Part 30 and approved by the department. The apprenticeship standards must also include a statement that the program will be conducted, operated, and administered in conformity with applicable provisions of 29 CFR Part 30, as amended, or, if applicable, an approved state plan for equal opportunity in apprenticeship.

24. Contact information, including name, address, telephone number, and email address if appropriate, for the appropriate individual with authority under the program to receive, process, and make disposition of complaints.

25. Recording and maintenance of all records concerning apprenticeship as may be required by the department or by law.

Statutory Authority

§ 40.1-118 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 31, Issue 1, eff. October 8, 2014.

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