Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 18. Professional And Occupational Licensing
Agency 110. Board of Pharmacy
Chapter 20. Regulations Governing the Practice of Pharmacy

18VAC110-20-500. Licensed emergency medical services (EMS) agencies.

A. The pharmacy may prepare a kit for a licensed EMS agency provided:

1. The PIC of the hospital pharmacy shall be responsible for all prescription drugs and Schedule VI controlled devices contained in this kit. Except as authorized in 18VAC110-20-505, a pharmacist shall check each kit after filling and initial the filling record certifying the accuracy and integrity of the contents of the kit.

2. The kit is sealed, secured, and stored in such a manner that it will deter theft or loss of drugs and devices and aid in detection of theft or loss.

a. The hospital pharmacy shall have a method of sealing the kits such that once the seal is broken, it cannot be reasonably resealed without the breach being detected.

b. If a seal is used, it shall have a unique numeric or alphanumeric identifier to preclude replication or resealing. The pharmacy shall maintain a record of the seal identifiers when placed on a kit and maintain the record for a period of one year.

c. In lieu of a seal, a kit with a built-in mechanism preventing resealing or relocking once opened except by the provider pharmacy may be used.

3. Drugs and devices may be administered by an EMS provider upon an oral or written order or standing protocol of an authorized medical practitioner in accordance with § 54.1-3408 of the Code of Virginia. Oral orders shall be reduced to writing by the EMS provider and shall be signed by a medical practitioner. Written standing protocols shall be signed by the operational medical director for the EMS agency. A current copy of the signed standing protocol shall be maintained by the pharmacy participating in the kit exchange. The EMS provider shall make a record of all drugs and devices administered to a patient.

4. When the drug kit has been opened, the kit shall be returned to the pharmacy and exchanged for an unopened kit. The record of the drugs administered shall accompany the opened kit when exchanged. An accurate record shall be maintained by the pharmacy on the exchange of the drug kit for a period of one year. A pharmacist, pharmacy technician, or nurse shall reconcile the Schedule II, III, IV, or V drugs in the kit at the time the opened kit is returned. A record of the reconciliation, to include any noted discrepancies, shall be maintained by the pharmacy for a period of two years from the time of exchange. The theft or any other unusual loss of any Schedule II, III, IV, or V controlled substance shall be reported in accordance with § 54.1-3404 of the Code of Virginia.

5. Accurate records of the following shall be maintained by the pharmacy on the exchange of the drug kit for a period of one year:

a. The record of filling and verifying the kit to include the drug contents of the kit, the initials of the pharmacist verifying the contents, the date of verification, a record of an identifier if a seal is used, and the assigned expiration date for the kit, which shall be no later than the expiration date associated with the first drug or device scheduled to expire.

b. The record of the exchange of the kit to include the date of exchange and the name of EMS agency and EMS provider receiving the kit.

6. Destruction of partially used Schedules II, III, IV, and V drugs shall be accomplished by two persons, one of whom shall be the EMS provider and the other shall be a pharmacist, nurse, prescriber, pharmacy technician, or a second EMS provider. Documentation shall be maintained in the pharmacy for a period of two years from the date of destruction.

7. The record of the drugs and devices administered shall be maintained as a part of the pharmacy records pursuant to state and federal regulations for a period of not less than two years.

8. Intravenous and irrigation solutions provided by a hospital pharmacy to an emergency medical services agency may be stored separately outside the kit.

9. Any drug or device showing evidence of damage or tampering shall be immediately removed from the kit and replaced.

10. In lieu of exchange by the hospital pharmacy, the PIC of the hospital pharmacy may authorize the exchange of the kit by the emergency department. Exchange of the kit in the emergency department shall only be performed by a pharmacist, nurse, or prescriber if the kit contents include Schedule II, III, IV, or V drugs.

B. A licensed EMS agency may obtain a controlled substances registration pursuant to § 54.1-3423 D of the Code of Virginia for the purpose of performing a one-to-one exchange of Schedule VI drugs or devices.

1. The controlled substances registration may be issued to a single agency or to multiple agencies within a single jurisdiction.

2. The controlled substances registration issued solely for this intended purpose does not authorize the storage of drugs within the agency facility.

3. Pursuant to § 54.1-3434.02 of the Code of Virginia, the EMS provider may directly obtain Schedule VI drugs and devices from an automated drug dispensing device.

4. If such drugs or devices are obtained from a nurse, pharmacist, or prescriber, it shall be in accordance with the procedures established by the pharmacist-in-charge, which shall include a requirement to record the date of exchange, name of licensed person providing drug or device, name of the EMS agency and provider receiving the drug or device, and assigned expiration date. Such record shall be maintained by the pharmacy for one year from the date of exchange.

5. If an EMS agency is performing a one-to-one exchange of Schedule VI drugs or devices, Schedule II, III, IV, or V drugs shall remain in a separate, sealed container and shall only be exchanged in accordance with provisions of subsection A of this section.

Statutory Authority

§§ 54.1-2400 and 54.1-3307 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR530-01-1 § 10.8, eff. October 25, 1989; amended, Virginia Register Volume 9, Issue 4, eff. December 16, 1992; Volume 10, Issue 1, eff. November 4, 1993; Volume 11, Issue 21, eff. August 9, 1995; Volume 15, Issue 8, eff. February 3, 1999; Volume 20, Issue 23, eff. August 25, 2004; Volume 25, Issue 24, eff. September 2, 2009; Volume 29, Issue 26, eff. September 25, 2013; Volume 31, Issue 20, eff. July 16, 2015; Volume 39, Issue 6, eff. December 7, 2022.

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