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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 18. Professional and Occupational Licensing
Agency 135. Real Estate Board
Chapter 20. Virginia Real Estate Board Licensing Regulations
4/3/2020

18VAC135-20-10. Definitions.

Part I
General

The following words and terms when used in this chapter unless a different meaning is provided or is plainly required by the context shall have the following meanings:

"Active" means any broker or salesperson who is under the supervision of a principal or supervising broker of a firm or sole proprietor and who is performing those activities defined in §§ 54.1-2100 and 54.1-2101 of the Code of Virginia.

"Actively engaged" means active licensure with a licensed real estate firm or sole proprietorship in performing those activities as defined in §§ 54.1-2100 and 54.1-2101 of the Code of Virginia for an average of at least 40 hours per week. This requirement may be waived at the discretion of the board in accordance with § 54.1-2105 of the Code of Virginia.

"Actively engaged in the brokerage business" means anyone who holds an active real estate license.

"Associate broker" means any individual licensee of the board holding a broker's license other than one who has been designated as the principal broker.

"Client" means a person who has entered into a brokerage relationship with a licensee as defined by § 54.1-2130 of the Code of Virginia.

"Firm" means any sole proprietorship (nonbroker owner), partnership, association, limited liability company, or corporation, other than a sole proprietorship (principal broker owner), which is required by 18VAC135-20-20 B to obtain a separate brokerage firm license. The firm's licensed name may be any assumed or fictitious name properly filed with the board.

"Inactive status" means any broker or salesperson who is not under the supervision of a principal broker or supervising broker, who is not active with a firm or sole proprietorship, and who is not performing any of the activities defined in §§ 54.1-2100 and 54.1-2101 of the Code of Virginia.

"Independent contractor" means a licensee who acts for or represents a client other than as a standard agent and whose duties and obligations are governed by a written contract between the licensee and the client.

"Licensee" means real estate brokers and salespersons as defined in Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia or real estate firms.

"Principal broker" means the individual broker who shall be designated by each firm to assure compliance with Chapter 21 (§ 54.1-2100 et seq.) of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia, and this chapter, and to receive communications and notices from the board that may affect the firm or any licensee active with the firm. In the case of a sole proprietorship, the licensed broker who is the sole proprietor shall have the responsibilities of the principal broker. The principal broker shall have responsibility for the activities of the firm and all its licensees. The principal broker shall have signatory authority on all escrow accounts maintained by the firm.

"Principal to a transaction" means a party to a real estate transaction including without limitation a seller or buyer, landlord or tenant, optionor or optionee, licensor or licensee. For the purposes of this chapter, the listing or selling broker, or both, are not by virtue of their brokerage relationship, principals to the transaction.

"Sole proprietor" means any individual, not a corporation, limited liability company, partnership, or association, who is trading under the individual's name or under an assumed or fictitious name pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 5 (§ 59.1-69 et seq.) of Title 59.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Standard agent" means a licensee who acts for or represents a client in an agency relationship. A standard agent shall have the obligations as provided in Article 3 (§ 54.1-2130 et seq.) of Chapter 21 of Title 54.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Supervising broker" means (i) the individual broker who shall be designated by the principal broker to supervise the provision of real estate brokerage services by the associate brokers and salespersons assigned to branch offices or real estate teams or (ii) the broker, who may be the principal broker, designated by the principal broker to supervise a designated agent as stated in § 54.1-2130 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§§ 54.1-201 and 54.1-2105 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from VR585-01-1 § 1.1, eff. July 15, 1987; amended, Volume 05, Issue 23, eff. October 1, 1989; Volume 07, Issue 14, eff. May 15, 1991; Volume 08, Issue 13, eff. May 15, 1992; Volume 11, Issue 18, eff. June 28, 1995; Volume 15, Issue 05, eff. January 1, 1999; Volume 19, Issue 12, eff. April 1, 2003; Volume 24, Issue 11, eff. April 1, 2008; Volume 31, Issue 26, eff. November 1, 2015; Volume 35, Issue 17, eff. June 1, 2019.

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