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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 2. Agriculture
Agency 5. Department of Agriculture And Consumer Services
Chapter 531. Regulations Governing Milk for Manufacturing Purposes
4/19/2024

2VAC5-531-10. Definitions.

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

"Adulterated milk" means any milk that meets one or more of the conditions specified in § 402 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 USC § 342).

"Adulterated dairy product" means any dairy product which meets one or more of the conditions specified in § 402 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 USC § 342).

"Asiago fresh cheese" means "asiago fresh cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.102.

"Asiago medium cheese" means "asiago medium cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.103.

"Asiago old cheese" means "asiago old cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.104.

"Asiago soft cheese" means "asiago soft cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.102.

"Beta Lactam and Other Test Methods for Use Under Appendix N and Section 6 of the Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance" means the Beta Lactam and Other Test Methods for Use Under Appendix N and Section 6 of the Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO), M-a-85 (Revision #14), March 22, 2012, published by the Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Dairy and Egg Branch (HFS-316).

"Blue cheese" means "blue cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.106.

"Brick cheese" means "brick cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.108.

"Brick cheese for manufacturing" means "brick cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.109.

"Caciocavallo siciliano cheese" means "caciocavallo siciliano cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.111.

"Cancel" means to permanently nullify, void, or delete a permit issued by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"CFR" means the Code of Federal Regulations.

"Cheddar cheese" means "cheddar cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.113.

"Cheddar cheese for manufacturing" means "cheddar cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.114.

"Cheese" means the consolidated curd of milk, used as food.

"C-I-P" or "Cleaned-In-Place" means the procedure by which sanitary pipelines or pieces of dairy equipment are mechanically cleaned in place by circulation of wash, rinse, and sanitizer solutions.

"Club cheese" means "club cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.123.

"Colby cheese" means "colby cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.118.

"Colby cheese for manufacturing" means "colby cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.119.

"Cold-pack cheese" means "cold-pack cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.123.

"Cold-pack cheese food" means "cold-pack cheese food" as defined in 21 CFR 133.124.

"Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.125.

"Cook cheese" means "cook cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.127.

"Cream cheese" means "cream cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.133.

"Cream cheese with other foods" means "cream cheese with other foods" as defined in 21 CFR 133.134.

"Dairy farm" means any premises where any cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, or other mammal (except humans) are maintained and milked for the purpose of providing milk for manufacturing into dairy products as defined herein and intended for human consumption.

"Dairy plant" means any place, premises, or establishment where any milk or any dairy product is received or handled for processing or manufacturing or prepared for distribution.

"Dairy product" means butter, natural or processed cheese, dry whole milk, nonfat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey, evaporated whole or skim milk, condensed whole milk and condensed plain or sweetened skim milk.

"Deny" means the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services will not issue a permit to the applicant.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Drug" means (i) any article recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; (ii) any article intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; (iii) any article other than food intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and (iv) any article intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of this definition, but does not include devices or their components, parts, or accessories.

"Drug Residue Test Methods for Confirmation of Presumptive Positive Results and Initial Producer Trace Back" means the Drug Residue Test Methods for Confirmation of Presumptive Positive Results and Initial Producer Trace Back, M-l-96-10 (Revision #8), March 22, 2012, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, Dairy and Egg Branch (HFS 316).

"Edam cheese" means "edam cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.138.

"Evaluation of milk laboratories" means the Evaluation of Milk Laboratories, 2011 Revision, published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration and contains the requirements milk and dairy testing laboratories must comply with in order to be included in the Interstate Milk Shippers List—Sanitation Compliance and Enforcement Ratings of Interstate Milk Shippers. This publication is available from the Food and Drug Administration, Laboratory Quality Assurance Branch.

"Farm" means any premises where any cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, or other mammal (except humans) are maintained and milked for the purpose of providing milk for manufacturing into dairy products as defined herein and intended for human consumption.

"Fresh" means the cheese or related dairy product, except asiago fresh cheese, that was (i) made from pasteurized milk; (ii) not required to be aged by the standard of identity for the specific cheese product; (iii) not held longer than five days prior to being offered for sale; and (iv) never frozen or stored at temperatures below 35°F.

"Gammelost cheese" means "gammelost cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.140.

"Good manufacturing practices" means "good manufacturing practices" as defined in 21 CFR 110.

"Gorgonzola cheese" means "gorgonzola cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.141.

"Gouda cheese" means "gouda cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.142.

"Granular and stirred curd cheese" means "granular and stirred curd cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.144.

"Granular cheese for manufacturing" means "granular cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.145.

"Grated American cheese food" means "grated American cheese food" as defined in 21 CFR 133.147.

"Grated cheeses" means "grated cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.146.

"Gruyere cheese" means "gruyere cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.149.

"Hard cheeses" means "hard cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.150.

"Hard grating cheeses" means "hard grating cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.148.

"High-moisture jack cheese" means "high-moisture jack cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.154.

"Inspector" means an employee of the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services qualified, trained, and authorized to perform dairy farm or plant inspections.

"Koch kaese" means "koch kaese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.127.

"Limburger cheese" means "limburger cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.152.

"Low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese" means "low-moisture part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.158.

"Low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese" means "low-moisture mozzarella and scamorza cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.156.

"Low sodium cheddar cheese" means "low sodium cheddar cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.116.

"Low sodium colby cheese" means "low sodium colby cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.121.

"Milk" means the normal lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows, goats, sheep, water buffalo, or other mammal (except humans) intended for human consumption.

"Milk for manufacturing purposes" means any milk produced for processing and manufacturing into a dairy product as defined herein and intended for human consumption.

"Milkhouse" means the building or room on a dairy farm in which there is conducted (i) the cooling, handling, and storing of milk; and (ii) the washing, sanitizing, and storing of milk containers and utensils.

"Milk product" means (i) acidified lowfat milk, acidified milk, acidified milk product, acidified skim milk, acidified sour cream, acidified sour half-and-half, aseptically processed milk, aseptically processed milk product, buttermilk, coffee cream, concentrated milk, concentrated milk product, cottage cheese, cottage cheese dry curd, cream, cultured half-and-half, cultured milk, cultured lowfat milk, cultured skim milk, cultured sour cream, dry curd cottage cheese, eggnog, eggnog-flavored milk, flavored milk, flavored milk product, fortified milk, fortified milk product, frozen milk concentrate, goat milk, half-and-half, heavy cream, lactose-reduced lowfat milk, lactose-reduced milk, lactose-reduced skim milk, light cream, light whipping cream, lowfat cottage cheese, lowfat milk, lowfat yogurt, low-sodium lowfat milk, low-sodium milk, low-sodium skim milk, milk, nonfat milk, nonfat yogurt, recombined milk, recombined milk product, reconstituted milk, reconstituted milk product, sheep milk, skim milk, sour cream, sour half-and-half, table cream, vitamin D milk, vitamin D milk product, whipped cream, whipped light cream, whipping cream, or yogurt; (ii) any of the following foods: milk, lowfat milk, or skim milk with added safe and suitable microbial organisms; or (iii) any food made with a food specified in clause (i) of this definition by the addition or subtraction of milkfat or addition of safe and suitable optional ingredients for protein, vitamin, or mineral fortification. Nothing in this definition shall be deemed to include any evaporated milk, evaporated skim milk, condensed milk (sweetened or unsweetened), infant formula, ice cream or other dessert, dietary product, dry milk product (except as defined herein), canned eggnog in a rigid metal container, or butter or cheese, except when butter or cheese is combined with other substances to produce any pasteurized or aseptically processed food as specified in this definition.

"Misbranded dairy product" means any dairy product that (i) satisfies any of the conditions specified in § 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 USC § 343); (ii) does not conform to its definition; or (iii) is not labeled in accordance with 2VAC5-531-60.

"Misbranded milk" means any milk that: (i) satisfies any of the conditions specified in § 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 USC § 343); (ii) does not conform to its definition; or (iii) is not labeled in accordance with 2VAC5-531-60.

"Monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese" means "monterey cheese and monterey jack cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.153.

"Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese" means "mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.155.

"Muenster and munster cheese" means "muenster and munster cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.160.

"Muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing" means "muenster and munster cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.161.

"Neufchatel cheese" means "neufchatel cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.162.

"Nuworld cheese" means "nuworld cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.164.

"Nonstandardized cheese" means any cheese or related product which does not conform to a standard of identity for a specific cheese or related product established under 21 CFR 133. Nonstandardized cheese and related products are dairy foods manufactured in conformance with this chapter from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, water buffalo, or other mammals (except humans) by the addition of clotting agents (rennet, clotting enzymes of mammal, plant, or microbial origin, vinegar, acid, or any other agent that causes the clotting of milk and the formation of curd) and other safe and suitable ingredients.

"Officially designated laboratory" means a (i) commercial laboratory authorized by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to examine milk and dairy products; or (ii) milk-industry laboratory authorized by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to examine samples of milk for manufacturing purposes; and the laboratory is listed in the Interstate Milk Shippers List—Sanitation Compliance and Enforcement Ratings of Interstate Milk Shippers as an approved milk laboratory certified to test load and producer samples.

"Official methods" means Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 19th Edition (2012), a publication of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.

"Other mammals" means any mammal except humans, cows, goats, sheep, or water buffalo.

"Parmesan and reggiano cheese" means "parmesan and reggiano cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.165.

"Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese" means "part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.157.

"Part-skim spiced cheeses" means "part-skim spiced cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.191.

"Pasteurization" or "pasteurized" means the process of heating every particle of milk, milk product, dairy product, or whey in equipment designed and operated in conformance with this chapter, to one of the temperatures given in the following table and held continuously at or above that temperature for at least the corresponding specified time for the equipment indicated:

Temperature

Time

Equipment

145°F*

30 minutes

Vat Pasteurization

161°F*

15 seconds

High Temperature Short Time

191°F

1.0 second

High Temperature Short Time

194°F

0.5 second

High Temperature Short Time

201°F

0.1 second

High Temperature Short Time

204°F

0.05 second

High Temperature Short Time

212°F

0.01 second

High Temperature Short Time

*If (i) the fat content of the milk, milk product, or dairy product is 10% or more; (ii) the milk, milk product, or dairy product contains added sweeteners; (iii) the product is condensed milk; or (iv) the dairy product is a condensed milk product, then "pasteurization" means increasing the specified temperature by 5.0°F.

*If the dairy product is cream for butter-making, then "pasteurization" means heating to at least 165°F and holding continuously in a vat pasteurizer for not less than 30 minutes or pasteurizing by the High Temperature Short Time method at a minimum temperature of not less than 185°F for not less than 15 seconds.

*If the milk product is eggnog, then "pasteurization" means heating to at least the following temperatures for the corresponding time specifications:

Temperature

Time

Equipment

155°F

30 minutes

Vat Pasteurization

175°F

25 seconds

High Temperature Short Time

180°F

15 seconds

High Temperature Short Time

"Pasteurized blended cheese" means "pasteurized blended cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.167.

"Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.168.

"Pasteurized cheese spread" means pasteurized cheese spread" as defined in 21 CFR 133.175.

"Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.176.

"Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods" means "pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods" as defined in 21 CFR 133.178.

"Pasteurized process cheese" means "pasteurized process cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.169.

"Pasteurized process cheese food" means "pasteurized process cheese food" as defined in 21 CFR 133.173.

"Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.174.

"Pasteurized process cheese spread" means "pasteurized process cheese spread" as defined in 21 CFR 133.179.

"Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.180.

"Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats" means "pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats" as defined in 21 CFR 133.170.

"Pasteurized process pimento cheese" means "pasteurized process pimento cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.171.

"Permit" means the written document issued by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to the person who operates a (i) dairy farm producing milk for manufacturing purposes or (ii) dairy plant after the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has inspected and approved the person's operation and determined the person's compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

"Person" means any individual, plant operator, partnership, corporation, company, firm, trustee, or institution.

"Pit" means any excavated or naturally occurring space below the surface of the ground.

"Plant" means any place, premises, or establishment where any milk or any dairy product is received or handled for processing or manufacturing or prepared for distribution.

"Process" means to produce, manufacture, handle, package, reprocess, repackage, or rework and offer for sale or sell any manufactured dairy product in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

"Producer" means any person who exercises control over the production of the milk delivered to a processing plant or receiving station, and who receives payment for this product.

"Producer/processor" means any person who manufactures dairy products on the dairy farm entirely from his own milk production, or from his own milk combined with milk from one or more other producers.

"Provolone cheese" means "provolone cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.181.

"Public" means any person who has the potential to be a consumer of a dairy product.

"Raw" means unpasteurized.

"Regulatory agency" means the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Reprocess" means to obtain finished dairy products suitable for sale from unused finished dairy products previously manufactured, packaged, and made available for sale.

"Revoke" means to permanently annul, repeal, rescind, countermand, or abrogate the opportunity for any person or persons to hold a permit issued by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services to produce milk for manufacturing purposes or to operate a dairy plant.

"Rework" means to obtain finished dairy products suitable for sale from used, imperfect, or discarded dairy products or ingredients.

"Romano cheese" means "romano cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.183.

"Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk" means "roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk" as defined in 21 CFR 133.184.

"Safe and suitable" means "safe and suitable" as defined in 21 CFR 130.3(d).

"Samsoe cheese" means "samsoe cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.185.

"Sanitizing treatment" means subjection of a clean surface to steam, hot water, hot air, or a sanitizing solution in compliance with 21 CFR 178.1010 for the destruction of most human pathogens and other vegetative microorganisms to a level considered safe for product production.

"Sap sago cheese" means "sap sago cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.186.

"Semisoft cheeses" means "semisoft cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.187.

"Semisoft part-skim cheeses" means "semisoft part-skim cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.188.

"Septage" means material accumulated in a pretreatment system or privy.

"Sewage" means water-carried and non-water-carried human excrement; kitchen, laundry, shower, bath, or lavatory wastes separately or together with such underground, surface, storm and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments or other places.

"Skim milk cheese for manufacturing" means "skim milk cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.189.

"Small-scale cheese plant" means any cheese plant that (i) pasteurizes milk for cheese production in one or more vat pasteurizers with a combined total processing capacity of not more than 50 gallons of milk at one time; (ii) processes cheese from unpasteurized milk in lots not to exceed 200 gallons if the milk is from cows, buffalo, or water buffalo; or (iii) processes cheese from unpasteurized milk in lots not to exceed 50 gallons if the milk is from goats, sheep, or other mammals (except cows, buffalo, water buffalo, and humans).

"Soaked curd cheese" means "soaked curd cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.136.

"Soft ripened cheeses" means "soft ripened cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.182.

"Spiced cheeses" means "spiced cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.190.

"Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses" means "spiced, flavored standardized cheeses" as defined in 21 CFR 133.193.

"Standard methods" means Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, 17th Edition (2004), a publication of the American Public Health Association.

"Standardized cheeses and related products" means cheeses and related cheese products that have a specific standard of identity established under 21 CFR Part 133.

"Suspend" means to temporarily nullify, void, debar, or cease for a period of time a permit issued by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

"Swiss and emmentaler cheese" means "swiss and emmentaler cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.195.

"Swiss cheese for manufacturing" means "swiss cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.196.

"Uniform Methods and Rules; Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication effective January 1, 2005" means the minimum standards adopted for the maintenance of tuberculosis-free accredited herds of cattle, captive cervids, bison, and goats, and the maintenance of state status in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's tuberculosis eradication program and is available from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Federal Center Building, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 or Assistant District Director, USDA/APHIS-VS, Virginia Area Office, 7th Floor, Federal Building, 400 North 8th Street, Richmond, Virginia 23240.

"Uniform Methods and Rules; Brucellosis Eradication effective October 1, 2003" means the minimum standards for certifying herds, classifying states and areas, and detecting, controlling, and eradicating brucellosis, as well as, minimum brucellosis requirements for the intrastate and interstate movement of cattle and bison adopted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and is available from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Federal Center Building, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782 or Assistant District Director, USDA/APHIS-VS, Virginia Area Office, 7th Floor, Federal Building, 400 North 8th Street, Richmond, Virginia 23240.

"Washed curd cheese" means "washed curd cheese" as defined in 21 CFR 133.136.

"Washed curd cheese for manufacturing" means "washed curd cheese for manufacturing" as defined in 21 CFR 133.137.

"3-A Accepted Practices" means the accepted practices published by 3-A Sanitary Standards, Incorporated and indexed in the 3-A Sanitary Standards and 3-A Accepted Practices, effective on or before August 15, 2013.

"3-A Sanitary Standards" means the standards for dairy equipment published by 3-A Sanitary Standards, Incorporated and indexed in the 3-A Sanitary Standards and 3-A Accepted Practices, effective on or before August 15, 2013.

Statutory Authority

§ 3.2-5206 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 21, Issue 8, eff. January 26, 2005; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 3, eff. November 19, 2015.

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