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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 2. Agriculture
Agency 5. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Chapter 585. Retail Food Establishment Regulations

2VAC5-585-700. Raw Animal Foods.

Article 4
Destruction of Organisms of Public Health Concern

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, raw animal foods such as eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and foods containing these raw animal foods shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time that complies with one of the following methods based on the food that is being cooked:

1. 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds for:P

a. Raw eggs that are broken and prepared in response to a consumer's order and for immediate service;P and

b. Except as specified under subdivisions A 2 and 3 and subsections B and C of this section, fish and meat including game animals commercially raised for food and under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1;P

2. 155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds or the temperature specified in the following chart that corresponds to the holding time for ratites, mechanically tenderized, and injected meats; the following if they are comminuted: fish, meat, game animals commercially raised for food and under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 1; and raw eggs that are not prepared as specified under subdivision A 1 a of this section:P


Temperature °F (°C)


145 (63)

3 minutes

150 (66)

1 minute

158 (70)

<1 second (instantaneous)

3. 165°F (74°C) or above for 15 seconds for poultry, baluts, wild game animals as specified under 2VAC5-585-330 A 2 and 3, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed pasta, stuffed poultry, stuffed ratites, or stuffing containing fish, meat, poultry, or ratites.P

B. Whole meat roasts including beef, corned beef, lamb, pork, and cured pork roasts such as ham shall be cooked:

1. In an oven that is preheated to the temperature specified for the roast's weight in the following chart and that is held at that temperature;Pf and

Oven Type

Oven Temperature Based on Roast Weight

Less than 10 lbs (4.5 kg)

10 lbs (4.5 kg) or more

Still Dry

350°F (177°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more


325°F (163°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

High Humidity1

250°F (121°C) or less

250°F (121°C) or less

1Relative humidity greater than 90% for at least one hour as measured in the cooking chamber or exit of the oven; or in a moisture-impermeable bag that provides 100% humidity

2. As specified in the following chart, to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for the holding time that corresponds to that temperature.P

°F (°C)

Time1 in Minutes

°F (°C)

Time1 in Seconds

130 (54.4)


147 (63.9)


131 (55.0)


149 (65.0)


133 (56.1)


151 (66.1)


135 (57.2)


153 (67.2)


136 (57.8)


155 (68.3)


138 (58.9)


157 (69.4)


140 (60.0)


158 (70.0)


142 (61.1)


144 (62.2)


145 (62.8)


1Holding time may include postoven heat rise.

C. A raw or undercooked whole-muscle, intact beef steak may be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. The food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The steak is labeled, as specified under 2VAC5-585-270 E, to indicate that it meets the definition of "whole-muscle, intact beef"; and

3. The steak is cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of 145°F (63°C) or above and a cooked color change is achieved on all external surfaces.

D. A raw animal food such as raw egg, raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, or steak tartare or a partially cooked food such as lightly cooked fish, soft cooked eggs, or rare meat other than whole-muscle, intact beef steaks as specified in subsection C of this section may be served or offered for sale upon consumer request or selection in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. As specified under subdivisions 3 a and 3 b of 2VAC5-585-950, the food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The food, if served or offered for service by consumer selection from a children's menu, does not contain comminuted meat;Pf and

3. The consumer is informed as specified under 2VAC5-585-930 that to ensure its safety, the food should be cooked as specified under subsection A or B of this section; or

4. The department grants a variance from subsection A or B of this section as specified in 2VAC5-585-3540 based on a HACCP plan that:

a. Is submitted by the operator and approved as specified under 2VAC5-585-3541;

b. Documents scientific data or other information showing that a lesser time and temperature regimen results in a safe food; and

c. Verifies that equipment and procedures for food preparation and training of food employees at the food establishment meet the conditions of the variance.

Statutory Authority

§ 3.2-5121 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 24, Issue 02, eff. October 16, 2007; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 07, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

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