Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 22. Social Services
Agency 40. Department of Social Services
Chapter 61. Standards and Regulations for Licensed Adult Day Care Centers

22VAC40-61-300. Medication Management.

A. The center shall have, keep current, and implement a plan for medication management. The center's medication management plan shall address procedures for administering medication and shall include:

1. Standard operating procedures and any general restrictions specific to the center;

2. Methods to ensure an understanding of the responsibilities associated with medication management including the following:

a. Determining that staff who are responsible for administering medications meet the qualification requirements of subdivisions E 7 a and E 7 b of this section;

b. Ensuring that staff who are responsible for administering medications are trained on requirements of the center's medication management plan; and

c. Ensuring that staff who are responsible for administering medications are adequately supervised, including periodic direct observation of medication administration. Supervision shall be provided by (i) an individual employed by the center who is licensed by the Commonwealth of Virginia to administer medications or (ii) the director who has successfully completed a training program as required in subdivisions E 7 a and E 7 b of this section.

3. Methods to ensure that authorizations for the administration of medications are current;

4. Methods to secure and maintain supplies of each participant's prescription medications and any over-the-counter drugs and supplements in a timely manner to avoid missed dosages;

5. Methods for verifying that medication orders have been accurately transcribed to medication administration records (MARs), including within 24 hours of receipt of a new order or a change in an order;

6. Methods for monitoring medication administration and the effective use of the MARs for documentation;

7. Methods to ensure that participants do not receive medications or dietary supplements to which they have known allergies;

8. Methods to ensure accurate accounting for all controlled substances whenever received by center staff, returned to participant, or whenever assigned medication administration staff changes;

9. Procedures for proper disposal of medication; and

10. Procedures for preventing, detecting, and investigating suspected or reported drug diversion.

B. The center shall have readily accessible as reference materials for medication aides, at least one pharmacy reference book, drug guide, or medication handbook for nurses that is no more than two years old.

C. Prescription and nonprescription medications, including sample medications, shall be given to a participant according to the center's medication policies and only with written or verbal authorization from the physician or prescriber, or the physician's authorized agent. For the purposes of this section, an "authorized agent" means an employee of the physician who is under his immediate and personal supervision. Verbal orders shall be reviewed and signed by the physician or prescriber within 10 working days.

D. The center shall maintain a list of all medications, including those taken at home and at the center, for each participant. The center shall attempt to verify and update the list of center-administered medications with the prescribing health care professional at least twice a year. Unsuccessful attempts to verify shall be documented.

E. The following standards shall apply when medications are administered to participants at the adult day care center:

1. All medication shall be in the original container with the prescription label or direction label attached and legible. Sample medications shall remain in the original packaging, labeled by a physician or other prescriber or pharmacist with the participant's name, the name of the medication, the strength, dosage, and route and frequency of administration, until administered.

2. All medication shall be labeled with the participant's name, the name of the medication, the strength and dosage amount, the route of administration, and the frequency of administration.

3. The medication shall be kept in a locked compartment or area, not accessible to participants. The locked compartment or area shall be free from direct sunlight and high temperatures and free from dampness and shall remain darkened when closed.

4. The area in which the medication is prepared shall have sufficient light so that the labels can be read accurately and the correct dosage can be clearly determined.

5. Medication shall be refrigerated, if required. When medication is stored in a refrigerator used for food, the medications shall be stored together in a locked container in a clearly defined area. If a refrigerator is used for medication only, it is permissible to store dietary supplements and foods and liquids used for medication administration.

6. Unless it is contrary to the center's policy, a participant may take his own medication provided that:

a. A physician has deemed the participant capable of administering medication to himself;

b. The physician has given written authorization for the participant to self-administer his medication; and

c. Medications are kept in a safe manner inaccessible to other participants.

7. When the center staff administers medications to participants, the following standards shall apply:

a. Each staff person who administers medication shall be authorized by § 54.1-3408 of the Code of Virginia. All staff responsible for medication administration shall:

(1) Be licensed by the Commonwealth of Virginia to administer medications;

(2) Be a registered medication aide;

(3) Successfully complete a training program approved by the Board of Nursing and accepted for use in adult day care centers; or

(4) Successfully complete a training program approved by the Board of Nursing for the registration of medication aides that consists of 68 hours of student instruction and training.

b. All staff who administer medications, except those licensed by the Commonwealth, shall complete, on an annual basis, four hours of medication management refresher training on topics specific to the administration of medications in the adult day care center setting.

c. Medications shall remain in the original or pharmacy issued container until administered to the participant by the qualified medication staff. All medications shall be removed from the pharmacy container and be administered by the same qualified person within one hour of the individual's scheduled dosing time.

d. Documentation shall be maintained on the MAR of all medications, including prescription, nonprescription, and sample medication, administered to a participant while at the center. This documentation shall become part of the participant's permanent record and shall include:

(1) Name of participant;

(2) All known allergies;

(3) Diagnosis, condition, or specific indications for which the medication is prescribed;

(4) Date medication prescribed;

(5) Drug product name;

(6) Dosage and strength of medication;

(7) Route of administration;

(8) Frequency of administration;

(9) Date and time given and initials of staff administering the medication;

(10) Date the medication is discontinued or changed;

(11) Any medication errors or omissions;

(12) Notation of any adverse effects or unusual reactions that occur; and

(13) The name, signature, and initials of all staff administering medications. A master list may be used in lieu of this documentation on individual MARs.

F. In the event of an adverse drug reaction or a medication error, the following applies:

1. Action shall be taken as directed by a physician, pharmacist, or a poison control center;

2. The participant's physician and family member or other legal representative shall be notified as soon as possible. If not contrary to immediate medical needs of the participant, the participant shall also be notified of the error; and

3. Medication administration staff shall document actions taken in the participant's record.

G. The use of PRN (as needed) medications is prohibited unless one or more of the following conditions exist:

1. The participant is capable of determining when medication is needed;

2. A licensed health care professional administers the medication;

3. The participant's physician has provided detailed written instructions, including symptoms that might indicate the need for the medication, exact dosage, exact timeframes the medication is to be given in a 24-hour period, and directions for what to do if symptoms persist; or

4. The center staff has telephoned the participant's physician prior to administering the medication and explained the symptoms and received a documented verbal order that includes the information in subdivision 3 of this subsection.

H. Any physician ordered treatment provided by staff shall be documented and shall be within the staff's scope of practice.

Statutory Authority

§ 63.2-1733 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 36, Issue 03, eff. December 29, 2019.

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