Administrative Code

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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 8. Education
Agency 20. State Board Of Education
Chapter 543. Regulations Governing the Review and Approval of Education Programs in Virginia

8VAC20-543-110. Early/primary education preK-3.

The program for early/primary education preK-3 shall ensure that the candidate has demonstrated the following competencies:

1. Methods.

a. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, dispositions and processes to support learners in achievement of Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, history and social science, science, and computer technology;

b. The ability to integrate English, mathematics, science, health, history and social sciences, art, music, drama, movement, and technology in learning experiences;

c. The use of differentiated instruction and flexible groupings to meet the needs of learners at different stages of development, approaches to learning abilities, and achievement;

d. The use of appropriate methods, including those in visual and performing arts, to help learners develop knowledge and basic skills, sustain intellectual curiosity, and problem-solve;

e. The ability to utilize effective classroom management skills through methods that build responsibility and self-discipline, promote self-regulation, and maintain a positive learning environment;

f. The ability to modify and manage learning environments and experiences to meet the individual needs of children, including children with disabilities, gifted children, children who are English learners, and children with diverse cultural needs;

g. The ability to use formal and informal assessments to diagnose needs, plan and modify instruction, and record student progress;

h. A commitment to professional growth and development through reflection, collaboration, and continuous learning;

i. The ability to analyze, evaluate, and apply quantitative and qualitative research;

j. The ability to use technology as a tool for teaching, learning, research, and communication; and

k. The ability to adapt task and interactions to maximize language development, conceptual understanding, and skill competence within each child's zone of proximal development.

2. Knowledge and skills.

a. Reading and English. Understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, dispositions, and processes for teaching Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning for English, including oral language (speaking and listening), reading, and writing, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-3 (early/primary licensure).

(1) Assessment and diagnostic teaching. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the use of both formal and informal assessment as screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring measures for the component of reading: phonemic awareness, letter recognition, decoding, fluency, vocabulary, reading levels, and comprehension; and

(b) Be proficient in the ability to use diagnostic data to inform instruction for acceleration, intervention, remediation, and differentiation.

(2) Oral communication. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching oral language, such as speaking and listening;

(b) Be proficient in developing students' phonological awareness skills;

(c) Demonstrate effective strategies for facilitating the learning of standard English by speakers of other languages and dialects; and

(d) Demonstrate the ability to promote creative thinking and expression, such as through storytelling, drama, and choral and oral reading.

(3) Reading and literature. The individual shall demonstrate the following competencies:

(a) Be proficient in explicit phonics instruction, including an understanding of sound and symbol relationships, syllables, phonemes, morphemes, word analysis, and decoding skills;

(b) Be proficient in strategies to increase vocabulary and concept development;

(c) Be proficient in the structure of the English language, including an understanding of syntax;

(d) Be proficient in reading comprehension strategies for (i) fiction and nonfiction text predicting, retelling, and summarizing and (ii) guiding students to make connections beyond the text;

(e) Demonstrate the ability to develop comprehension skills in all content areas;

(f) Demonstrate the ability to foster the appreciation of a variety of literature;

(g) Understand the importance of promoting independent reading by selecting fiction and nonfiction texts of appropriate yet engaging topics and reading levels; and

(h) Demonstrate effective strategies for teaching students to view, interpret, analyze, and represent information and concepts in visual form with or without the spoken or written word.

(4) Writing. The individual shall:

(a) Be proficient in the knowledge, skills, and processes necessary for teaching writing, including the domains of composing, written expression, usage and mechanics and the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing;

(b) Understand the stages of spelling development, promoting the generalization of spelling study to writing, and be proficient in systematic spelling instruction, including awareness of the purpose and limitations of "invented spelling"; and

(c) Demonstrate the ability to teach students to write cohesively for a variety of purposes and to provide instruction on the writing process of planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing in the narrative, descriptive, persuasive, and explanative modes.

(5) Technology. The individual shall demonstrate the ability to guide students in their use of technology for both process and product as they work with reading and writing.

b. Mathematics.

(1) Understanding of the mathematics relevant to the content identified in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the foundation for teaching mathematics in grades preK-3. Experiences with practical applications and the use of appropriate technology and manipulatives should be used within the following content:

(a) Number systems and their structure, basic operations, and properties;

(b) Elementary number theory, ratio, proportion, and percent;

(c) Algebra: fundamental idea of equality; operations with monomials and polynomials; algebraic fractions; linear and quadratic equations and inequalities and linear systems of equations and inequalities; radicals and exponents; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series; algebraic and trigonometric functions; and transformations among graphical, tabular, and symbolic forms of functions;

(d) Geometry: geometric figures, their properties, relationships, and the Pythagorean Theorem; deductive and inductive reasoning; perimeter, area, and surface area of two-dimensional and three-dimensional figures; coordinate and transformational geometry; and constructions; and

(e) Probability and statistics: permutations and combinations; experimental and theoretical probability; prediction; data collection and graphical representations including box-and-whisker plots; and measures of center, spread of data, variability, range, and normal distribution.

(2) Understanding of the sequential nature of mathematics and vertical progression of mathematical standards.

(3) Understanding of the multiple representations of mathematical concepts and procedures.

(4) Understanding of and the ability to use the five processes - reasoning mathematically, solving problems, communicating mathematics effectively, making mathematical connections, and using mathematical models and representations - at different levels of complexity.

(5) Understanding of the contributions of different cultures toward the development of mathematics and the role of mathematics in culture and society.

(6) Understanding of the appropriate use of calculators and technology in the teaching and learning of mathematics, including virtual manipulatives.

(7) Understanding of and the ability to use strategies to teach mathematics to diverse learners.

c. History and social sciences.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes of history and the social science disciplines as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Standards of Learning and how the standards provide the necessary foundation for teaching history and social sciences, including in:

(a) History.

(i) The contributions of ancient civilizations to American social and political institutions;

(ii) Major events in Virginia history from 1607 to the present;

(iii) Key individuals, documents, and events in United States history; and

(iv) The evolution of America's constitutional republic and its ideas, institutions, and practices.

(b) Geography.

(i) The use of maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information;

(ii) The relationship between human activity and the physical environment in the community and the world; and

(iii) Physical processes that shape the surface of the earth.

(c) Civics.

(i) The privileges and responsibilities of good citizenship and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights;

(ii) The process of making laws in the United States and the fundamental ideals and principles of a republican form of government;

(iii) The understanding that Americans are a people of diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, who are united by the basic principles of a republican form of government and a common identity as Americans; and

(iv) Local government and civics instruction specific to Virginia.

(d) Economics.

(i) The basic economic principles that underlie the United States market economy;

(ii) The role of the individual and how economic decisions are made in the market place; and

(iii) The role of government in the structure of the United States economy.

(2) Understanding of the nature of history and the social sciences, and how the study of the disciplines assists students in developing historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision-making, and responsible citizenship by:

(a) Using artifacts and primary and secondary sources to understand events in history;

(b) Using geographic skills to explain the interaction of people, places, and events to support an understanding of events in history;

(c) Using charts, graphs, and pictures to determine characteristics of people, places, or events in history;

(d) Asking appropriate questions and summarizing points to answer a question;

(e) Comparing and contrasting people, places, and events in history;

(f) Recognizing direct cause and effect relationships in history;

(g) Explaining connections across time and place;

(h) Using a decision-making model to identify costs and benefits of a specific choice made;

(i) Practicing good citizenship skills and respect for rules and laws, and participating in classroom activities; and

(j) Developing fluency in content vocabulary and comprehension of verbal, written, and visual sources.

d. Science.

(1) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices of the four core science disciplines of Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics as defined in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and the Virginia Science Standards of Learning and how these standards provide a sound foundation for teaching science in the early/primary grades.

(2) Understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry, including the following:

(a) Function of research design and experimentation;

(b) Role and nature of the theory in explaining and predicting events and phenomena;

(c) Practices required to provide empirical answers to research questions, including data collection and analysis, modeling, argumentation with evidence, and contracting explanations;

(d) Reliability of scientific knowledge and its constant scrutiny and refinement;

(e) Self-checking mechanisms used by science to increase objectivity, including peer review; and

(f) Assumptions, influencing conditions, and limits of empirical knowledge.

(3) Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and practices for conducting an active elementary science program, including the ability to:

(a) Design instruction reflecting the goals of the Virginia Science Standards of Learning;

(b) Implement classroom, field, and laboratory safety rules and procedures, and ensure that students take appropriate safety precautions;

(c) Conduct research projects and experiments, including applications of the design process and technology;

(d) Conduct systematic field investigations using the school grounds, the community, and regional resources;

(e) Organize key science content, skills, and practices into meaningful units of instruction that actively engage students in learning;

(f) Design instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners using a variety of techniques;

(g) Evaluate instructional materials, technologies, and teaching practices;

(h) Conduct formative and summative assessments of student learning;

(i) Incorporate instructional technology to enhance student performance in science; and

(j) Ensure student competence in science.

(4) Understanding of the content, skills, and practices of the four core science areas, including Earth sciences, biology, chemistry, and physics supporting the teaching of preK-3 science as defined by the Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds and Virginia Science Standards of Learning and equivalent to academic course work in each of these four core science areas.

(5) Understanding of the core scientific disciplines of Earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics to ensure:

(a) The placement of the four core scientific disciplines in an appropriate interdisciplinary context;

(b) The ability to teach the processes and crosscutting concepts common to the Earth, biological, and physical sciences;

(c) The application of key science principles to solve practical problems; and

(d) A "systems" understanding of the natural world.

(6) Understanding of the contributions and significance of science, including:

(a) Its social, cultural, and economic significance;

(b) The relationship of science to mathematics, the design process, and technology; and

(c) The historical development of scientific concepts and scientific reasoning.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298.2  of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

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