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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 20. Virginia Waste Management Board
Chapter 81. Solid Waste Management Regulations
5/25/2020

9VAC20-81-45. Open Dumps.

A. Prohibition.

1. No person shall dispose of solid waste in open dumps, nor own, operate or allow to be operated on his property an open dump as defined in subsection B of this section or § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia. Both permitted and unpermitted sites or facilities may be classified as open dumps.

2. Any person found to be in violation of this section shall be ordered to immediately cease treatment, storage, and disposal of any additional solid waste and shall take measures to abate improper management of the solid waste and come into compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

B. Criteria – Incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference.

1. Except as otherwise provided, the regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency set forth in 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted herein and incorporated by reference as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations. Except as otherwise provided, all material definitions, reference materials and other ancillaries that are part of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are also hereby incorporated as part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

2. In all locations in these regulations where 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 are incorporated by reference, the following additions, modifications, and exceptions shall amend the incorporated text for the purpose of its incorporation into these regulations:

a. 40 CFR 257.1(b) and 40 CFR 257.3-5 are not included in the incorporation of 40 CFR 257.1 through 257.3-8 by reference and are not part of the Virginia Solid Waste Management Regulations.

b. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a): "Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 are adopted for determining which solid waste disposal facilities and practices are a nuisance and pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment under §§ 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 42 USC § 6901 et seq. (1976) (RCRA) and the Virginia Waste Management Act, § 10.1-1400 of the Code of Virginia (Act). Unless otherwise provided, the criteria in §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are adopted for determining which CCR landfills and CCR surface impoundments pose a reasonable probability of adverse effects on human health or the environment under sections 1008(a)(3) and 4004(a) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act."

c. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(1): "Facilities failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 are considered open dumps, which are prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

d. The following text shall be substituted for 40 CFR 257.1(a)(2): "Practices failing to satisfy the criteria in §§ 257.1 through 257.3-8 or §§ 257.5 through 257.30 or §§ 257.50 through 257.107 constitute open dumping, which is prohibited under section 4005 of RCRA and § 10.1-1408.1 of the Act."

e. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria does not apply to sites actively enrolled in the Voluntary Remediation Program (9VAC20-160) or sites that have successfully completed the Voluntary Remediation Program in accordance with all conditions and requirements of their Certificates of Satisfactory Completion.

f. In addition to those exceptions found in 40 CFR 257.1(c), the open dump criteria shall not apply to sites that are undergoing remediation per the requirements of CERCLA or the RCRA Corrective Action Program and are doing so with the department's or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oversight.

C. Site evaluation and remedial action.

1. If a site is a potential or probable open dump, a site evaluation may be conducted. This site evaluation will be conducted by the department in order to determine if further action is required under this section. The site evaluation will include but is not limited to any records that can be obtained from the owner, operator, or other responsible party as well as all documented observations by department personnel regarding the following:

a. The location of the site;

b. The amount, type, and source of the waste at the site;

c. The permit status for the activities taking place at the site; and

d. A preliminary evaluation of the site with respect to the criteria outlined in subsection B of this section.

2. Based on the criteria of subsection B of this section and the information gathered under the provisions of subdivision 1 of this subsection, the department will make a determination that the site is or is not an open dump.

3. If the department determines that the site is an open dump then the department will make a recommendation for remedial action as follows:

a. Remedial action is required; or

b. Removal of the wastes from the site and disposal at a facility permitted to accept the wastes is required. The department may require submission of evidence of proper management of the removed waste and may require evidence, including confirmatory sampling, of the removal of solid waste and any hazardous constituents. A site inspection will be performed by the department to confirm the removal of the waste materials.

4. The site evaluation conducted under this subsection may be performed pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

5. Pursuant to the recommendations made under subdivision 3 of this subsection, any required remedial action as deemed necessary by the department shall be performed by the responsible party pursuant to an administrative or judicial order or other appropriate mechanism as chosen by the department.

D. Process and appeal.

1. Any case decision by the department based on the requirements of this section shall be subject to the process and appeal provisions of the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

2. A final determination and an administrative order requiring remedial action may be obtained in the same hearing or proceeding subject to the Virginia Administrative Process Act (§ 2.2-4000 et seq. of the Code of Virginia).

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 09, eff. January 27, 2016.

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