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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 20. Virginia Waste Management Board
Chapter 81. Solid Waste Management Regulations

9VAC20-81-460. Part A permit application.

A. The following information shall be included in the Part A permit application for all solid waste management facilities unless otherwise specified in this section. All plans and drawings of the Part A application shall be certified by a professional engineer or professional geologist.

B. The Part A permit application consists of a letter stating the type of the facility for which the permit application is made and the certification required in subsection J of this section. The applicant shall submit the completed DEQ Form SW PTA (Part A Permit Application Form) and all required information and attachments as detailed in this section.

C. A key map of the Part A permit application, delineating the general location of the proposed facility, shall be prepared and attached as part of the application. The key map shall be plotted on a seven and one-half minute U.S. Geological Survey topographical quadrangle. The quadrangle shall be the most recent revision available, shall include the name of the quadrangle and shall delineate a minimum of one mile from the perimeter of the proposed facility boundaries. One or more maps may be utilized where necessary to insure clarity of the information submitted.

D. A vicinity map shall be prepared and attached as part of the application. This vicinity map shall have a minimum scale of one inch equals 200 feet (1" = 200') and shall delineate an area of 500 feet from the perimeter of the property line of the proposed facility. A vicinity map may be prepared with a reduced scale if it does not fit in a sheet with the required minimum scale and multiple sheets may be used to meet the requirement of minimum scale. The vicinity maps may be an enlargement of a U.S. Geological Survey topographical quadrangle or a recent aerial photograph. Notes may be provided in the map if one or more of the following are not present within the delineated area. The vicinity map shall depict the following:

1. All homes, buildings, or structures including the layout of the buildings that will compose the proposed facility;

2. The surveyed boundaries for the property boundary, facility boundary, and waste management boundary, and the acreages within these boundaries;

3. The limits of the actual disposal operations within the boundaries of the proposed facility;

4. Lots and blocks taken from the tax map for the site of the proposed facility and all contiguous properties;

5. The base floodplain, where it passes through the map area; or, otherwise, a note indicating the expected flood occurrence period for the area;

6. Existing land uses and zoning classification;

7. All water supply wells, springs or intakes, both public and private;

8. All utility lines, pipelines or land-based facilities (including mines and wells); and

9. All parks, recreation areas, surface water bodies, dams, historic areas, wetlands areas, monument areas, cemeteries, wildlife refuges, unique natural areas, or similar features.

E. Any applicant must demonstrate legal control over the site for the permit life.

F. For solid waste disposal facilities regulated under Part III (9VAC20-81-100 et seq.), site hydrogeologic and geotechnical reports by professional geologist or professional engineer.

1. The site investigation for a proposed landfill facility shall provide information regarding the geotechnical and hydrogeologic conditions at the site to allow a reasonable determination of the usefulness of the site for development as a landfill. The geotechnical exploration efforts shall be designed to provide information regarding the availability and suitability of onsite soils for use in the various construction phases of the landfill including liner, cover, drainage material, and cap. The hydrogeologic information shall be sufficient to determine the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer underlying the facility. Subsurface investigation programs conducted shall meet the minimum specifications here.

a. Borings shall be located to identify the uppermost aquifer within the proposed facility boundary, determine the ability to perform groundwater monitoring at the site, and provide data for the evaluation of the physical properties of soils and soil availability. Borings completed for the proposed facility shall be sufficient in number and depth to identify the thickness of the uppermost aquifer and the presence of any significant underlying impermeable zone in the waste management boundary. Impermeable zone shall not be fully penetrated within the anticipated fill areas, whenever possible. The number of borings shall be at a minimum in accordance with Table 5.1 as follows:

Table 5.1

Waste Management Boundary Acreage

Total Number of Borings

Less than 10


10 - 49


50 - 99


100 - 200


More than 200

24 + 1 boring for each additional 10 acres

b. The department reserves the right to require additional borings in areas in which the number of borings required by Table 5.1 is not sufficient to describe the geologic formations and groundwater flow patterns below the proposed solid waste disposal facility.

c. In highly uniform geological formations, the number of borings may be reduced, as approved by the department.

d. The borings shall employ a grid pattern, wherever possible, such that there is, at a minimum, one boring in each major geomorphic feature. The borings pattern shall enable the development of detailed cross sections through the proposed landfill site.

e. Subsurface data obtained by borings shall be collected by standard soil sampling techniques. Diamond bit coring, air rotary drilling, or other appropriate methods, or a combination of methods shall be used as appropriate to characterize competent bedrock. The borings shall be logged from the surface to the lowest elevation (base grade) or to bedrock, whichever is shallower, according to standard practices and procedures. In addition, the borings required by Table 5.1 shall be performed on a continuous basis for the first 20 feet below the lowest elevation of the solid waste disposal facility or to the bed rock. Additional samples as determined by the professional geologist or professional engineer shall be collected at five-foot intervals thereafter.

f. Excavations, test pits, and geophysical methods may be employed to supplement the soil boring investigation.

g. At a minimum, four of the borings shall be converted to water level observations wells, well nests, piezometers, or piezometer nests to allow determination of the rate and direction of groundwater flow across the site. All groundwater monitoring points or water level measurement points shall be designed to allow proper abandonment by backfilling with an impermeable material. The total number of wells or well nests shall be based on the complexity of the geology of the site.

h. Field analyses shall be performed in representative borings to determine the in situ hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost aquifer.

i. All borings not to be utilized as permanent monitoring wells, and wells within the active solid waste disposal area, shall be sealed and excavations and test pits shall be backfilled and properly compacted to prevent possible paths of leachate migration. Boring sealing procedures shall be documented in the hydrogeologic report.

2. The geotechnical and hydrogeologic reports shall at least include the following principal sections:

a. Field procedures. Boring records and analyses from properly spaced borings in the facility portion of the site. Final boring logs shall be submitted for each boring, recording soils or rock conditions encountered. Each log shall include the type of drilling and sampling equipment, date the boring was started, date the boring was finished, a soil or rock description in accordance with the United Soil Classification System or the Rock Quality Designation, the method of sampling, the depth of sample collection, the water levels encountered, and the Standard Penetration Test blow counts, if applicable. Boring locations and elevations shall be surveyed with a precision of 0.01 foot. At least one surveyed point shall be indelibly marked by the surveyor on each well. All depths of soil and rock as described within the boring log shall be corrected to National Geodetic Vertical Datum, if available.

b. Geotechnical interpretations and report including complete engineering description of the soil units underlying the site.

(1) Soil unit descriptions shall include estimates of soil unit thickness, continuity across the site, and genesis. Laboratory determination of the soil unit's physical properties shall be discussed.

(2) Soil units that are proposed for use as a drainage layer, impermeable cap, or impermeable liner material shall be supported by laboratory determinations of the remolded permeability. Remolded hydraulic conductivity tests require a Proctor compaction test (ASTM D698) soil classification liquid limit, plastic limit, particle size distribution, specific gravity, percent compaction of the test sample, remolded density and remolded moisture content, and the percent saturation of the test sample. Proctor compaction test data and hydraulic conductivity test sample data shall be plotted on standard moisture-density test graphs.

(3) The geotechnical report shall provide an estimate of the available volume of materials suitable for use as liner, cap, and drainage layer. It shall also discuss the anticipated uses of the onsite materials, if known.

c. Hydrogeologic report.

(1) The report shall include water table elevations, direction, and calculated rate of groundwater flow and similar information on the hydrogeology of the site. All raw data shall be submitted with calculations.

(2) The report shall contain a discussion of field test procedures and results, laboratory determinations made on undisturbed samples, recharge areas, discharge areas, adjacent or areal usage, and typical radii of influence of pumping wells.

(3) The report shall also contain a discussion of the regional geologic setting, the site geology, and a cataloging and description of the uppermost aquifer from the site investigation and from referenced literature. The geologic description shall include a discussion of the prevalence and orientation of fractures, faults, and other structural discontinuities, and presence of any other significant geologic features. The aquifer description shall address homogeneity, horizontal and vertical extent, isotropy, the potential for groundwater remediation, if required, and the factors influencing the proper placement of a groundwater monitoring network.

(4) The report shall include a geologic map of the site prepared from one of the following sources as available, in order of preference:

(a) Site specific mapping prepared from data collected during the site investigation;

(b) Published geologic mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 or larger;

(c) Published regional geologic mapping at a scale of 1:250,000 or larger; or

(d) Other published mapping.

(5) At least two generally orthogonal, detailed site specific cross sections, which shall describe the geologic formations identified by the geologic maps prepared in accordance with subdivision 2 c (4) of this subsection at a scale that clearly illustrates the geologic formations, shall be included in the hydrogeologic report. Cross sections shall show the geologic units, approximate construction of existing landfill cells base grades, water table, surficial features, and bedrock along the line of the cross section. Cross section locations shall be shown on an overall facility map.

(6) Potentiometric surface maps for the uppermost aquifer that define the groundwater conditions encountered below the proposed solid waste disposal facility area based upon stabilized groundwater elevations. Potentiometric surface maps shall be prepared for each set of groundwater elevation data available. The applicant shall include a discussion of the effects of site modifications, seasonal variations in precipitation, and existing and future land uses of the site on the potentiometric surface.

(7) If a geological map or report from either the Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy or the U.S. Geological Survey is published, it shall be included.

G. For solid waste management facilities regulated under Part IV (9VAC20-81-300 et seq.) of this chapter:

1. A cataloging and description of aquifers, geological features or any similar characteristic of the site that might affect the operation of the facility or be affected by that operation.

2. If a geological map or report from either the Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy or the U.S. Geological Survey is published, it shall be included.

H. For a new sanitary landfill or for an increase in daily disposal limit, an adequacy report prepared by the Virginia Department of Transportation or other responsible agency. As required under § 10.1-1408.4 A 1 of the Code of Virginia, the report will address the adequacy of transportation facilities that will be available to serve the landfill, including daily travel routes and traffic volumes that correlate with the daily disposal limit, road congestion, and highway safety. The department may determine an adequacy report is not required for small increases in the daily disposal limit.

I. For a new sanitary landfill or an expansion of an existing sanitary landfill or an increase in capacity by expanding an existing facility vertically upward, a Landfill Impact Statement (LIS).

1. A report must be provided to the department that addresses the potential impact of the landfill on parks, recreational areas, wildlife management areas, critical habitat areas of endangered species as designated by applicable local, state, or federal agencies, public water supplies, marine resources, wetlands, historic sites, fish and wildlife, water quality, and tourism. This report shall comply with the statutory requirements for siting landfills in the vicinity of public water supplies or wetlands as set forth in §§ 10.1-1408.4 and 10.1-1408.5 of the Code of Virginia.

2. The report will include a discussion of the landfill configuration and how the facility design addresses any impacts identified in the report required under subdivision 1 of this subsection.

3. The report will identify all of the areas identified under subdivision 1 of this subsection that are within five miles of the facility.

J. For a new facility or an expansion of an existing facility, or an increase in capacity by expanding an existing facility vertically upward, a signed statement by the applicant that he has sent written notice to all adjacent property owners or occupants that he intends to develop a SWMF or expand laterally or vertically upward of an existing facility on the site, a copy of the notice and the names and addresses of those to whom the notices were sent.

K. The total capacity of the solid waste management facility.

L. One or more of the following indicating that the public interest would be served by a new facility or a facility expansion, which includes:

1. Cost effective waste management for the public within the service area comparing the costs of a new facility or facility expansion to waste transfer, or other disposal options;

2. The facility provides protection of human health and safety and the environment;

3. The facility provides alternatives to disposal including reuse or reclamation;

4. The facility allows for the increased recycling opportunities for solid waste;

5. The facility provides for energy recovery or the subsequent use of solid waste, or both, thereby reducing the quantity of solid waste disposed;

6. The facility will support the waste management needs expressed by the host community; or

7. Any additional factors that indicate that the public interest would be served by the facility.

M. For CCR surface impoundments regulated under Part VIII (9VAC20-81-800 et seq.) of this chapter, site hydrogeologic and geotechnical reports by a professional geologist or professional engineer that meet the requirements of 9VAC20-81-800.

N. For new CCR landfills to be located in Planning District 8, a map identifying existing residential area and properties located within one mile of the facility boundary that are not served by municipal water supply and copies of documentation to satisfy the conditions of § 10.1-1402.05 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1402 of the Code of Virginia; 42 USC § 6941 et seq.; 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 27, Issue 12, eff. March 16, 2011; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 9, eff. January 27, 2016; Volume 40, Issue 4, eff. November 8, 2023.

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