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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 25. State Water Control Board
Chapter 740. Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation
6/3/2020

9VAC25-740-10. Definitions.

Part I
Definitions and General Program Requirements

The following words and terms when used in this chapter shall have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise.

"Beneficial use" means both instream and offstream uses. Instream beneficial uses include, but are not limited to, the protection of fish and wildlife resources and habitat, maintenance of waste assimilation, recreation, navigation, and cultural and aesthetic values. The preservation of instream flows for purposes of the protection of navigation, maintenance of waste assimilation capacity, the protection of fish and wildlife resources and habitat, recreation, cultural and aesthetic values is an instream beneficial use of Virginia's waters. Offstream beneficial uses include, but are not limited to, domestic (including public water supply), agricultural, electric power generation, commercial, and industrial uses.

"Biological nutrient removal" or "BNR" means treatment that achieves annual average concentrations less than or equal to 8.0 mg/l total nitrogen (N) and 1.0 mg/l total phosphorus (P).

"Board" means the Virginia State Water Control Board or State Water Control Board.

"Bulk irrigation reuse" means reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation of an area greater than five acres on one contiguous property.

"Conjunctive system" means a system consisting of a wastewater treatment works and reclamation system having no or minimal separation of treatment processes between the treatment works and the reclamation system.

"Controlled use" means a use of reclaimed water authorized in accordance with this chapter.

"Corrective action threshold" or "CAT" means a bacterial, turbidity, or total residual chlorine standard for reclaimed water at which measures shall be implemented to correct operational problems of the reclamation system within a specified period, or divert flow from the reclamation treatment process in accordance with this chapter.

"Design flow" means the capacity at which a treatment works is designed to reliably treat an average 24-hour influent flow rate, assessed over a period of a month for all months of operation within a year, including appropriate peak factors provided to meet applicable reliability and redundancy requirements. The average 24-hour influent flow rate shall be based on projected estimates of influent flow to be received by the treatment works.

"Designated design flow" means the design flow of a reclamation system that may be some percentage of or equal to the design flow of a treatment works providing source water to the reclamation system to produce reclaimed water.

"Direct beneficial use" means the use of reclaimed water in a manner protective of the environment and public health that involves transport of the reclaimed water from the point of reclamation treatment and production to the point of use without an intervening discharge to waters of the state.

"Direct injection" means the discharge of reclaimed water directly into groundwater.

"Direct potable reuse" means the discharge of reclaimed water directly into a drinking water treatment facility or into a drinking water distribution system. This includes storage facilities associated with the drinking water treatment facility or drinking water distribution system that are not surface or ground waters of the state.

"Director" means the Director of the Department of Environmental Quality or an authorized representative.

"Disinfection" means the destruction, inactivation, or removal of pathogenic microorganisms by chemical, physical, or biological means. Disinfection may be accomplished by chlorination, ozonation, or other chemical disinfectants; UV radiation; or other processes.

"Disposal" means the discharge of effluent to injection wells, effluent outfalls, subsurface drain fields, or other facilities utilized primarily for the release of effluents into the environment without deriving a direct beneficial use.

"Domestic sewage" means sewage derived from the normal family or household activities, including drinking, laundering, bathing, cooking, heating, cleaning and flushing toilets.

"Drip irrigation" means the slow and uniform above-ground application of water to individual plants and vegetated cover using tubing and drip devices or emitters. Drip irrigation may include below-ground applications of reclaimed water as specified in 9VAC25-740-90 B.

"Effluent," unless specifically stated otherwise, means treated wastewater that is not reused after flowing out of any treatment works.

"End user" means a person or entity that directly uses reclaimed water.

"Filtration" means the passing of wastewater through a conventional technology, such as sand, anthracite or cloth; or an advanced technology, such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis membrane.

"Food crops commercially processed" means food crops that, prior to sale to the public or others, have undergone chemical or physical processing sufficient to remove or destroy pathogens.

"Food crops not commercially processed" means food crops that, prior to sale to the public or others, have not undergone chemical or physical processing sufficient to remove or destroy pathogens.

"Gray water" means untreated wastewater from bathtubs, showers, lavatory fixtures, wash basins, washing machines, and laundry tubs. It does not include wastewater from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks, dishwashers, or laundry water from soiled diapers.

"Groundwater" means any water, except capillary moisture, beneath the land surface in the zone of saturation or beneath the bed of any stream, lake, reservoir or other body of surface water wholly or partially within the boundaries of this Commonwealth, whatever the subsurface geologic structure in which such water stands, flows, percolates or otherwise occurs.

"Harvested rainwater" means rainwater that has been collected off of a rooftop through a system that concentrates the rooftop flow and conveys this to a storage device, container, or vessel with the intention of using this water before discharge to waterways via sanitary sewer systems, septic tank or other onsite treatment and disposal systems, or a land based discharge.

"Indirect nonpotable reuse" means the discharge of reclaimed water to a receiving surface water for the purpose of intentionally augmenting a water source, followed by withdrawal from the water source with or without mixing and transport to the withdrawal location, for reuse or distribution for reuse other than indirect potable reuse.

"Indirect potable reuse" or "IPR" means the discharge of reclaimed water to a receiving surface water for the purpose of intentionally augmenting a water supply source, with subsequent withdrawal after mixing with the ambient surface water and transport to the withdrawal location, followed by treatment and distribution for drinking water and other potable water purposes.

"Industrial wastewater" means wastewater resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade or business, or from the development of any natural resources.

"Irrigation" means the application of water to land for plant use at a rate that undesirable plant water stress does not occur.

"Landscape impoundment" means a body of water that contains reclaimed water, is not intended for public contact, and is used primarily for aesthetic enjoyment. Landscape impoundments include, but are not limited to, decorative pools, fountains, ponds and lagoons; located outdoors or indoors.

"Level 1" means a degree of treatment at which reclaimed water has received, at a minimum, secondary treatment with filtration and higher-level disinfection, and meets all other applicable standards specified in 9VAC25-740-70.

"Level 2" means a degree of treatment at which reclaimed water has received, at a minimum, secondary treatment and standard disinfection, and meets all other applicable standards specified in 9VAC25-740-70.

"Municipal wastewater" means sewage.

"Nonbulk irrigation reuse" means the reuse of reclaimed water for irrigation of individual areas less than or equal to five acres.

"Nonpotable water" means any water, including reclaimed water, not meeting the definition of potable water.

"Nonsystem storage" means storage for reclaimed water that is other than system storage and is used at a location downstream of the service connection to the reclaimed water distribution system to equalize flow to end users.

"Nutrient management plan" or "NMP" means a plan prepared by a nutrient management planner certified by the Department of Conservation and Recreation to manage the amount, placement, timing, and application of plant nutrients from liquid, solid or semisolid manures, fertilizers, biosolids, or other materials, for the purpose of producing crops and reducing nutrient loss to the environment.

"Owner" means the Commonwealth or any of its political subdivisions including, but not limited to, sanitation district commissions and authorities, and any public or private institution, corporation, association, firm or company organized or existing under the laws of this or any other state or country, or any officer or agency of the United States, or any person or group of persons acting individually or as a group that owns, operates, charters, rents, or otherwise exercises control over or is responsible for the production or distribution of reclaimed water, or any facility or operation that produces or distributes reclaimed water.

"Permit" means an authorization, certificate, license, or equivalent control document issued by the board to implement the requirements of this chapter.

"Point of compliance" or "POC" means a point at which compliance with the standards of this chapter is required.

"Pollutants of concern" means any pollutants that might reasonably be expected to be discharged to a publicly or privately owned treatment works in sufficient amounts to pass through or interfere with the works, contaminate sludge generated by the works, cause problems in the collection system of the works, or jeopardize the health of employees at the works and the public.

"Potable water" means water fit for human consumption and domestic use that is sanitary and normally free of minerals, organic substances, and toxic agents in excess of reasonable amounts for domestic usage in the area served and normally adequate in quantity and quality for the minimum health requirements of the persons served.

"Public access area" means an area that is intended to be accessible to the general public, such as golf courses, cemeteries, parks, athletic fields, school yards, and landscape areas. Public access areas include private property that is not open to the public at large, but is intended for frequent use by many persons. Presence of authorized farm personnel or other authorized treatment plant, utilities system, or reuse system personnel does not constitute public access.

"Reclaimed water" means water resulting from the treatment of domestic, municipal or industrial wastewater that is suitable for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur. Specifically excluded from this definition is "gray water." For the purposes of this chapter, "harvested rainwater" and "stormwater" are also excluded from this definition.

"Reclaimed water agent" means a person or entity that holds a permit to distribute reclaimed water to one or more end users.

"Reclaimed water distribution system" means a network of pipes, pumping facilities, storage facilities, and appurtenances designed to convey and distribute reclaimed water from one or more reclamation systems to end uses.

"Reclamation" means the treatment of domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater or sewage to produce reclaimed water for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur.

"Reclamation system" means a treatment works that treats domestic, municipal, or industrial wastewater or sewage to produce reclaimed water for a water reuse that would not otherwise occur.

"Reject water storage" means storage for water diverted by a reclamation system or satellite reclamation system that does not meet applicable reclaimed water standards.

"Reliability Class I" means a measure of reliability that requires a treatment works design to provide continuous satisfactory operation during power failures, flooding, peak loads, equipment failure, and maintenance shut-down. This class includes design features, such as additional electrical power sources, additional flow storage capacity, and additional treatment units that provide operation in accordance with the issued certificate or permit requirements. The definition of Reliability Class I contained in this chapter is in addition to but does not supersede the definition of Reliability Class I contained in the Sewage Collection and Treatment Regulations (9VAC25-790).

"Reuse" or "water reuse" means the use of reclaimed water for a direct beneficial use, an indirect potable reuse, an indirect nonpotable reuse, or a controlled use in accordance with this chapter.

"Reuse system" means an installation or method of operation that uses reclaimed water for a water reuse in accordance with this chapter.

"Restricted access" means limited access by humans to areas where nonpotable water, including reclaimed water, is used, resulting in minimal or no potential for human contact.

"Satellite reclamation system" or "SRS" means a conjunctive system that operates within or parallel to a sewage collection system to treat a portion of the available wastewater flow in the collection system to produce reclaimed water for reuse. Satellite reclamation systems do not have a discharge to surface waters, but may return their treatment process wastewater and residuals to the sewage collection system.

"Secondary treatment" means a biological treatment process for wastewater that achieves the minimum level of effluent quality defined by the federal secondary treatment regulation in 40 CFR 133.102 (2001).

"Service area" means a geographic area that receives reclaimed water from a reclaimed water distribution system or directly from a reclamation system for approved reuses within that area.

"Sewage" means the water-carried human wastes and nonwater-carried human excrement, kitchen, laundry, shower, bath or lavatory wastes, separately or together with such underground, surface, storm and other water and liquid industrial wastes as may be present from residences, buildings, vehicles, industrial establishments or other places.

"Significant industrial user" or "SIU" shall have the meaning set forth in the VPDES Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31-10).

"Source water" means untreated or partially treated wastewater supplied for reclamation.

"State waters" or "waters of the state" means all water, on the surface and under the ground, wholly or partially within or bordering the Commonwealth or within its jurisdiction, including wetlands.

"State Water Control Law" or "Law" means Chapter 3.1 (§ 62.1-44.2 et seq.) of Title 62.1 of the Code of Virginia.

"Stormwater" means precipitation that is discharged across the land surface or through conveyances to one or more waterways and that may include stormwater runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and drainage.

"Supplemental irrigation" means irrigation, which in combination with rainfall, meets but does not exceed the water necessary to maximize production or optimize growth of the irrigated vegetation.

"Surface waters" means all waters in the Commonwealth, except groundwater as defined in § 62.1-255 of the Code of Virginia.

"System storage" means storage on or off the site and considered part of a reclamation system, SRS, or reclaimed water distribution system that is used to store reclaimed water produced by the reclamation system or SRS and to equalize flow to or within a reclaimed water distribution system.

"Total maximum daily load" or "TMDL" shall have the meaning set forth in the Water Quality Management Planning Regulation (9VAC25-720).

"Treatment works" means any devices and systems used for the storage, treatment, recycling or reclamation of sewage or liquid industrial waste, or other waste, or that are necessary to recycle or reuse water, including intercepting sewers, outfall sewers, sewage collection systems, individual systems, pumping, power and other equipment and their appurtenances, extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions, or alterations thereof; or any works, including land that will be an integral part of the treatment process or is used for ultimate disposal of residues resulting from such treatment; or any other method or system used for preventing, abating, reducing, storing, treating, separating, or disposing of municipal waste or industrial waste, including waste in combined sewer water and sanitary sewer systems.

"Underground aquifer" means an aquifer or portion of an aquifer that supplies any public water system or that contains a sufficient quantity of groundwater to supply a public water system, and currently supplies drinking water for human consumption, or that contains fewer than 10,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and is not an exempted aquifer.

"Unintentional reuse" means the unintentional or unplanned use of reclaimed water subsequent to discharge to surface waters of the state, including wetlands, pursuant to a VPDES permit.

"Unrestricted access" means unlimited or minimally limited access by humans to areas where nonpotable water, including reclaimed water, is used, resulting in a high potential for human contact.

"User" means end user.

"Virginia Pollution Abatement permit" or "VPA permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to the Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-32), authorizing pollutant management activities under prescribed conditions.

"Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit" or "VPDES permit" means a document issued by the board, pursuant to the Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) Permit Regulation (9VAC25-31), authorizing, under prescribed conditions the potential or actual discharge of pollutants from a point source to surface waters and the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Under the approved state program, a VPDES permit is equivalent to an NPDES permit.

"Wastewater" means untreated liquid and water-carried industrial wastes and domestic sewage from residential dwellings, commercial buildings, industrial and manufacturing facilities and institutions.

"Water reclamation" means the reclamation of wastewater or treated effluent for reuse.

"Waterworks" means a system that serves piped water for drinking or domestic use to (i) the public, (ii) at least 15 connections, or (iii) an average of 25 individuals for at least 60 days out of the year. The term "waterworks" shall include all structures, equipment, and appurtenances used in the storage, collection, purification, treatment, and distribution of pure water, except the piping and fixtures inside the building where such water is delivered.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 09, eff. January 29, 2014.

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