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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 25. State Water Control Board
Chapter 740. Water Reclamation and Reuse Regulation
1/29/2020

9VAC25-740-170. Use Area Requirements.

A. Education and notification program. An education and notification program (program) shall be developed and submitted with the RWM plan in accordance with 9VAC25-740-100 C 1 for reuses that require Level 1 reclaimed water, will be in areas accessible to the public, or are likely to have human contact. For indirect potable reuse (IPR) projects that do not require a RWM plan, the program shall be submitted with the application to permit the project in accordance with 9VAC25-740-100 D. The program shall be the responsibility of the permittee to implement.

1. Education. The education component of the program shall:

a. For end users and the public likely to have contact with reclaimed water, provide information:

(1) To ensure that they are informed of the origin, nature, and characteristics of the reclaimed water; the manner in which the reclaimed water can be used safely; and uses for which the reclaimed water is prohibited or limited;

(2) To individual end users, at the time of their initial connection to the reclaimed water distribution system, which may be provided in the service agreement or contract with the permittee established in accordance with 9VAC25-740-100 C 1 d; and

(3) To individual end users, annually or more often after the reclaimed water distribution system is placed into operation for nonbulk irrigation reuse of reclaimed water not treated to achieve biological nutrient removal (BNR).

b. For IPR projects, provide information to generators of source water for reclamation and IPR that are other than SIUs. This information shall describe methods and practices to avoid or reduce the introduction of contaminants from domestic and commercial sources into the wastewater collection system prior to reclamation and shall be provided to individual generators annually or more often after the reclamation system is placed into operation.

c. Describe all modes of communication to be used to educate and inform, including, but not limited to, meetings, distribution of written information, the news media (i.e., newspapers, radio, television, or the Internet), and advisory signs as described in 9VAC25-740-160.

2. Notification. The notification component of the program shall contain procedures to notify end users and the affected public of discharges of substandard reclaimed water to reuse that can adversely impact human health, or the loss of reclaimed water service due to planned or unplanned causes.

a. Notifications required for discharge of substandard reclaimed water to reuse.

(1) For reuses other than IPR. Where treatment of the reclaimed water fails more than once during a seven-day period to comply with Level 1 disinfection or other standards developed in accordance with 9VAC25-740-70 D or 9VAC25-740-70 E for the protection of human health, and the noncompliant reclaimed water has been discharged to a reclaimed water distribution system or directly to a reuse, the permittee shall notify the end user of the treatment failures and advise the end user of precautions to be taken to protect human health when using the reclaimed water in areas accessible to the public or where human contact with the reclaimed water is likely. These precautions shall be implemented for a period of seven days or greater depending on the frequency and magnitude of the treatment failure.

(2) For IPR. Where treatment of the reclaimed water fails at any time to comply with standards specified in 9VAC25-740-90 C and is discharged to the water supply source (WSS), the permittee shall notify the owner or management of the waterworks that withdraws water from the affected WSS of the time, duration, volume, and pollutant characteristics of the noncompliant discharge within a period of less than or equal to half the shortest determined travel time between the reclamation system discharge and the waterworks intake, but in no case greater than eight hours. Such notification shall be implemented for a period of seven days or greater depending on the frequency and magnitude of the noncompliant reclaimed water discharge and the ability of subsequent multiple barriers as described in the permit application of the IPR project to mitigate the impact of the discharge on the WSS.

b. Notifications required for loss of service.

(1) For reuses other than IPR. Where reclaimed water service to end users will be interrupted due to planned causes, such as scheduled maintenance or repairs, the permittee shall provide advance notice to end users of the anticipated date and duration of the interrupted service. Where reclaimed water service to end users is disrupted by unplanned causes, such as an upset at the reclamation system, the permittee shall notify end users and the affected public of the disrupted service if it cannot or will not be restored within eight hours of discovery.

(2) For IPR. Where the discharge of the reclamation system to the WSS will be interrupted due to planned causes, such as scheduled maintenance or repairs, the permittee shall provide advance notice to the owner or management of the waterworks that withdraws water from the WSS of the anticipated date, duration, and cause for the interrupted discharge. Where the discharge of the reclamation system is interrupted by unplanned causes, such as an upset at the reclamation system, the permittee shall notify the waterworks owner or management of the interrupted discharge if the discharge cannot or will not be restored within eight hours of initial occurrence.

c. The notification component of the program shall describe all modes of communication that may be used to provide the notifications specified in subdivisions 2 a and b of this subsection. Modes of communication may include, but are not limited to, those described in subdivision 1 c of this subsection for the education component of the education and notification program.

B. Reclaimed water shall be used in a manner that is consistent with this chapter and with the conditions of the VPDES or VPA permit, such that public health and the environmental shall be protected.

C. Reclaimed water delivered to end users shall comply with reclaimed water standards required for the intended reuses at the point of delivery to end users.

D. There shall be no nuisance conditions resulting from the distribution, use, or storage of reclaimed water.

E. For all irrigation reuses of reclaimed water, the following shall be required:

1. There shall be no application of reclaimed water to the ground when it is saturated, frozen or covered with ice or snow, and during periods of rainfall.

2. The chosen method of irrigation shall minimize human contact with the reclaimed water.

3. Reclaimed water shall be prevented from coming into contact with drinking fountains, water coolers, or eating surfaces.

F. For bulk irrigation reuse of reclaimed water, the following shall be required:

1. Irrigation systems shall be designed, installed and adjusted to:

a. Provide uniform distribution of the reclaimed water over the irrigation site;

b. Prevent ponding or pooling of reclaimed water at the irrigation site;

c. Facilitate maintenance and harvesting of irrigated areas and preclude damage to the irrigation system from the use of maintenance or harvesting equipment;

d. Prevent aerosol carry-over from the irrigation site to areas beyond the setback distances described in subsection H of this section; and

e. Prevent clogging from algae or suspended solids.

2. All pipes, pumps, valve boxes and outlets of the irrigation system shall be designed, installed, and identified in accordance with 9VAC25-740-110 B.

3. Any reclaimed water runoff shall be confined to the irrigation reuse site unless authorized by the board.

G. Overspray of surface waters, including wetlands, from irrigation or other reuses of reclaimed water is prohibited.

H. Setback distances for irrigation reuses of reclaimed water.

1. For sites irrigated with reclaimed water treated to Level 1, the setback distances provided in Table 170-H1 are required:

Table 170-H1
Setback Distances for Irrigation Reuses of Reclaimed Water Treated to Level 1

Feature Requiring Setback

Setback Distance

a. Potable water supply wells and springs and public water supply intakes

100 feet

b. Nonpotable water supply wells

10 feet

c. Limestone rock outcrops and sinkholes

50 feet

2. For sites irrigated with reclaimed water treated to Level 1, no setback distances are required from occupied dwellings and outdoor eating, drinking and bathing facilities. However, aerosol formation shall be minimized within 100 feet of occupied dwellings and outdoor eating, drinking and bathing facilities through the use of low trajectory nozzles for spray irrigation, above-ground drip irrigation, or other means.

3. For sites irrigated with reclaimed water treated to Level 2, the setback distances provided in Table 170-H2 are required:

Table 170-H2
Setback Distances for Irrigation Reuses of Reclaimed Water Treated to Level 2

Feature Requiring Setback

Setback Distance

a. Potable water supply wells and springs and public water supply intakes

200 feet

b. Nonpotable water supply wells

10 feet

c. Surface waters, including wetlands

50 feet

d. Occupied dwellings

200 feet

e. Property lines and areas accessible to the public

100 feet

f. Limestone rock outcrops and sinkholes

50 feet

4. For sites irrigated with reclaimed water treated to Level 2, the setback distances may be reduced as follows:

a. Up to but not exceeding 50% from occupied dwellings and areas accessible to the public if it can be demonstrated that alternative measures shall be implemented to provide an equivalent level of public health protection. Such measures shall include, but are not limited to, disinfection of the reclaimed water equivalent to Level 1, application of the reclaimed water by methods that minimize aerosol formation (e.g., low trajectory nozzles for spray irrigation, above-ground drip irrigation), installation of permanent physical barriers to prevent migration of aerosols from the reclaimed water irrigation site, or any combination thereof. Written consent of affected landowners is required to reduce setback distances from occupied dwellings.

b. Up to 100 % from property lines with written consent from adjacent landowners.

c. To but not less than 100 feet from potable water supply wells and springs, or public water supply intakes if it can be demonstrated that disinfection of the reclaimed water is equivalent to Level 1 and there are no other constituents of the reclaimed water present in quantities sufficient to be harmful to human health.

d. To but not less than 25 feet from surface waters, including wetlands, where reclaimed water shall be applied by methods that minimize aerosol formation (e.g., low trajectory nozzles for spray irrigation, above-ground drip irrigation); or permanent physical barriers are installed to prevent the migration of aerosols from the reclaimed water irrigation site to surface waters.

5. Application of reclaimed water shall not occur during winds of sufficient strength to cause overspray or aerosol drift into or beyond the buffer zones or setbacks specified in subdivisions 1 through 4 of this subsection.

6. For irrigation reuses where more than one setback distance may apply, the greater setback distance shall govern.

7. Unless specifically stated otherwise, all setback distances shall be measured horizontally.

I. Minimum separation distances for in-ground reclaimed water distribution pipelines specified in 9VAC25-740-110 B 3, shall apply to in-ground piping for irrigation systems of reclaimed water.

J. A setback distance of 100 feet horizontally shall be maintained from indoor aesthetic features (i.e., decorative waterfalls or fountains) that use reclaimed water treated to Level 1, to adjacent indoor public eating and drinking facilities where the aesthetic features have the potential to create aerosols and eating and drinking facilities are within the same room or building space.

K. A setback distance of 300 feet horizontally shall be provided from an open cooling tower to the site property line where reclaimed water treated to Level 2 is used in the tower. No setback distance shall be required from an open cooling tower to the site property line where a drift or mist eliminator is installed and properly operated or reclaimed water treated to Level 1 disinfection standards is used in the tower. Treatment of the reclaimed water to Level 1 disinfection standards may be provided by the industrial end user through the contract or agreement established by the permittee in accordance with 9VAC25-740-100 C 1 d.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 24, Issue 26, eff. October 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 30, Issue 09, eff. January 29, 2014.

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