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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 140. Regulation for Emissions Trading Programs
9/29/2020

9VAC5-140-6020. Definitions.

A. As used in this part, all words or terms not defined here shall have the meanings given them in 9VAC5-10 (General Definitions), unless otherwise required by the context.

B. For the purpose of this part and any related use, the words or terms shall have the meanings given them in this section.

C. Terms defined.

"Account number" means the identification number given by the department or its agent to each COATS account.

"Acid Rain emission limitation" means, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, a limitation on emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) or nitrogen oxides (NOX) under the Acid Rain Program under Title IV of the CAA.

"Acid Rain Program" means a multistate SO2 and NOX air pollution control and emission reduction program established by the administrator under Title IV of the CAA and 40 CFR Parts 72 through 78.

"Adjustment for banked allowances" means an adjustment applied to the Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program base budget for allocation years 2021 through 2025 to address allowances held in general and compliance accounts, including compliance accounts established pursuant to the CO2 Budget Trading Program, but not including accounts opened by participating states.

"Administrator" means the administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the administrator's authorized representative.

"Allocate" or "allocation" means the determination by the department of the number of CO2 allowances recorded in the CO2 allowance account of a CO2 budget unit.

"Allocation year" means a calendar year for which the department allocates CO2 allowances pursuant to Article 5 (9VAC5-140-6190 et seq.) of this part. The allocation year of each CO2 allowance is reflected in the unique identification number given to the allowance pursuant to 9VAC5-140-6250 C.

"Allowance auction" or "auction" means an auction in which the department or its agent offers CO2 allowances for sale.

"Attribute" means a characteristic associated with electricity generated using a particular renewable fuel, such as its generation date, facility geographic location, unit vintage, emissions output, fuel, state program eligibility, or other characteristic that can be identified, accounted for, and tracked.

"Attribute credit" means a credit that represents the attributes related to one megawatt-hour of electricity generation.

"Automated Data Acquisition and Handling System" or "DAHS" means that component of the Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS), or other emissions monitoring system approved for use under Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part, designed to interpret and convert individual output signals from pollutant concentration monitors, flow monitors, diluent gas monitors, and other component parts of the monitoring system to produce a continuous record of the measured parameters in the measurement units required by Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part.

"Billing meter" means a measurement device used to measure electric or thermal output for commercial billing under a contract. The facility selling the electric or thermal output shall have different owners from the owners of the party purchasing the electric or thermal output.

"Boiler" means an enclosed fossil or other fuel-fired combustion device used to produce heat and to transfer heat to recirculating water, steam, or other medium.

"CO2 allowance" means a limited authorization by the department or participating state under the CO2 Budget Trading Program to emit up to one ton of CO2, subject to all applicable limitations contained in this part.

"CO2 allowance deduction" or "deduct CO2 allowances" means the permanent withdrawal of CO2 allowances by the department or its agent from a COATS compliance account to account for the number of tons of CO2 emitted from a CO2 budget source for a control period or an interim control period determined in accordance with Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part, or for the forfeit or retirement of CO2 allowances as provided by this part.

"CO2 Allowance Tracking System" or "COATS" means the system by which the department or its agent records allocations, deductions, and transfers of CO2 allowances under the CO2 Budget Trading Program. The tracking system may also be used to track CO2 allowance prices and emissions from affected sources.

"CO2 Allowance Tracking System account" means an account in COATS established by the department or its agent for purposes of recording the allocation, holding, transferring, or deducting of CO2 allowances.

"CO2 allowance transfer deadline" means midnight of March 1 occurring after the end of the relevant control period and each relevant interim control period, or if that March 1 is not a business day, midnight of the first business day thereafter and is the deadline by which CO2 allowances shall be submitted for recordation in a CO2 budget source's compliance account for the source to meet the CO2 requirements of 9VAC5-140-6050 C for a control period and each interim control period immediately preceding such deadline.

"CO2 allowances held" or "hold CO2 allowances" means the CO2 allowances recorded by the department or its agent, or submitted to the department or its agent for recordation, in accordance with Article 6 (9VAC5-140-6220 et seq.) and Article 7 (9VAC5-140-6300 et seq.) of this part, in a COATS account.

"CO2 authorized account representative" means, for a CO2 budget source and each CO2 budget unit at the source, the natural person who is authorized by the owners and operators of the source and all CO2 budget units at the source, in accordance with Article 2 (9VAC5-140-6080 et seq.) of this part, to represent and legally bind each owner and operator in matters pertaining to the CO2 Budget Trading Program or, for a general account, the natural person who is authorized, under Article 6 (9VAC5-140-6220 et seq.) of this part, to transfer or otherwise dispose of CO2 allowances held in the general account. If the CO2 budget source is also subject to the Acid Rain Program, CSAPR NOX Annual Trading Program, CSAPR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program, CSAPR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program, or CSAPR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program, then for a CO2 Budget Trading Program compliance account, this natural person shall be the same person as the designated representative as defined in the respective program.

"CO2 authorized alternate account representative" means, for a CO2 budget source and each CO2 budget unit at the source, the alternate natural person who is authorized by the owners and operators of the source and all CO2 budget units at the source, in accordance with Article 2 (9VAC5-140-6080 et seq.) of this part, to represent and legally bind each owner and operator in matters pertaining to the CO2 Budget Trading Program or, for a general account, the alternate natural person who is authorized, under Article 6 (9VAC5-140-6220 et seq.) of this part, to transfer or otherwise dispose of CO2 allowances held in the general account. If the CO2 budget source is also subject to the Acid Rain Program, CSAPR NOX Annual Trading Program, CSAPR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program, CSAPR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program, or CSAPR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program then, for a CO2 Budget Trading Program compliance account, this alternate natural person shall be the same person as the alternate designated representative as defined in the respective program.

"CO2 budget emissions limitation" means, for a CO2 budget source, the tonnage equivalent, in CO2 emissions in a control period or an interim control period of the CO2 allowances available for compliance deduction for the source for a control period or an interim control period.

"CO2 budget permit" means the portion of the legally binding permit issued by the department pursuant to 9VAC5-85 (Permits for Stationary Sources of Pollutants Subject to Regulation) to a CO2 budget source or CO2 budget unit that specifies the CO2 Budget Trading Program requirements applicable to the CO2 budget source, to each CO2 budget unit at the CO2 budget source, and to the owners and operators and the CO2 authorized account representative of the CO2 budget source and each CO2 budget unit.

"CO2 budget source" means a source that includes one or more CO2 budget units.

"CO2 Budget Trading Program" means a multistate CO2 air pollution control and emissions reduction program established according to this part and corresponding regulations in other states as a means of reducing emissions of CO2 from CO2 budget sources.

"CO2 budget unit" means a unit that is subject to the CO2 Budget Trading Program requirements under 9VAC5-140-6040.

"CO2 cost containment reserve allowance" or "CO2 CCR allowance" means an allowance that has been sold at an auction for the purpose of containing the cost of CO2 allowances. CO2 CCR allowances offered for sale at an auction are separate from and additional to CO2 allowances allocated from the Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program base and adjusted budgets. CO2 CCR allowances are subject to all applicable limitations contained in this part.

"CO2 cost containment reserve trigger price" or "CCR trigger price" means the minimum price at which CO2 CCR allowances are offered for sale by the department or its agent at an auction. The CCR trigger price in calendar year 2021 shall be $13. The CCR trigger price in calendar year 2022 shall be $13.91. Each calendar year thereafter, the CCR trigger price shall be 1.07 multiplied by the CCR trigger price from the previous calendar year, rounded to the nearest whole cent, as shown in Table 140-1A.

Table 140-1A

CO2 CCR Trigger Price

2021

$13.00

2022

$13.91

2023

$14.88

2024

$15.92

2025

$17.03

2026

$18.22

2027

$19.50

2028

$20.87

2029

$22.33

2030

$23.89

"CO2 emissions containment reserve allowance" or "CO2 ECR allowance" means a CO2 allowance that is withheld from sale at an auction by the department for the purpose of additional emission reduction in the event of lower than anticipated emission reduction costs.

"CO2 emissions containment reserve trigger price" or "ECR trigger price" means the price below which CO2 allowances will be withheld from sale by the department or its agent at an auction. The ECR trigger price in calendar year 2021 shall be $6.00. Each calendar year thereafter, the ECR trigger price shall be 1.07 multiplied by the ECR trigger price from the previous calendar year, rounded to the nearest whole cent, as shown in Table 140-1B.

Table 140-1B

CO2 ECR Trigger Price

2021

$ 6.00

2022

$ 6.42

2023

$ 6.87

2024

$ 7.35

2025

$ 7.86

2026

$8.41

2027

$ 9.00

2028

$ 9.63

2029

$10.30

2030

$11.02

"CO2 offset allowance" means a CO2 allowance that is awarded to the sponsor of a CO2 emissions offset project by a participating state and is subject to the relevant compliance deduction limitations of the participating state's corresponding offset regulations as a means of reducing CO2 from CO2 budget sources.

"Combined cycle system" means a system comprised of one or more combustion turbines, heat recovery steam generators, and steam turbines configured to improve overall efficiency of electricity generation or steam production.

"Combustion turbine" means an enclosed fossil or other fuel-fired device that is comprised of a compressor (if applicable), a combustor, and a turbine, and in which the flue gas resulting from the combustion of fuel in the combustor passes through the turbine, rotating the turbine.

"Commence commercial operation" means, with regard to a unit that serves a generator, to have begun to produce steam, gas, or other heated medium used to generate electricity for sale or use, including test generation. For a unit that is a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 on the date the unit commences commercial operation, such date shall remain the unit's date of commencement of commercial operation even if the unit is subsequently modified, reconstructed, or repowered. For a unit that is not a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 on the date the unit commences commercial operation, the date the unit becomes a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 shall be the unit's date of commencement of commercial operation.

"Commence operation" means to begin any mechanical, chemical, or electronic process, including, with regard to a unit, start-up of a unit's combustion chamber. For a unit that is a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 on the date of commencement of operation, such date shall remain the unit's date of commencement of operation even if the unit is subsequently modified, reconstructed, or repowered. For a unit that is not a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 on the date of commencement of operation, the date the unit becomes a CO2 budget unit under 9VAC5-140-6040 shall be the unit's date of commencement of operation.

"Compliance account" means a COATS account, established by the department or its agent for a CO2 budget source under Article 6 (9VAC5-140-6220 et seq.) of this part, in which CO2 allowances available for use by the source for a control period and each interim control period are held for the purpose of meeting the CO2 requirements of 9VAC5-140-6050 C.

"Continuous Emissions Monitoring System" or "CEMS" means the equipment required under Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part to sample, analyze, measure, and provide, by means of readings recorded at least once every 15 minutes (using an automated DAHS), a permanent record of stack gas volumetric flow rate, stack gas moisture content, and oxygen or carbon dioxide concentration (as applicable), in a manner consistent with 40 CFR Part 75 and Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part. The following systems are types of CEMS required under Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part:

a. A flow monitoring system, consisting of a stack flow rate monitor and an automated DAHS and providing a permanent, continuous record of stack gas volumetric flow rate, in standard cubic feet per hour;

b. A NOX emissions rate (or NOX-diluent) monitoring system, consisting of a NOX pollutant concentration monitor, a diluent gas (CO2 or O2) monitor, and an automated DAHS and providing a permanent, continuous record of NOX concentration, in parts per million (ppm), diluent gas concentration, in percent CO2 or O2, and NOX emissions rate, in pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MMBtu);

c. A moisture monitoring system, as defined in 40 CFR 75.11(b)(2) and providing a permanent, continuous record of the stack gas moisture content, in percent H2O;

d. A CO2 monitoring system, consisting of a CO2 pollutant concentration monitor (or an O2 monitor plus suitable mathematical equations from which the CO2 concentration is derived) and an automated DAHS and providing a permanent, continuous record of CO2 emissions, in percent CO2; and

e. An O2 monitoring system, consisting of an O2 concentration monitor and an automated DAHS and providing a permanent, continuous record of O2, in percent O2.

"Control period" means a three-calendar-year time period. The fifth control period is from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2023, inclusive, which is the first control period of Virginia's participation in the CO2 Budget Trading Program. The first two calendar years of each control period are each defined as an interim control period, beginning on January 1, 2021.

"Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) NOX Annual Trading Program" means a multistate NOX air pollution control and emission reduction program established in accordance with Subpart AAAAA of 40 CFR Part 97 and 40 CFR 52.38(a), including such a program that is revised in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.38(a)(3) or (4) or that is established in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.38(a)(5), as a means of mitigating interstate transport of fine particulates and NOX.

"Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) NOX Ozone Season Trading Program" means a multistate NOX air pollution control and emission reduction program established in accordance with Subpart BBBBB of 40 CFR Part 97 and 40 CFR 52.38(b), including such a program that is revised in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.38(b)(3) or (4) or that is established in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.38(b)(5), as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and NOX.

"Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) SO2 Group 1 Trading Program" means a multistate SO2 air pollution control and emission reduction program established in accordance with Subpart CCCCC of 40 CFR Part 97 and 40 CFR 52.39(a), (b), (d) through (f), (j), and (k), including such a program that is revised in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.39(d) or (e) or that is established in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.39(f), as a means of mitigating interstate transport of fine particulates and SO2.

"Cross State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) SO2 Group 2 Trading Program" means a multistate SO2 air pollution control and emission reduction program established in accordance with Subpart DDDDD of 40 CFR Part 97 and 40 CFR 52.39(a), (c), and (g) through (k), including such a program that is revised in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.39(g) or (h) or that is established in a SIP revision approved by the administrator under 40 CFR 52.39(i), as a means of mitigating interstate transport of fine particulates and SO2.

"Department" means the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality.

"Excess emissions" means any tonnage of CO2 emitted by a CO2 budget source during an interim control period or a control period that exceeds the CO2 budget emissions limitation for the source.

"Excess interim emissions" means any tonnage of CO2 emitted by a CO2 budget source during an interim control period multiplied by 0.50 that exceeds the CO2 budget emissions limitation for the source.

"Fossil fuel" means natural gas, petroleum, coal, or any form of solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from such material.

"Fossil fuel-fired" means the combustion of fossil fuel, alone or in combination with any other fuel, where the fossil fuel combusted comprises, or is projected to comprise, more than 5.0% of the annual heat input on a Btu basis during any year.

"General account" means a COATS account established under Article 6 (9VAC5-140-6220 et seq.) of this part that is not a compliance account.

"Gross generation" means the electrical output in MWe at the terminals of the generator.

"Interim control period" means a one-calendar-year time period during each of the first and second calendar years of each three-year control period. The first interim control period starts January 1, 2021, and ends December 31, 2021, inclusive. The second interim control period starts January 1, 2022, and ends December 31, 2022, inclusive. Each successive three-year control period will have two interim control periods, comprised of each of the first two calendar years of that control period.

"Life-of-the-unit contractual arrangement" means either:

a. A unit participation power sales agreement under which a customer reserves, or is entitled to receive, a specified amount or percentage of nameplate capacity or associated energy from any specified unit pursuant to a contract:

(1) For the life of the unit;

(2) For a cumulative term of no less than 30 years, including contracts that permit an election for early termination; or

(3) For a period equal to or greater than 25 years or 70% of the economic useful life of the unit determined as of the time the unit is built, with option rights to purchase or release some portion of the nameplate capacity and associated energy generated by the unit at the end of the period; or

b. Any energy conversion or energy tolling agreement that has a primary term of 20 years or more and pursuant to which the purchaser is required to deliver fuel to the CO2 budget source or CO2 budget unit and is entitled to receive all of the nameplate capacity and associated energy generated by such source or unit for the entire contractual period. Such agreements shall be subject to 9VAC5-140-6325. Such purchaser shall not be considered an "owner" as defined under this section.

"Maximum potential hourly heat input" means an hourly heat input used for reporting purposes when a unit lacks certified monitors to report heat input. If the unit intends to use Appendix D of 40 CFR Part 75 to report heat input, this value shall be calculated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 75, using the maximum fuel flow rate and the maximum gross calorific value. If the unit intends to use a flow monitor and a diluent gas monitor, this value shall be reported, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 75, using the maximum potential flow rate and either the maximum CO2 concentration in percent CO2 or the minimum O2 concentration in percent O2.

"Minimum reserve price" means, in calendar year 2021, $2.38. Each calendar year thereafter, the minimum reserve price shall be 1.025 multiplied by the minimum reserve price from the previous calendar year, rounded to the nearest whole cent.

"Monitoring system" means any monitoring system that meets the requirements of Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part, including a CEMS, an excepted monitoring system, or an alternative monitoring system.

"Nameplate capacity" means the maximum electrical output in MWe that a generator can sustain over a specified period of time when not restricted by seasonal or other deratings as measured in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy standards.

"Net-electric output" means the amount of gross generation in MWh the generators produce, including output from steam turbines, combustion turbines, and gas expanders, as measured at the generator terminals, less the electricity used to operate the plant (i.e., auxiliary loads); such uses include fuel handling equipment, pumps, fans, pollution control equipment, other electricity needs, and transformer losses as measured at the transmission side of the step up transformer (e.g., the point of sale).

"Non-CO2 budget unit" means a unit that does not meet the applicability criteria of 9VAC5-140-6040.

"Operator" means any person who operates, controls, or supervises a CO2 budget unit or a CO2 budget source and shall include any holding company, utility system, or plant manager of such a unit or source.

"Owner" means any of the following persons:

a. Any holder of any portion of the legal or equitable title in a CO2 budget unit;

b. Any holder of a leasehold interest in a CO2 budget unit, other than a passive lessor, or a person who has an equitable interest through such lessor, whose rental payments are not based, either directly or indirectly, upon the revenues or income from the CO2 budget unit;

c. Any purchaser of power from a CO2 budget unit under a life-of-the-unit contractual arrangement in which the purchaser controls the dispatch of the unit; or

d. With respect to any general account, any person who has an ownership interest with respect to the CO2 allowances held in the general account and who is subject to the binding agreement for the CO2 authorized account representative to represent that person's ownership interest with respect to the CO2 allowances.

"Participating state" means a state that has established a corresponding regulation as part of the CO2 Budget Trading Program.

"Receive" or "receipt of" means, when referring to the department or its agent, to come into possession of a document, information, or correspondence (whether sent in writing or by authorized electronic transmission) as indicated in an official correspondence log, or by a notation made on the document, information, or correspondence by the department or its agent in the regular course of business.

"Recordation," "record," or "recorded" means, with regard to CO2 allowances, the movement of CO2 allowances by the department or its agent from one COATS account to another for purposes of allocation, transfer, or deduction.

"Reserve price" means the minimum acceptable price for each CO2 allowance in a specific auction. The reserve price at an auction is either the minimum reserve price or the CCR trigger price, as specified in Article 9 (9VAC5-140-6410 et seq.) of this part.

"Serial number" means, when referring to CO2 allowances, the unique identification number assigned to each CO2 allowance by the department or its agent under 9VAC5-140-6250 C.

"Source" means any governmental, institutional, commercial, or industrial structure, installation, plant, building, or facility that emits or has the potential to emit any air pollutant. A source, including a source with multiple units, shall be considered a single facility.

"Submit" or "serve" means to send or transmit a document, information, or correspondence to the person specified in accordance with the applicable regulation:

a. In person;

b. By United States Postal Service; or

c. By other means of dispatch or transmission and delivery.

Compliance with any "submission," "service," or "mailing" deadline shall be determined by the date of dispatch, transmission, or mailing and not the date of receipt.

"Ton" or "tonnage" means any short ton, or 2,000 pounds. For the purpose of determining compliance with the CO2 requirements of 9VAC5-140-6050 C, total tons for an interim control period or a control period shall be calculated as the sum of all recorded hourly emissions, or the tonnage equivalent of the recorded hourly emissions rates, in accordance with Article 8 (9VAC5-140-6330 et seq.) of this part, with any remaining fraction of a ton equal to or greater than 0.50 ton deemed to equal one ton and any fraction of a ton less than 0.50 ton deemed to equal zero tons. A short ton is equal to 0.9072 metric tons.

"Total useful energy" means the sum of gross electrical generation and useful net thermal energy.

"Undistributed CO2 allowances" means CO2 allowances originally allocated to a set aside account as pursuant to 9VAC5-140-6210 that were not distributed.

"Unit" means a fossil fuel-fired stationary boiler, combustion turbine, or combined cycle system.

"Unit operating day" means a calendar day in which a unit combusts any fuel.

"Unsold CO2 allowances" means CO2 allowances that have been made available for sale in an auction conducted by the department or its agent, but not sold.

"Useful net thermal energy" means energy:

a. In the form of direct heat, steam, hot water, or other thermal form that is used in the production and beneficial measures for heating, cooling, humidity control, process use, or other thermal end use energy requirements, excluding thermal energy used in the power production process (e.g., house loads and parasitic loads); and

b. For which fuel or electricity would otherwise be consumed.

"Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program adjusted budget" means an adjusted budget determined in accordance with 9VAC5-140-6210 and is the annual amount of CO2 tons available in Virginia for allocation in a given allocation year, in accordance with the CO2 Budget Trading Program. CO2 CCR allowances offered for sale at an auction are separate from and additional to CO2 allowances allocated from the Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program adjusted budget.

"Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program base budget" means the budget specified in 9VAC5-140-6190. CO2 CCR allowances offered for sale at an auction are separate from and additional to CO2 allowances allocated from the Virginia CO2 Budget Trading Program base budget.

Statutory Authority

§§ 10.1-1308 and 10.1-1322.3 of the Code of Virginia; §§ 108, 109, 110, and 302 of the Clean Air Act; 40 CFR Part 51.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 35, Issue 20, eff. June 26, 2019; amended, Virginia Register Volume 36, Issue 25, eff. July 10, 2020.

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