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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 40. Existing Stationary Sources
9/24/2020

9VAC5-40-5820. Standard for Air Emissions.

A. This section shall apply to affected facilities that have accepted waste any time since November 8, 1987, or have additional design capacity available for future waste deposition, and meet the design capacity and emission rate applicability criteria in subdivisions A 1 or A 2 of this section.

1. For affected facilities located in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area as designated in 9VAC5-20-206:

a. A design capacity greater than or equal to 1.0 million megagrams and 1.0 million cubic meters; and

b. A nonmethane organic compound emission rate of 23 megagrams per year or more as determined using test procedures under 9VAC5-40-5860.

2. For affected facilities located in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth:

a. A design capacity greater than or equal to 2.5 million megagrams or 2.5 million cubic meters; and

b. A nonmethane organic compound emission rate of 50 megagrams per year or more as determined using test procedures under 9VAC5-40-5860.

B. Each owner of an MSW landfill having a design capacity less than (i) 1.0 million megagrams or 1.0 million cubic meters in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 2.5 million megagrams or 2.5 million cubic meters in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth shall submit an initial design capacity report to the board as provided in 9VAC5-40-5880 C no later than June 30, 1999. The landfill may calculate design capacity in either megagrams or cubic meters for comparison with the design capacity applicability criteria in subsection A of this section. Any density conversions shall be documented and submitted with the report. Submittal of the initial design capacity report shall fulfill the requirements of this article except as provided for in subdivisions B 1 and B 2 of this section.

1. The owner shall submit to the board an amended design capacity report, as provided for in 9VAC5-40-5880 C 3. If the design capacity increase is the result of a modification, as defined in 9VAC5-40-5810 C, that was commenced on or after May 30, 1991, the landfill is subject to the new source performance standard in Article 5 of 9VAC5 Chapter 50 (9VAC5-50-410) instead of this article. If the design capacity increase is the result of a change in operating practices, density, or some other change that is not a modification, the landfill remains subject to this article.

2. When an increase in the maximum design capacity of a landfill exempted from the provisions of 9VAC5-40-5820 C, 9VAC5-40-5822, 9VAC5-40-5824, 9VAC5-40-5850, 9VAC5-40-5860, 9VAC5-40-5870, 9VAC5-40-5880, and 9VAC5-40-5890 on the basis of the design capacity applicability criteria in subsection A of this section results in a revised maximum design capacity equal to or greater than (i) 1.0 million megagrams or 1.0 million cubic meters in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 2.5 million megagrams or 2.5 million cubic meters in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, the owner shall comply with the provisions of subsection C of this section.

C. Each owner of an MSW landfill having a design capacity greater than or equal to (i) 1.0 million megagrams and 1.0 million cubic meters in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 2.5 million megagrams and 2.5 million cubic meters in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth shall either install a collection and control system as provided in subdivision C 2 of this section or calculate an initial NMOC emission rate for the landfill using the procedures specified in 9VAC5-40-5860. The NMOC emission rate shall be recalculated annually, except as provided in 9VAC5-40-5880 D 1 b.

1. If the calculated NMOC emission rate is less than (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, the owner shall:

a. Submit an annual emission report to the board, except as provided for in 9VAC5-40-5880 D 1 b; and

b. Recalculate the NMOC emission rate annually using the procedures specified in 9VAC5-40-5860 B 1 until such time as the calculated NMOC emission rate is greater than or equal to (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, or the landfill is closed.

(1) If the NMOC emission rate, upon initial calculation or annual recalculation required in subdivision C 1 b of this section, is greater than or equal to (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, the owner shall install a collection and control system in compliance with subdivision C 2 of this section.

(2) If the landfill is permanently closed, a closure notification shall be submitted to the board as provided for in 9VAC5-40-5880 F.

2. If the calculated NMOC emission rate is greater than or equal to (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, the owner shall:

a. Submit a collection and control system design plan prepared by a professional engineer to the board within one year:

(1) The collection and control system as described in the plan shall meet the design requirements of subdivision C 2 b of this section.

(2) The collection and control system design plan shall include any alternatives to the operational standards, test methods, procedures, compliance measures, monitoring, recordkeeping or reporting provisions of 9VAC5-40-5822, 9VAC5-40-5850, 9VAC5-40-5860, 9VAC5-40-5870, 9VAC5-40-5880, and 9VAC5-40-5890 proposed by the owner.

(3) The collection and control system design plan shall either conform with specifications for active collection systems in 9VAC5-40-5824 or include a demonstration to the board's satisfaction of the sufficiency of the alternative provisions to 9VAC5-40-5824.

(4) The board will review the information submitted under subdivisions C 2 a (1), (2) and (3) of this section and either approve it, disapprove it, or request that additional information be submitted. Because of the many site-specific factors involved with landfill gas system design, alternative systems may be necessary. A wide variety of system designs are possible, such as vertical wells, combination horizontal and vertical collection systems, or horizontal trenches only, leachate collection components, and passive systems. All design plan changes shall be submitted to the board and may be implemented only upon approval of the board.

b. Install a collection and control system that captures the gas generated within the landfill as required by subdivision C 2 b (1) or (2) of this section within 30 months after the first annual report in which the emission rate equals or exceeds (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, unless Tier 2 or Tier 3 sampling demonstrates that the emission rate is less than (a) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (b) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth, as specified in 9VAC5-40-5880 E 1 or E 2.

(1) An active collection system shall:

(a) Be designed to handle the maximum expected gas flow rate from the entire area of the landfill that warrants control over the intended use period of the gas control or treatment system equipment;

(b) Collect gas from each area, cell, or group of cells in the landfill in which the initial solid waste has been placed for a period of:

(i) Five years or more if active; or

(ii) Two years or more if closed or at final grade;

(c) Collect gas at a sufficient extraction rate;

(d) Be designed to minimize off-site migration of subsurface gas.

(2) A passive collection system shall:

(a) Comply with the provisions specified in subdivisions C 2 b (1) (a), (b), and (d) of this section.

(b) Be installed with liners on the bottom and all sides in all areas in which gas is to be collected. The liners shall be installed as required under 9VAC20-81-130.

c. Route all the collected gas to a control system that complies with the requirements in either subdivision C 2 c (1), (2) or (3) of this section.

(1) An open flare designed and operated in accordance with 40 CFR 60.18.

(2) A control system designed and operated to reduce NMOC by 98 weight-percent, or, when an enclosed combustion device is used for control, to either reduce NMOC by 98 weight-percent or reduce the outlet NMOC concentration to less than 20 parts per million by volume, dry basis as hexane at 3.0% oxygen. The reduction efficiency or parts per million by volume shall be established by an initial compliance test to be completed no later than 180 days after the initial startup of the approved control system using the test methods specified in 9VAC5-40-5860 E.

(a) If a boiler or process heater is used as the control device, the landfill gas stream shall be introduced into the flame zone.

(b) The control device shall be operated within the parameter ranges established during the initial or most recent compliance test. The operating parameters to be monitored are specified in 9VAC5-40-5870.

(3) Route the collected gas to a treatment system that processes the collected gas for subsequent sale or use. All emissions from any atmospheric vent from the gas treatment system shall be subject to the requirements of subdivision C 2 c (1) or (2) of this section.

d. Operate the collection and control device installed to comply with this article in accordance with the provisions of 9VAC5-40-5822, 9VAC5-40-5850, and 9VAC5-40-5870.

e. The collection and control system may be capped or removed provided that all the conditions of subdivisions C 2 e (1), (2), and (3) of this section are met:

(1) The landfill shall be a closed landfill as defined in 9VAC5-40-5810 and under the requirements of 9VAC20-81-160. A closure report shall be submitted to the board as provided in 9VAC5-40-5880 F;

(2) The collection and control system shall have been in operation a minimum of 15 years; and

(3) Following the procedures specified in 9VAC5-40-5860 C, the calculated NMOC gas produced by the landfill shall be less than (i) 23 megagrams per year in the Northern Virginia Volatile Organic Compound Emissions Control Area or (ii) 50 megagrams per year in the remaining areas of the Commonwealth on three successive test dates. The test dates shall be no less than 90 days apart and no more than 180 days apart.

D. When an MSW landfill subject to this article is closed, the owner is no longer subject to the requirement to maintain a federal operating permit for the landfill if the landfill is not otherwise subject to federal operating permit requirements if either of the following conditions are met:

1. The landfill was never subject to the requirement for a control system under 9VAC5-40-5820 C 2; or

2. The owner meets the conditions for control system removal specified in 9VAC5-40-5820 C 2 e.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1308 of the Code of Virginia; §§ 110, 111, 123, 129, 171, 172, and 182 of the Clean Air Act; 40 CFR Parts 51 and 60.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 12, Issue 11, eff. April 1, 1996; amended, Virginia Register Volume 15, Issue 12, eff. April 1, 1999; Volume 20, Issue 08, eff. January 29, 2004; Volume 27, Issue 23, eff. August 17, 2011.

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