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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 40. Existing Stationary Sources
9/26/2020

9VAC5-40-8424. Standard for Volatile Organic Compounds.

A. No owner or other person shall use or permit the use of any offset lithographic printing press, offset lithographic printing process, or other offset lithographic printing operation that is subject to this article unless that press, process, or operation meets the requirements of this section.

B. Except as provided in subdivision 3 of this subsection, the following provisions apply to each heatset offset lithographic printing process at a facility whose potential to emit is greater than or equal to 10 tons per year of VOC, provided that the emission rates are determined in a manner acceptable to the board. All VOC emissions from printing inks, coatings, cleaning solutions, and fountain solutions shall be considered in determining the potential to emit for this subsection.

1. VOC emissions from the heatset web offset lithographic printing process dryer shall be controlled as follows:

a. The dryer shall operate at a lower air pressure than the pressroom air pressure at all times when the printing process is operating.

b. Exhaust air from the dryer shall be collected and sent to a control device that operates at all times when the printing process is operating.

c. The control device shall reduce VOC emissions in the dryer air exhaust by at least 90%.

2. Where the heatset web offset lithographic printing process control device inlet VOC concentration is too low to achieve the control device efficiency requirements specified in subdivision 1 c of this subsection or there is no identifiable measurable inlet, the control device shall reduce the VOC concentration of the heatset web offset lithographic printing process dryer exhaust air to 50 parts per million volume (ppmv) or less, as carbon (minus methane and ethane).

3. The provisions in subdivisions 1 and 2 of this subsection do not apply to the following:

a. Any heatset web offset lithographic printing process with a theoretical potential to emit of 25 tons per year of VOC (petroleum ink oil) or more from the heatset web offset lithographic printing dryer. VOC standards for heatset web offset lithographic printing process with a theoretical potential to emit of 25 tons per year of VOC (petroleum ink oil) or more are provided in subsection C of this section.

b. Printing processes used exclusively for determination of product quality and commercial acceptance provided:

(1) The operation is not an integral part of the production process;

(2) The emissions from all product quality printing processes do not exceed 400 pounds in any 30-day period; and

(3) The exemption is approved by the board.

c. Photoprocessing, typesetting, or imagesetting equipment using water-based chemistry to develop silver halide images.

d. Platemaking equipment using water-based chemistry to remove unhardened image-producing material from an exposed plate.

e. Equipment used to make blueprints.

f. Any sheet-fed offset lithographic press with a cylinder width of 26 inches or less.

C. Except as provided in subdivisions 3, 4, and 5 of this subsection, the following provisions apply to each heatset web offset lithographic printing process with a theoretical potential to emit of 25 tons per year of VOC (petroleum ink oil) or more from the dryer. These provisions do not apply to non-heatset web offset lithographic printing processes or to sheet-fed offset lithographic printing processes.

1. VOC emissions from the heatset web offset lithographic printing process dryer shall be controlled as follows:

a. The dryer shall operate at a lower air pressure than the pressroom air pressure at all times when the printing process is operating.

b. Exhaust air from the dryer shall be collected and sent to a control device that operates at all times when the printing process is operating.

c. For a control device whose first installation date is prior to February 1, 2016, the control device shall reduce VOC emissions in the dryer air exhaust by at least 90%.

d. For a control device whose first installation date is on or after February 1, 2016, the control device shall reduce VOC emissions in the dryer air exhaust by at least 95%.

2. Where the heatset web offset lithographic printing process control device inlet VOC concentration is too low to achieve the control device efficiency requirements specified in subdivisions 1 c and 1 d of this subsection or there is no identifiable measurable inlet, the control device shall reduce the VOC concentration of the heatset web offset lithographic printing process dryer exhaust air to 20 parts per million volume (ppmv) or less, as hexane on a dry basis.

3. Federally enforceable limitations on (i) the VOC (petroleum ink oil) content of inks, varnishes, and other coatings applied prior to the dryer; (ii) the total amounts of inks, varnishes, and other coatings applied; (iii) the press application rates of inks, varnishes, and other coatings; or (iv) the hours of press operation may be used to meet the 25 ton per year exception to this subsection.

4. The provisions of subdivisions 1 and 2 of this subsection do not apply to (i) any heatset web offset lithographic printing process constructed on or after February 1, 2016, and used exclusively for book printing or (ii) any heatset web offset lithographic printing process constructed on or after February 1, 2016, with a maximum web width of 22 inches or less.

5. The heatset web offset lithographic printing process dryer control device provisions of subdivision 1 d of this subsection do not apply to (i) any heatset web offset lithographic printing process used exclusively for book printing; or (ii) any heatset web offset lithographic printing process with a maximum web width of 22 inches or less.

D. The following provisions shall apply to fountain solution applied to each offset lithographic printing press, except that these provisions shall not apply to (i) sheet-fed offset lithographic printing processes with a sheet size of 11 inches by 17 inches or smaller or (ii) sheet-fed offset lithographic printing processes with a total fountain solution reservoir of less than one gallon.

1. For each heatset web press:

a. When the fountain solution contains alcohol:

(1) The fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no more than 1.6% volatile organic compounds by weight; or

(2) The temperature of the fountain solution shall be maintained at or below 60°F and the fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no more than 3.0% VOCs by weight; or

b. When the fountain solution contains no alcohol, the fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no more than 5.0% VOCs by weight.

2. For each non-heatset web press, the fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no alcohol and shall contain no more than 5.0% VOCs by weight.

3. For each sheet-fed press:

a. The fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no more than 5.0% VOCs by weight; or

b. The temperature of the fountain solution shall be maintained at or below 60°F and the fountain solution, as applied, shall contain no more than 8.5% VOCs by weight.

E. Cleaning materials used at each offset lithographic printing operation shall meet one of the following limits, as applied:

1. A VOC content of 30% by weight; or

2. A composite vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg at 20°C (68°F).

The use of cleaning materials not meeting the limits in subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection is permitted provided that the quantity of cleaning material used does not exceed 110 gallons over any 12-month rolling period.

F. The following work practices shall be implemented.

1. Cleaning materials, fountain solution, inks, varnishes, and coatings containing VOCs shall be kept in closed containers at all times unless filling, draining, or performing cleaning operations.

2. Shop towels, sponges, and other manual cleaning aids that (i) have been used for picking up excess ink, fountain solution, varnishes, and other coatings containing VOCs or (ii) have been used with cleaning materials containing VOCs shall be kept in closed containers.

3. Spills of cleaning materials, fountain solution, inks, varnishes, and other coatings containing VOCs shall be minimized and shall be cleaned up promptly.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1308 of the Code of Virginia; 110, 111, 123, 129, 171, 172, and 182 of the federal Clean Air Act; 40 CFR Parts 51 and 60.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 32, Issue 07, eff. February 1, 2016.

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