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Virginia Administrative Code
Title 9. Environment
Agency 5. State Air Pollution Control Board
Chapter 45. Consumer and Commercial Products
9/23/2020

9VAC5-45-540. Definitions.

A. For the purpose of applying this article in the context of the Regulations for the Control and Abatement of Air Pollution and related uses, the words or terms shall have the meanings given them in subsection C of this section.

B. As used in this article, all terms not defined herein shall have the meanings given them in 9VAC5-10 (General Definitions) unless otherwise required by context.

C. Terms defined.

"Adhesive" means any chemical substance that is applied for the purpose of bonding two surfaces together other than by mechanical means.

"Aerosol coating product" means a pressurized coating product containing pigments or resins that dispenses product ingredients by means of a propellant, and is packaged in a disposable can for hand-held application, or for use in specialized equipment for ground traffic/marking applications.

"Antenna coating" means a coating labeled and formulated exclusively for application to equipment and associated structural appurtenances that are used to receive or transmit electromagnetic signals.

"Antifouling coating" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to submerged stationary structures and their appurtenances to prevent or reduce the attachment of marine or freshwater biological organisms. To qualify as an antifouling coating, the coating shall be registered with both the U.S. EPA under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (7 USC § 136 et seq.) and with the Pesticide Control Board under the provisions of Chapter 39 (§ 3.2-3900 et seq.) of Title 3.2 of the Code of Virginia.

"Appurtenance" means any accessory to a stationary structure coated at the site of installation, whether installed or detached, including but not limited to bathroom and kitchen fixtures; cabinets; concrete forms; doors; elevators; fences; hand railings; heating equipment, air conditioning equipment, and other fixed mechanical equipment or stationary tools; lampposts; partitions; pipes and piping systems; rain gutters and downspouts; stairways; fixed ladders; catwalks and fire escapes; and window screens.

"Architectural coating" means a coating to be applied to stationary structures or the appurtenances at the site of installation, to portable buildings at the site of installation, to pavements, or to curbs. Coatings applied in shop applications or to nonstationary structures such as airplanes, ships, boats, railcars, and automobiles, and adhesives are not considered architectural coatings for the purposes of this article.

"ASTM" means the American Society for Testing and Materials.

"Bitumens" means black or brown materials including, but not limited to, asphalt, tar, pitch, and asphaltite that are soluble in carbon disulfide, consist mainly of hydrocarbons, and are obtained from natural deposits of asphalt or as residues from the distillation of crude petroleum or coal.

"Bituminous roof coating" means a coating that incorporates bitumens that is labeled and formulated exclusively for roofing.

"Bituminous roof primer" means a primer that consists of a coating or mastic formulated and recommended for roofing, pavement sealing, or waterproofing that incorporates bitumens.

"Bond breaker" means a coating labeled and formulated for application between layers of concrete to prevent a freshly poured top layer of concrete from bonding to the layer over which it is poured.

"Calcimine recoater" means a flat solvent borne coating formulated and recommended specifically for recoating calcimine-painted ceilings and other calcimine-painted substrates.

"Clear brushing lacquers" means clear wood finishes, excluding clear lacquer sanding sealers, formulated with nitrocellulose or synthetic resins to dry by solvent evaporation without chemical reaction and to provide a solid, protective film, which are intended exclusively for application by brush and that are labeled as specified in subdivision 5 of 9VAC5-45-560.

"Clear wood coatings" means clear and semitransparent coatings, including lacquers and varnishes, applied to wood substrates to provide a transparent or translucent solid film.

"Coating" means a material applied onto or impregnated into a substrate for protective, decorative, or functional purposes. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, varnishes, sealers, and stains.

"Colorant" means a concentrated pigment dispersion in water, solvent, or binder that is added to an architectural coating after packaging in sale units to produce the desired color.

"Concrete curing compound" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to freshly poured concrete to retard the evaporation of water.

"Concrete surface retarder" means a mixture of retarding ingredients such as extender pigments, primary pigments, resin, and solvent that interact chemically with the cement to prevent hardening on the surface where the retarder is applied, allowing the retarded mix of cement and sand at the surface to be washed away to create an exposed aggregate finish.

"Conversion varnish" means a clear acid curing coating with an alkyd or other resin blended with amino resins and supplied as a single component or two-component product. Conversion varnishes produce a hard, durable, clear finish designed for professional application to wood flooring. The film formation is the result of an acid-catalyzed condensation reaction, effecting a transetherification at the reactive ethers of the amino resins.

"Dry fog coating" means a coating labeled and formulated only for spray application such that overspray droplets dry before subsequent contact with incidental surfaces in the vicinity of the surface coating activity.

"Exempt compound" means a compound identified as exempt under the definition of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) in 9VAC5-10-20. Exempt compounds content of a coating shall be determined by Reference Method 24 or South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Method for Determination of Exempt Compounds (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Extreme durability coating" means an air-dried coating, including fluoropolymer-based coating, that is formulated and recommended for application to exterior metal surfaces and touch-up, repair, and overcoating of precoated metal surfaces, and that meets the weathering requirements of American Architectural Manufacturers Association Voluntary Specification - Performance Requirements and Test Procedures for High Performance Organic Coatings on Aluminum Extrusions and Panels (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Faux finishing coating" means a coating labeled and formulated as a stain or a glaze to create artistic effects including, but not limited to, dirt, old age, smoke damage, and simulated marble and wood grain.

"Fire-resistive coating" means an opaque coating labeled and formulated to protect the structural integrity by increasing the fire endurance of interior or exterior steel and other structural materials, that has been fire tested and rated by a testing agency and approved by building code officials for use in bringing assemblies of structural materials into compliance with federal, state, and local building code requirements. The fire-resistive coating shall be tested in accordance with ASTM Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Building Construction Materials (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Fire-retardant coating" means a coating labeled and formulated to retard ignition and flame spread, that has been fire tested and rated by a testing agency and approved by building code officials for use in bringing building and construction materials into compliance with federal, state, and local building code requirements. The fire-retardant coating shall be tested in accordance with ASTM Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Construction Materials (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Flat coating" means a coating that is not defined under any other definition in this article and that registers gloss less than 15 on an 85-degree meter or less than five on a 60-degree meter according to ASTM Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Floor coating" means an opaque coating that is labeled and formulated for application to flooring, including, but not limited to, decks, porches, steps, and other horizontal surfaces, that may be subjected to foot traffic.

"Flow coating" means a coating labeled and formulated exclusively for use by electric power companies or their subcontractors to maintain the protective coating systems present on utility transformer units.

"Form-release compound" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to a concrete form to prevent the freshly poured concrete from bonding to the form. The form may consist of wood, metal, or some material other than concrete.

"Graphic arts coating or sign paint" means a coating labeled and formulated for hand-application by artists using brush or roller techniques to indoor and outdoor signs (excluding structural components) and murals including letter enamels, poster colors, copy blockers, and bulletin enamels.

"High-temperature coating" means a high-performance coating labeled and formulated for application to substrates exposed continuously or intermittently to temperatures above 204°C (400°F).

"Impacted immersion coating" means a high performance maintenance coating formulated and recommended for application to steel structures subject to immersion in turbulent, debris-laden water. These coatings are specifically resistant to high-energy impact damage caused by floating ice or debris.

"Industrial maintenance coating" means a high-performance architectural coating, including primers, sealers, undercoaters, intermediate coats, and topcoats, formulated for application to substrates exposed to one or more of the following extreme environmental conditions, and labeled as specified in subdivision 4 of 9VAC5-45-560:

1. Immersion in water, wastewater, or chemical solutions (aqueous and nonaqueous solutions), or chronic exposures of interior surfaces to moisture condensation;

2. Acute or chronic exposure to corrosive, caustic, or acidic agents, or to chemicals, chemical fumes, or chemical mixtures or solutions;

3. Repeated exposure to temperatures above 121°C (250°F);

4. Repeated (frequent) heavy abrasion, including mechanical wear and repeated (frequent) scrubbing with industrial solvents, cleansers, or scouring agents; or

5. Exterior exposure of metal structures and structural components.

"Lacquer" means a clear or opaque wood coating, including clear lacquer sanding sealers, formulated with cellulosic or synthetic resins to dry by evaporation without chemical reaction and to provide a solid, protective film.

"Low-solids coating" means a coating containing 0.12 kilogram or less of solids per liter (1 pound or less of solids per gallon) of coating material.

"Magnesite cement coating" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to magnesite cement decking to protect the magnesite cement substrate from erosion by water.

"Mastic texture coating" means a coating labeled and formulated to cover holes and minor cracks and to conceal surface irregularities, and is applied in a single coat of at least 10 mils (0.010 inch) dry film thickness.

"Metallic pigmented coating" means a coating containing at least 48 grams of elemental metallic pigment, mica particles or any combination of metallic pigment or mica particles per liter of coating as applied (0.4 pounds per gallon), when tested in accordance with South Coast Air Quality Air Management District (SCAQMD) Method for Determination of Weight Percent Elemental Metal in Coatings by X‑Ray Diffraction (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Multicolor coating" means a coating that is packaged in a single container and that exhibits more than one color when applied in a single coat.

"Nonflat coating" means a coating that is not defined under any other definition in this article and that registers a gloss of 15 or greater on an 85-degree meter and 5 or greater on a 60-degree meter according to ASTM Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Nonflat high-gloss coating" means a nonflat coating that registers a gloss of 70 or above on a 60-degree meter according to ASTM Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Nonindustrial use" means any use of architectural coatings except in the construction or maintenance of any of the following: facilities used in the manufacturing of goods and commodities; transportation infrastructure, including highways, bridges, airports and railroads; facilities used in mining activities, including petroleum extraction; and utilities infrastructure, including power generation and distribution, and water treatment and distribution systems.

"Nuclear coating" means a protective coating formulated and recommended to seal porous surfaces such as steel (or concrete) that otherwise would be subject to intrusions by radioactive materials. These coatings must be resistant to long-term (service life) cumulative radiation exposure as determined by ASTM Standard Test Method for Effects of Gamma Radiation on Coatings for Use in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants (see 9VAC5-20-21), relatively easy to decontaminate, and resistant to various chemicals to which the coatings are likely to be exposed as determined by ASTM Standard Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Coatings Used in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Post-consumer coating" means a finished coating that would have been disposed of in a landfill, having completed its usefulness to a consumer, and does not include manufacturing wastes.

"Pretreatment wash primer" means a primer that contains a minimum of 0.5% acid, by weight, when tested in accordance with ASTM Standard Test Method for Acidity in Volatile Solvents and Chemical Intermediates Used in Paint, Varnish, Lacquer and Related Products (see 9VAC5-20-21), that is labeled and formulated for application directly to bare metal surfaces to provide corrosion resistance and to promote adhesion of subsequent topcoats.

"Primer" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to a substrate to provide a firm bind between the substrate and subsequent coats.

"Quick-dry enamel" means a nonflat coating that is labeled as specified in subdivision 8 of 9VAC5-45-560 and that is formulated to have the following characteristics:

1. Is capable of being applied directly from the container under normal conditions with ambient temperatures between 16 and 27°C (60 and 80°F);

2. When tested in accordance with ASTM Standard Methods for Drying, Curing, or Film Formation of Organic Coatings at Room Temperature (see 9VAC5-20-21), sets to touch in two hours or less, is tack free in four hours or less, and dries hard in eight hours or less by the mechanical test method; and

3. Has a dried film gloss of 70 or above on a 60-degree meter.

"Quick-dry primer sealer and undercoater" means a primer, sealer, or undercoater that is dry to the touch in 30 minutes and can be recoated in two hours when tested in accordance with ASTM Standard Methods for Drying, Curing, or Film Formation of Organic Coatings at Room Temperature (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Recycled coating" means an architectural coating formulated such that not less than 50% of the total weight consists of secondary and post-consumer coating, with not less than 10% of the total weight consisting of post-consumer coating.

"Residence" means areas where people reside or lodge, including, but not limited to, single and multiple family dwellings, condominiums, mobile homes, apartment complexes, motels, and hotels.

"Roof coating" means a nonbituminous coating labeled and formulated exclusively for application to roofs for the primary purpose of preventing penetration of the substrate by water or reflecting heat and ultraviolet radiation. Metallic pigmented roof coatings, which qualify as metallic pigmented coatings, shall not be considered in this category, but shall be considered to be in the metallic pigmented coatings category.

"Rust-preventive coating" means a coating formulated exclusively for nonindustrial use to prevent the corrosion of metal surfaces and labeled as specified in subdivision 6 of 9VAC5-45-560.

"Sanding sealer" means a clear or semitransparent wood coating labeled and formulated for application to bare wood to seal the wood and to provide a coat that can be abraded to create a smooth surface for subsequent applications of coatings. A sanding sealer that also meets the definition of a lacquer is not included in this category, but it is included in the lacquer category.

"Sealer" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to a substrate for one or more of the following purposes: to prevent subsequent coatings from being absorbed by the substrate, or to prevent harm to subsequent coatings by materials in the substrate.

"Secondary coating (rework)" means a fragment of a finished coating or a finished coating from a manufacturing process that has converted resources into a commodity of real economic value, but does not include excess virgin resources of the manufacturing process.

"Shellac" means a clear or opaque coating formulated solely with the resinous secretions of the lac beetle (Laciffer lacca), thinned with alcohol, and formulated to dry by evaporation without a chemical reaction.

"Shop application" means the application of a coating to a product or a component of a product in or on the premises of a factory or a shop as part of a manufacturing, production, or repairing process (e.g., original equipment manufacturing coatings).

"Solicit" means to require for use or to specify by written or oral contract.

"Specialty primer, sealer, and undercoater" means a coating labeled as specified in subdivision 7 of 9VAC5-45-560 and that is formulated for application to a substrate to seal fire, smoke or water damage; to condition excessively chalky surfaces; or to block stains. An excessively chalky surface is one that is defined as having a chalk rating of four or less as determined by ASTM Standard Test Methods for Evaluating the Degree of Chalking of Exterior Paint Films (see 9VAC5-20-21).

"Stain" means a clear, semitransparent, or opaque coating labeled and formulated to change the color of a surface, but not conceal the grain pattern or texture.

"Swimming pool coating" means a coating labeled and formulated to coat the interior of swimming pools and to resist swimming pool chemicals.

"Swimming pool repair and maintenance coating" means a rubber-based coating labeled and formulated to be used over existing rubber-based coatings for the repair and maintenance of swimming pools.

"Temperature-indicator safety coating" means a coating labeled and formulated as a color-changing indicator coating for the purpose of monitoring the temperature and safety of the substrate, underlying piping, or underlying equipment, and for application to substrates exposed continuously or intermittently to temperatures above 204°C (400°F).

"Thermoplastic rubber coating and mastic" means a coating or mastic formulated and recommended for application to roofing or other structural surfaces and that incorporates no less than 40% by weight of thermoplastic rubbers in the total resin solids and may also contain other ingredients including, but not limited to, fillers, pigments, and modifying resins.

"Tint base" means an architectural coating to which colorant is added after packaging in sale units to produce a desired color.

"Traffic marking coating" means a coating labeled and formulated for marking and striping streets, highways, or other traffic surfaces including, but not limited to, curbs, berets, driveways, parking lots, sidewalks, and airport runways.

"Undercoater" means a coating labeled and formulated to provide a smooth surface for subsequent coatings.

"Varnish" means a clear or semitransparent wood coating, excluding lacquers and shellacs, formulated to dry by chemical reaction on exposure to air. Varnishes may contain small amounts of pigment to color a surface or control the fetal sheen or gloss of the finish.

"VOC content" means the weight of VOC per volume of coating, calculated according to the procedures specified in 9VAC5-45-590 B.

"Waterproofing concrete/masonry sealer" means a clear or pigmented film-forming coating that is labeled and formulated for sealing concrete and masonry to provide resistance against water, alkalis, acids, ultraviolet light, and staining.

"Waterproofing sealer" means a coating labeled and formulated for application to a porous substrate for the primary purpose of preventing the penetration of water.

"Wood preservative" means a coating labeled and formulated to protect exposed wood from decay or insect attack that is registered with both the U.S. EPA under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 USC § 136, et seq.) and with the Pesticide Control Board under the provisions of Chapter 39 (§ 3.2-3900 et seq.) of Title 3.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 10.1-1308 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Volume 26, Issue 12, eff. March 17, 2010.

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