Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/19/2024

Article 4. Destruction of Organisms of Public Health Concern

12VAC5-421-700. Raw animal foods.

A. Except as specified in subsections B, C, and D of this section, raw animal foods such as eggs, fish, meat, poultry, and foods containing these raw animal foods shall be cooked to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time that complies with one of the following methods based on the food that is being cooked:

1. 145°F (63°C) or above for 15 seconds for:P

a. Raw eggs that are broken and prepared in response to a consumer's order and for immediate service;P and

b. Except as specified under subdivisions A 2 and 3 and subsections B and C of this section, fish and intact meat, including game animals commercially raised for food and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 12VAC5-421-330 A 1;P

2. 155°F (68°C) for 17 seconds or the temperature specified in the following chart that corresponds to the holding time for ratites , mechanically tenderized meats, and injected meats; the following if they are comminuted: fish, meat, game animals commercially raised for food and game animals under a voluntary inspection program as specified under 12VAC5-421-330 A 1; and raw eggs that are not prepared as specified under subdivision 1 a of this subsection:P

Minimum

Temperature
°F (°C)

Time

145 (63)

3 minutes

150 (66)

1 minute

158 (70)

<1 second (instantaneous)

; or

3. 165°F (74°C) or above for less than one second (instantaneous) for poultry, baluts, wild game animals as specified under 12VAC5-421-330 A 2, stuffed fish, stuffed meat, stuffed pasta, stuffed poultry, stuffed ratites, or stuffing containing fish, meat, poultry, or ratites.P

B. Whole meat roasts including beef, corned beef, lamb, pork, and cured pork roasts such as ham shall be cooked:

1. As specified in the following chart, to heat all parts of the food to a temperature and for the holding time that corresponds to that temperature:P

Temperature
°F (°C)

Time1 in Minutes

Temperature
°F (°C)

Time1 in Seconds

130 (54.4)

112

147 (63.9)

134

131 (55.0)

89

149 (65.0)

85

133 (56.1)

56

151 (66.1)

54

135 (57.2)

36

153 (67.2)

34

136 (57.8)

28

155 (68.3)

22

138 (58.9)

18

157 (69.4)

14

140 (60.0)

12

158 (70.0)

0

142 (61.1)

8

144 (62.2)

5

145 (62.8)

4

1Holding time may include postoven heat rise.

; and

2. If cooked in an oven, use an oven that is preheated to the temperature specified for the roast's weight in the following chart and that is held at that temperature.Pf

f

Oven Type

Oven Temperature Based on Roast Weight

Less than 10 lbs (4.5 kg)

10 lbs (4.5 kg) or more

Still Dry

350°F (177°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

Convection

325°F (163°C) or more

250°F (121°C) or more

High Humidity1

250°F (121°C) or less

250°F (121°C) or less

1Relative humidity greater than 90% for at least one hour as measured in the cooking chamber or exit of the oven; or in a moisture-impermeable bag that provides 100% humidity.

C. A raw or undercooked whole-muscle, intact beef steak may be served or offered for sale in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. The food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The steak is labeled, as specified under 12VAC5-421-270 E, to indicate that it meets the definition of "whole-muscle, intact beef"; and

3. The steak is cooked on both the top and bottom to a surface temperature of 145°F (63°C) or above and a cooked color change is achieved on all external surfaces.

D. A raw animal food such as raw egg, raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, or steak tartare, or a partially cooked food such as lightly cooked fish, soft cooked eggs, or rare meat other than whole-muscle, intact beef steaks as specified in subsection C of this section, may be served or offered for sale upon request or consumer selection in a ready-to-eat form if:

1. As specified under subdivisions 3 a and b of 12VAC5-421-950 the food establishment serves a population that is not a highly susceptible population;

2. The food, if served or offered for service by consumer selection from a children's menu, does not contain comminuted meat;Pf and

3. The consumer is informed as specified under 12VAC5-421-930 that to ensure its safety, the food should be cooked as specified under subsection A or B of this section; or

4. The department grants a variance from subsection A or B of this section as specified in 12VAC5-421-3570 based on a HACCP plan that:

a. Is submitted by the permit holder and approved as specified under 12VAC5-421-3570;

b. Documents scientific data or other information that shows that a lesser time and temperature regimen results in a safe food; and

c. Verifies that equipment and procedures for food preparation and training of food employees at the food establishment meet the conditions of the variance.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-710. Microwave cooking.

Raw animal foods cooked in a microwave oven shall be:

1. Rotated or stirred throughout or midway during cooking to compensate for uneven distribution of heat;

2. Covered to retain surface moisture;

3. Heated to a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) in all parts of the food;P and

4. Allowed to stand covered for two minutes after cooking to obtain temperature equilibrium.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-720. Plant food cooking for hot holding.

Plant foods that are cooked for hot holding shall be cooked to a temperature of 135°F (57°C).Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-725. Noncontinuous cooking.

Raw animal foods that are cooked using a noncontinuous cooking process shall be:

1. Subject to an initial heating process that is no longer than 60 minutes in duration;P

2. Immediately after initial heating, cooled according to the time and temperature requirements specified for cooked time/temperature control for safety food under 12VAC5-421-800 A;P

3. After cooling, held frozen or cold, as specified for time/temperature control for safety food under 12VAC5-421-820 A 2;P

4. Prior to sale or service, cooked using a process that heats all parts of the food to a temperature and for a time as designated in 12VAC5-421-700 A, B, and C;P

5. Cooled according to the time and temperature parameters specified for cooked time/temperature control for safety food under 12VAC5-421-800 A if not either hot held as specified under 12VAC5-421-820 A 1, served immediately, or held using time as a public health control as specified under 12VAC5-421-850 after complete cooling;P and

6. Prepared and stored according to written procedures that:

a. Have obtained prior approval from the department;Pf

b. Are maintained in the food establishment and are made available to the department upon request;Pf

c. Describe how the requirements specified under subdivisions 1 through 5 of this section are to be monitored and documented by the permit holder and the corrective actions to be taken if the requirements are not met;Pf

d. Describe how the foods, after initial heating, but prior to complete cooking, are to be marked or otherwise identified as foods that must be cooked as specified under subdivision 4 of this section prior to being offered for sale or service;Pf and

e. Describe how the foods, after initial heating but prior to cooking as specified in subdivision 4 of this section, are to be separated from ready-to-eat foods as specified under 12VAC5-421-470 A.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-730. Parasite destruction.

A. Except as specified in subsection B of this section, before service or sale in ready-to-eat form, raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked or marinated-partially cooked fish shall be:

1. Frozen and stored at a temperature of -4°F (-20°C) or below for a minimum of 168 hours (seven days) in a freezer;P

2. Frozen at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -31°F (-35°C) or below for a minimum of 15 hours;P or

3. Frozen at -31°F (-35°C) or below until solid and stored at -4°F (-20°C) or below for a minimum of 24 hours.P

B. Subsection A of this section does not apply to:

1. Molluscan shellfish;

2. A scallop product consisting only of the shucked adductor muscle;

3. Tuna of the species Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin tuna), Thunnus atlanticus, Thunnus maccoyii (Bluefin tuna, Southern), Thunnus obesus (Bigeye tuna), or Thunnus thynnus (Bluefin tuna, Northern);

4. Aquacultured fish, such as salmon, that:

a. If raised in open water, are raised in net-pens; or

b. Are raised in land-based operations such as ponds or tanks; and

c. Are fed formulated feed, such as pellets, that contains no live parasites infective to the aquacultured fish, or

5. Fish eggs that have been removed from the skein and rinsed.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-740. Records, creation and retention.

A. Except as specified in 12VAC5-421-730 B and subsection B of this section, if raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish are served or sold in ready-to-eat form, the person in charge shall record the freezing temperature and time to which the fish are subjected and shall retain the records at the food establishment for 90 calendar days beyond the time of service or sale of the fish.Pf

B. If the fish are frozen by a supplier, a written agreement or statement from the supplier stipulating that the fish supplied are frozen to a temperature and for a time specified under 12VAC5-421-730 may substitute for the records specified under subsection A of this section.

C. If raw, raw-marinated, partially cooked, or marinated-partially cooked fish are served or sold in ready-to-eat form, and the fish are raised and fed as specified in 12VAC5-421-730 B 4, a written agreement or statement from the supplier or aquaculturist stipulating that the fish were raised and fed as specified in 12VAC5-421-730 B 4 shall be obtained by the person in charge and retained in the records of the food establishment for 90 calendar days beyond the time of service or sale of the fish.Pf

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

12VAC5-421-750. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010.

12VAC5-421-755. Preparation for immediate service.

Cooked and refrigerated food that is prepared for immediate service in response to an individual consumer order, such as a roast beef sandwich au jus, may be served at any temperature.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016.

12VAC5-421-760. Reheating for hot holding.

A. Except as specified under subsections B, C, and E of this section, time/temperature control for safety food that is cooked, cooled, and reheated for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach at least 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds.P

B. Except as specified under subsection C of this section, time/temperature control for safety food reheated in a microwave oven for hot holding shall be reheated so that all parts of the food reach a temperature of at least 165°F (74°C) and the food is rotated or stirred, covered, and allowed to stand covered two minutes after reheating.P

C. Ready-to-eat time/temperature control for safety food that has been commercially processed and packaged in a food processing plant that is inspected by the department that has jurisdiction over the plant shall be heated to a temperature of at least 135°F (57°C) when being reheated for hot holding.P

D. Reheating for hot holding as specified under subsections A, B, and C of this section shall be done rapidly and the time the food is between 41°F (5°C) and the temperatures specified under subsections A, B, and C of this section may not exceed two hours.P

E. Remaining unsliced portions of meat roasts that are cooked as specified under 12VAC5-421-700 B may be reheated for hot holding using the oven parameters and minimum time and temperature conditions specified under 12VAC5-421-700 B.

Statutory Authority

§§ 35.1-11 and 35.1-14 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. March 1, 2002; amended, Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 2, eff. October 16, 2007; Volume 26, Issue 7, eff. January 1, 2010; Volume 32, Issue 22, eff. July 12, 2016; Volume 37, Issue 18, eff. June 10, 2021.

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