Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
5/13/2021

Part IV. Licensure Regulations Governing Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements

8VAC20-23-120. Early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements.

Individuals seeking licensure with endorsements in early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, or if employed by a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school, through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal arts or sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessments requirement prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-130. Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education endorsements.

Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive- should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disorders; gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the preK-3 or preK-6 endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in (i) methods of improving communication between schools and families; (ii) communicating with families regarding social and instructional needs of children; (iii) ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school; (iv) the Virginia Standards of Learning; and (v) Virginia Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds prepared by the Virginia Department of Education's Office of Humanities and Early Childhood shall be included.

(6) Early childhood educators shall understand the role of families in child development and in relation to teaching educational skills.

(7) Early childhood educators shall understand the role of the informal and play-mediated settings for promoting students' skills and development and shall demonstrate knowledge and skill in interacting in such situations to promote specific learning outcomes as reflected in Virginia's Foundation Blocks for Early Learning: Comprehensive Standards for Four-Year-Olds.

(8) Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included. The certification or training program shall (i) be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross, and (ii) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

(9) Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

b. Middle education 6-8 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

(1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and evaluation of pupil performance.

(2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

(3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and shall be appropriate for the middle education endorsement shall be included.

(4) Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student engagement and student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

(5) Study in methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school, and family engagement with the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

(6) Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included. The certification or training program shall (i) be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross, and (ii) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

(7) Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills.

3. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and of self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment shall be included.

e. The link between classroom management and students' ages shall be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

4. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners shall be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand and help students understand their own progress and growth shall be included.

c. Skills shall also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal-setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress shall be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education, such as diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, and placement assessment shall be included.

5. Foundations of education and the teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention shall be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities, shall be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity shall be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers shall be included.

6. Language and literacy: 6 semester hours.

a. Early/primary preK-3 and elementary education preK-6 - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher shall be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

b. Middle education - language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours and literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours.

(1) Language acquisition and reading development: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the complex nature of language acquisition and reading, to include phonemic and other phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies for adolescent learners. Additional skills shall include proficiency in writing strategies, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

(2) Literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and to listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent readers.

7. Supervised clinical experiences. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks of successful full-time student teaching in the endorsement area sought under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement in a public or accredited nonpublic school. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 14, eff. April 15, 2021.

8VAC20-23-140. Early childhood for three-year-olds and four-year-olds (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. An earned baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education, such as preK-3 or preK-6, or special education early childhood;

2. Completed 9 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in early childhood education; and

3. Completed a supervised practicum of at least 45 instructional hours in a preschool setting (three-year-olds and four-year-olds) in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or another program approved by the Virginia Board of Education. One year of successful, full-time teaching experience in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the practicum.

4. The add-on endorsement to an elementary endorsement that includes preK is not required to teach preK (three-year-olds and four-year-olds), but the endorsement recognizes the candidate's additional preparation in early childhood education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-150. Early/primary education preK-3.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate must have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in early/primary education preK-3; or

2. The candidate for the early/primary education preK-3 endorsement must have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal arts or sciences, or equivalent, and completed coursework that covers the early/primary education preK-3 competencies and meets the following semester-hour requirements:

a. English (shall include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics (shall include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and methods in teaching elementary mathematics): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c. Laboratory sciences: 12 semester hours (in at least two science disciplines and methods in teaching elementary science); or complete 6 semester hours in laboratory science (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History (shall include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science (shall include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics), complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-160. Elementary education preK-6.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate shall have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in elementary education preK-6; or

2. The candidate for the elementary education preK-6 endorsement shall have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university majoring in the liberal arts or sciences (or equivalent) and meet the following semester-hour requirements:

a. English (shall include composition, oral communication, and literature): 12 semester hours; or complete 6 semester hours in English and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

b. Mathematics (shall include algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, and teaching elementary mathematics): 15 semester hours; or complete 6 hours in mathematics, complete a methods in teaching elementary mathematics course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

c. Laboratory sciences: 15 semester hours in at least three science disciplines and at least a three credit science methods course; or complete 9 semester hours (in two science disciplines), complete a methods in teaching elementary science course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education;

d. History (shall include American history and world history): 6 semester hours, and Social Science (shall include geography and economics): 6 semester hours; or complete 3 semester hours in history, complete 3 semester hours in social science (geography or economics), complete a methods in teaching elementary history and social sciences course (3 semester hours), and pass a rigorous elementary subject test prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

e. Arts: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-170. Middle education 6-8.

Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate shall have graduated from an approved teacher preparation discipline-specific program in middle education 6-8 with at least one area of academic preparation from the areas of English, mathematics, science, and history and social sciences; or

2. An applicant seeking the middle education 6-8 endorsement shall have earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal arts or sciences, or equivalent; and completed the minimum number of semester hours, as indicated, in at least one area of academic preparation (concentration) that will be listed on the license. The applicant will be restricted to teaching only in the area or areas of concentration listed on the teaching license.

a. English. English concentration (shall include coursework in language, such as history, structure, grammar, fiction and nonfiction texts, media literacy, advanced composition, and interpersonal communication or speech): 21 semester hours.

b. Mathematics. Mathematics concentration (shall include coursework in algebra, geometry, probability and statistics, applications of mathematics, and methods of teaching mathematics to include middle school mathematics content): 24 semester hours.

c. Laboratory sciences. Laboratory sciences concentration (shall include courses in each of the following: biology, chemistry, physics, and Earth and space science; and a laboratory course is required in each of the four areas): 24 semester hours.

d. History and social sciences. History and social sciences concentration (shall include a course in American history; world history; economics; American government, including state and local government; and geography): 21 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

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