Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
5/13/2021

Part V. Licensure Regulations Governing Prek-12, Special Education, Secondary Grades 6-12, and Adult Education Endorsements

8VAC20-23-180. PreK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements.

Individuals seeking licensure with preK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, or adult education endorsements may meet requirements through the completion of an approved program, or if employed by a Virginia public or accredited nonpublic school, through the alternate route to licensure. Components of the licensure program include a degree from a regionally accredited college or university in the liberal arts or sciences, or equivalent; professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; specific endorsement requirements; and professional studies requirements.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-190. Professional studies requirements for PreK-12, special education, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements.

Professional studies requirements for preK-12, secondary grades 6-12, and adult education endorsements: 18 semester hours. Professional studies requirements for special education endorsements: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.

1. Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.

b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive - should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disabilities; gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.

2. Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.

b. Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.

c. Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners; gifted and talented students and students with disabilities; and appropriate for the level of endorsement sought shall be included.

d. Teaching methods shall be tailored to promote student academic progress and effective preparation for the Virginia Standards of Learning assessments.

e. Methods of improving communication between schools and families, ways of increasing family engagement in student learning at home and in school, and family engagement with the Virginia Standards of Learning shall be included.

f. Study in child abuse recognition and intervention in accordance with curriculum guidelines developed by the Virginia Board of Education in consultation with the Virginia Department of Social Services and training or certification in emergency first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the use of automated external defibrillators shall be included. The certification or training program shall (i) be based on the current national evidenced-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of automated external defibrillator, such as a program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross, and (ii) include hands-on practice of the skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

g. Curriculum and instruction for secondary grades 6-12 endorsements shall include middle and secondary education.

h. Pre-student teaching experiences (field experiences) should be evident within these skills. For preK-12, field experiences shall be at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.

3. Assessment of and for learning: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding and application of creating, selecting, and implementing valid and reliable classroom-based assessments of student learning, including formative and summative assessments. Assessments designed and adapted to meet the needs of diverse learners shall be addressed.

b. Analytical skills necessary to inform ongoing planning and instruction, as well as to understand, and help students understand their own progress and growth shall be included.

c. Skills shall also include the ability to understand the relationships among assessment, instruction, and monitoring student progress to include student performance measures in grading practices, the ability to interpret valid assessments using a variety of formats in order to measure student attainment of essential skills in a standards-based environment, and the ability to analyze assessment data to make decisions about how to improve instruction and student performance.

d. Understanding of state assessment programs and accountability systems, including assessments used for student achievement goal-setting as related to teacher evaluation and determining student academic progress shall be included.

e. Knowledge of legal and ethical aspects of assessment and skills for developing familiarity with assessments used in preK-12 education such as diagnostic, college admission exams, industry certifications, and placement assessments shall be included.

4. Foundations of education and the teaching profession: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall be designed to develop an understanding of the historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations underlying the role, development, and organization of public education in the United States.

b. Attention shall be given to the legal status of teachers and students, including federal and state laws and regulations; school as an organization and culture; and contemporary issues and current trends in education, including the impact of technology on education. Local, state, and federal governance of schools, including the roles of teachers and schools in communities shall be included.

c. Professionalism and ethical standards, as well as personal integrity shall be addressed.

d. Knowledge and understanding of Virginia's Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers shall be included.

5. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.

a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, standards, and rules of the educational environment.

b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.

c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills and of self-discipline.

d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment shall be included. The link between classroom management and the students' ages shall be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.

6. Language and literacy.

a. Adult education, preK-12, and secondary grades 6-12 - literacy in the content areas: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart an understanding of vocabulary development and comprehension skills in English, mathematics, science, history and social science, and other content areas. Strategies include teaching students how to ask effective questions, summarize and retell both verbally and in writing, and listen effectively. Teaching strategies include literal, interpretive, critical, and evaluative comprehension, as well as the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading for adolescent learners.

b. Special education - language acquisition and reading and writing: 6 semester hours. Skills listed for these endorsement areas represent the minimum competencies that a beginning teacher shall be able to demonstrate. These skills are not intended to limit the scope of a beginning teacher's program. Additional knowledge and skills that add to a beginning teacher's competencies to deliver instruction and improve student achievement should be included as part of a quality learning experience.

(1) Language acquisition: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the complex nature of language acquisition as a precursor to literacy. Language acquisition shall follow the typical development of linguistic competence in the areas of phonetics, semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, and pragmatics.

(2) Reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall be designed to impart a thorough understanding of the Virginia English Standards of Learning, as well as the reciprocal nature of reading and writing. Reading shall include phonemic and other phonological awareness, concept of print, phonics, fluency, vocabulary development, and comprehension strategies. Writing shall include writing strategies and conventions as supporting the composing and written expression and usage and mechanics domains. Additional skills shall include proficiency in understanding the stages of spelling development and the writing process and the ability to foster appreciation of a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts and independent reading.

7. Supervised classroom experience. Supervised clinical experiences shall be continuous and systematic and comprised of early field experiences and a minimum of 10 weeks of successful full-time student teaching in the endorsement area sought under the supervision of a cooperating teacher with demonstrated effectiveness in the classroom. The summative supervised student teaching experience shall include at least 150 clock hours spent in direct teaching at the level of endorsement in a public or accredited nonpublic school.

If a preK-12 endorsement is sought, teaching activities shall be at the elementary and middle or secondary levels. Individuals seeking the endorsement in library media shall complete the supervised school library media practicum in a school library media setting. Individuals seeking an endorsement in an area of special education shall complete the supervised classroom experience requirement in the area of special education for which the endorsement is sought. One year of successful full-time teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. For the Online Teacher License only, one year of successful online teaching experience in the endorsement area in a public school, an accredited nonpublic school, or an accredited virtual school or program may be accepted in lieu of the supervised teaching experience. A fully licensed, experienced teacher shall be available in the school building to assist a beginning teacher employed through the alternate route.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-16 and 22.1-298 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018; amended, Virginia Register Volume 37, Issue 14, eff. April 15, 2021.

8VAC20-23-200. Adult education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university or hold a Collegiate Professional License (requires a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university); and

2. A minimum of 15 semester hours in adult education that shall include the following competencies and one semester of supervised successful full-time, or an equivalent number of hours of part-time experience, teaching of adults:

a. Understanding of the nature or psychology of the adult learner or adult development;

b. Understanding of the knowledge, skills, and processes needed for the selection, evaluation, and instructional applications of the methods and materials for adults to become college and career ready, including:

(1) Curriculum development in adult basic education or Virginia Board of Education-approved high school equivalency instruction;

(2) Literacy skills for adults;

(3) Numeracy skills for adults;

(4) Reading comprehension for adult education; and

(5) Other adult basic skills instruction.

B. Individuals not holding a Collegiate Professional License or a Postgraduate Professional License shall meet the professional teacher's assessment requirements prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-210. Adult English as a second language (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in adult English as a second language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in a teaching area; and

3. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Methods for teaching adult English learners: 3 semester hours;

b. English linguistics: 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Modern foreign language: 6 semester hours; and

e. Electives from the following areas: 6 semester hours:

(1) Cross-cultural communication;

(2) Second language acquisition;

(3) General linguistics;

(4) Teaching reading to adults;

(5) Adult English learner instruction; or

(6) Adult English learner curriculum development.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-220. Career and technical education – agricultural education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in agricultural education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 39 semester hours of coursework in agriculture, including at least 3 semester hours in each of the areas in subdivisions 2 a through 2 f of this subsection, as well as a minimum of 9 semester hours in one concentration area listed in subdivisions 2 a through 2 f:

a. Plant science;

b. Animal science;

c. Agricultural mechanics and applied technology with a lab component;

d. Agricultural economics and management;

e. Forestry and wildlife management;

f. Horticulture; and

g. Supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalent (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours) relevant occupational experience within the past five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours); and

4. Completed an agricultural education certificate or associate degree program in the teaching specialty area sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-230. Career and technical education – business and information technology.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in business and information technology; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in business education or 39 semester hours of coursework in business and information technology, including:

a. Accounting: 6 semester hours;

b. Economics: 3 semester hours;

c. Business law, business principles, management, marketing, or finance: 9 semester hours;

d. Communications and media to include oral, written, and presentation skills: 3 semester hours;

e. Information systems and technology to include computer software applications, such as word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation, information technology fundamentals, database management, communications systems, programming, software development, security, and networking: 12 semester hours;

f. Input technologies to include touch keyboarding (required, or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill), audio input devices, video input devices, pointing devices, touch screens, or other emerging input technologies: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised business experience: 3 semester hours, or one year of successful full-time or the equivalent (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours) relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a highly specialized business and information technology area, such as networking, programming, database management, Internet application development, medical office procedures, legal office procedures, network administration, and other emerging highly specialized areas may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought;

3. Completed a business certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-240. Career and technical education – family and consumer sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in family and consumer sciences; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in family and consumer sciences education or 39 semester hours of coursework in family and consumer sciences distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of individuals through the lifespan and the family life cycle: 9 semester hours;

b. Resource management, personal and family finance, and consumer economics: 6 semester hours;

c. Food, nutrition, dietetics, wellness, and food science: 9 semester hours;

d. Housing, home furnishing, and equipment: 3 semester hours;

e. Apparel and textiles: 6 semester hours;

f. Occupational program management: 3 semester hours; and

g. Supervised occupational experience related to family and consumer sciences, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful, full-time or the equivalent (a minimum of 2,000 cumulative hours) relevant occupational experience within the last five years.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized family and consumer sciences area, such as child care occupations, consumer services, family and human services, fashion design occupations, food occupations, hospitality occupations, interior design occupations, home furnishings occupations, and home and institutional services, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed at least two years of successful, full-time occupational experience or the equivalent within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which they are seeking endorsement;

3. Completed a family and consumer sciences certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited college or university, where applicable in the area of endorsement sought ; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-250. Career and technical education – health and medical sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved program of study in a health care program of study and hold a current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a current license or certification as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching and completed two years of successful, full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in an area related to the teaching specialty sought.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized health occupations area may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A license or are certified as a professional practitioner in the area in which one is to be teaching;

3. Completed two years of full-time or the equivalent of occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty sought;

4. Completed a health occupations certificate or associate degree program from a regionally accredited institution in the teaching specialty area sought; and

5. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-260. Career and technical education – marketing education.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in marketing education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in marketing education or a minimum of 39 semester hours of coursework in marketing to include:

a. Marketing processes and environment: 3 semester hours;

b. Management and supervision: 6 semester hours;

c. Economics: 3 semester hours;

d. Merchandising and operations: 3 semester hours;

e. Advertising and promotion: 3 semester hours;

f. Sales and selling: 3 semester hours;

g. Communication theory and techniques: 3 semester hours;

h. Consumer behavior: 3 semester hours;

i. International (global) marketing: 3 semester hours;

j. Finance, accounting, or marketing mathematics: 3 semester hours;

k. Technology applications: 3 semester hours; and

l. Supervised marketing occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of successful full-time work experience in the field of marketing may be accepted in lieu of the supervised marketing internship.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized marketing area, such as apparel and accessories, hotel operations, international marketing, or restaurant, may be granted to individuals who have:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. Completed two years of successful full-time occupational experience, or the equivalent, within the last five years in the teaching specialty area sought; and

3. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-270. Career and technical education – technology education.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in technology education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in technology education or 33 semester hours in technology education distributed in the following areas:

a. The nature of technology. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of the characteristics, scope, and core concepts of physical, biological, and informational technologies, the relationships among these technologies, and their connections to other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields: 6 semester hours;

b. Technology and society. Experiences shall include those that develop a working knowledge of the cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology, its effect on the environment, and the role of society in the history, development, and use of physical, biological, and informational technologies: 3 semester hours;

c. Engineering. Experiences shall include those that develop comprehension of the attributes of technological design, inclusive of constraints, optimization, predictive analysis, problem solving, critical thinking, technical writing, and integrative mathematics and science: 6 semester hours;

d. Abilities for a technological world. Experiences shall include those that develop the capacity to utilize the design process, to use and maintain technological products and systems, and to assess their impact: 9 semester hours; and

e. The designed world. Experiences shall include those that promote an understanding of current and emerging physical, biological, and informational technologies: 9 semester hours; or

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university with a major in one of the following fields of study: architecture, design, engineering, engineering technology, industrial technology, or physics and completed a minimum of 15 semester hours of technology education content coursework, including at least 3 semester hours in each of the following areas:

a. The nature of technology;

b. Technology and society;

c. Engineering;

d. Abilities for a technological world; and

e. The designed world.

If an individual is seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth with an endorsement in the area of career and technical education, an industry certification credential as defined in 8VAC20-23-10 in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement is required. If a teacher seeking an initial license in the Commonwealth has not attained an industry certification credential in the area in which the teacher seeks endorsement, the Virginia Board of Education may, upon request of the employing school division or educational agency, issue the teacher a provisional license to allow time for the teacher to attain such credential.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-280. Career and technical education – trade and industrial education.

A. Endorsement requirements.

1. The candidate shall have graduated from an approved teacher preparation program with a minimum of a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university in trade and industrial education; or

2. A candidate who has graduated from an approved teacher preparation program that is not in the trade and industrial education program subject area for which the candidate is seeking endorsement shall have:

a. A current state license or industry certification based on the prescribed standard or examination, if applicable; and

b. Evidence of at least two years of successful full-time or equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which the candidate is seeking endorsement. A candidate whose occupational experience has not been within the last five years shall participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty.

B. Technical Professional License. An endorsement in a specialized trade and industrial education area will be granted to an individual who has:

1. Been recommended by an employing Virginia educational agency;

2. A current license or is currently certified as a professional practitioner in the area in which the individual is to be teaching, if applicable, or can demonstrate competency in the area of trade and industrial education the individual is to be teaching;

3. Evidence of at least two years of successful full-time or the equivalent occupational experience within the past five years in the teaching specialty for which he is seeking endorsement. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five years shall participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

4. Completed professional studies requirements (human development and learning: 3 semester hours; curriculum and instruction in career and technical education: 3 semester hours; and applications of instructional technology or classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours).

C. Add-on endorsement requirements. A candidate shall:

1. Hold an active Collegiate Professional or Postgraduate Professional License with a teaching endorsement;

2. Demonstrate competency in the trade or industrial area being sought;

3. Hold current state licensure or industry certification for the trade or industrial area for which endorsement is sought based upon the prescribed standard or examination;

4. Have completed two years or 4,000 clock hours of satisfactory, full-time occupational experience at the journeyman level or an equivalent level in the occupation within the last five years. Candidates whose occupational experience has not been within the last five years shall participate in a supervised technical update related to the teaching specialty or area of endorsement or complete a supervised internship of work experience of not less than six weeks related to the area of endorsement or teaching specialty; and

5. Have completed 3 semester hours in curriculum and instruction specific to vocational industrial education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-290. Career and technical education – transition and special needs (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in transition and special needs education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in career and technical education or special education preK-12 with an endorsement in one area of career and technical education or special education preK-12, including 12 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Overview of special needs programs and services: 3 semester hours;

b. Instructional methods, curriculum, and resources: 3 semester hours;

c. Career and life planning, transitioning, occupational information, and delivery of cooperative education programs: 3 semester hours; and

d. Purposes and practices and characteristics of special populations: 3 semester hours; and

3. Completed successful, supervised occupational experience, 3 semester hours, or one year of full-time or the equivalent of relevant occupational experience within the past five years.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-300. Computer science.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in computer science; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in computer science. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 18 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Mathematics, including discrete mathematics;

b. Data structures and algorithm analysis;

c. Foundations of computer science; and

d. Programming in at least two distinct languages: 6 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-310. Dance arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in dance arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in dance arts or 24 semester hours with coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or modern dance beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production, which may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours;

c. Scientific foundations, including human anatomy, kinesiology, and injury prevention and care for dance arts: 9 semester hours; and

d. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in dance arts. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Development of movement language: 9 semester hours.

(1) A course in each area of ballet, folk, jazz, and modern dance: 6 semester hours; and

(2) Area of concentration in one area of ballet, folk, jazz, or modern dance beyond the entry level: 3 semester hours;

b. Composition, improvisation, and dance arts production, which may include stage lighting, stage costuming, or stage makeup: 3 semester hours; and

c. Cultural understanding, including cultural context and dance history: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-320. Driver education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in driver education; or

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and completed 6 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Driver Task Analysis, including instructional strategies as prescribed in the Curriculum and Administrative Guide for Driver Education in Virginia (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/driver_education/curriculum_admin_guide/index.shtml); understanding the highway transportation system; applying Virginia's motor vehicle laws; personal, legal, and emotional factors; visual and sensory perception; risk perception and risk management; space management and other defensive driving techniques; environmental, financial, and other vehicle ownership responsibilities; vehicle technologies; and the scientific principles of the driving tasks: 3 semester hours; and

b. Principles and methodologies of classroom and in-car instruction, including applying classroom and in-car teaching techniques for delivering concurrent instruction; applying perception, vehicle balance, speed control, and other risk management principles to the development of precision driving skills; and understanding program administrative tasks, including juvenile licensing laws and issuance of a driver's license; a minimum of 14 hours of actual behind-the-wheel supervised teaching experience demonstrating vehicle control skills and performance capabilities that includes 2 hours of basic evasive maneuvers; and a minimum of 14 hours of mentorship with a licensed, endorsed driver education teacher: 3 semester hours.

4. A current, valid Virginia driver's license. School divisions are to ensure that teachers of driver education hold a valid driver's license.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-330. Engineering.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in engineering;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in engineering or an engineering subspecialty in an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET)-accredited college or university program;

3. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an engineering technology, science, or technology education major with at least 12 semester hours of coursework in engineering courses, including:

a. Introduction to engineering design;

b. Statics or dynamics;

c. Circuits or fluid mechanics; and

d. Thermodynamics;

4. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a science, mathematics, or technology education major with at least five years of successful full-time experience working in an engineering environment; or

5. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a professional engineer's (P.E.) license.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-340. English.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in English; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in English or a minimum of 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Literacy and reading: 12 semester hours. Courses shall include:

(1) Survey of British literature;

(2) Survey of American literature;

(3) World literature; and

(4) Literary theory and criticism.

b. Language: 3 semester hours. Includes the development and nature of the English language.

c. Composition: 12 semester hours. Experiences shall include:

(1) A grammar course integrating grammar and writing;

(2) The teaching of writing, based on current knowledge and most effective practices, including the use of technology for this purpose;

(3) An advanced composition course emphasizing rhetorical practices of expository, persuasive, argumentative, and analytical writing; and

(4) Teaching research including ethical accessing, evaluating, organizing, crediting, and synthesizing information.

d. Oral language: 3 semester hours. Experiences shall include the teaching of public and presentation speaking, including nonverbal communication and the role of communication in small group and mass communication.

e. Electives from the areas listed in this subdivision 2: 6 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-350. English as a second language preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in English as a second language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching of reading and writing. Courses shall include skills in phonemic and other phonological awareness; pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading strategies; vocabulary development; and guided reading. Ability to structure interactive tasks that engage students in using oral language to develop language and skills. Ability to determine students' reading levels and design instruction for multi-level classrooms by incorporating appropriate scaffolding or language supports; one course shall address teaching reading to English language learners: 6 semester hours;

b. English linguistics: general and English linguistics 3 semester hours;

c. Cross-cultural education: 3 semester hours;

d. Second language acquisition: 3 semester hours;

e. Methods of English as a second language, to include instruction based on the understanding of the World-Class Instructional Design and Assessment (WIDA) English Language Development (ELD) Standards: 3 semester hours;

f. English as a second language assessment to include assessing comprehension and communication in English: 3 semester hours; and

g. Electives from the areas listed in this subdivision 2: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-360. Foreign language preK-12.

A. The specific language of the endorsement will be noted on the license.

B. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - languages other than Latin and American Sign Language. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university, and completed a major in the foreign language or 30 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level in the foreign language distributed in the following areas:

a. Advanced grammar and composition;

b. Conversation, culture and civilization, and literature; and

c. In addition to the 30 semester hours, completed a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

3. Endorsement in a second foreign language may be obtained by successfully completing 24 semester hours of coursework above the intermediate level.

4. Candidates who have learned a foreign language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or university shall complete the following requirements:

a. Achieve a qualifying score on a foreign language assessment in the appropriate language as prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education; and

b. Earn a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States or obtain teacher certification in another country with at least 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels at a foreign institution.

C. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - Latin. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in Latin; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours of Latin above the intermediate level. A maximum of six semester hours of Roman history, Roman life, Roman mythology, or Roman archaeology may be included in the total hours. A minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching Latin at the elementary and secondary levels are required.

D. Endorsement requirements for foreign language preK-12 - American Sign Language.

1. The candidate shall have (i) graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in a foreign language - American Sign Language or (ii) earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in American Sign Language or 24 semester hours above the intermediate level in American Sign Language. The program shall include (i) courses in advanced grammar and syntax, conversation, and culture and (ii) a minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels.

2. Native users or candidates who have learned American Sign Language without formal academic credit in a regionally accredited college or university, as explained in subdivision 1 of this subsection, shall complete the following requirements:

a. Competency in American Sign Language demonstrated by written documentation of one of the following:

(1) Hold a current, valid Provisional, Qualified, or Professional certification by the American Sign Language Teachers' Association;

(2) Hold one of the following current, valid national certificates in interpreting:

(a) Registry of Interpreters for Deaf certification in at least one of the following: Certificate of Interpretation (CI), Certificate of Deaf Interpretation (CDI), Reverse Skills Certification (RSC), or Comprehensive Skills Certificate (CSC);

(b) A current, valid National Association for the Deaf Level IV certification or higher; or

(c) A National Interpreter Certification (NIC); or

(3) Complete requirements by achieving a qualifying score on an assessment demonstrating proficiency in American Sign Language prescribed by the Virginia Board of Education.

b. A minimum of 3 semester hours of methods of teaching foreign languages at the elementary and secondary levels from a regionally accredited college or university in the United States; and

c. A minimum of 6 semester hours in coursework, including grammar and syntax of American Sign Language.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-370. Gifted education (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed an approved teacher preparation program in gifted education; or

3. Completed the following requirements:

a. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

b. Completed 12 semester hours of graduate-level coursework in gifted education distributed in the following areas:

(1) Introduction and identification of giftedness: 3 semester hours;

(2) Social and emotional development and guidance of gifted learners: 3 semester hours;

(3) Curriculum and instructional strategies for gifted learners: 3 semester hours; and

(4) Advanced course work in one of the following areas: 3 semester hours:

(a) Advanced curriculum, instruction, and assessment design;

(b) Advanced program development and evaluation; or

(c) Advanced study in underrepresented populations; and

c. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with gifted students in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted, provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in gifted education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-380. Health and physical education preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in health and physical education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in health and physical education or 45 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

a. Personal health, safety, and care of athletic injuries: 3 semester hours;

b. Human anatomy, physiology, exercise physiology, and biomechanics of human movement: 9 semester hours;

c. General health and physical education theory, including curriculum design and development in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

d. Instructional methods and skills for secondary physical education: 3 semester hours;

e. Concepts of motor learning, instructional methods, and skills for elementary physical education: 3 semester hours;

f. Instruction methods for elementary and secondary school health: 3 semester hours;

g. Health and physical education electives: 9 semester hours;

h. Instructional methods and strategies for adapted physical education: 3 semester hours;

i. Technology in health and physical education: 3 semester hours;

j. Principles of human nutrition: 3 semester hours; and

k. Assessment and evaluation in the content area: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-390. History and social sciences.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in history and social sciences; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 51 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. History: a major in history or 18 semester hours in history (shall include coursework in American history, Virginia history, and world history);

b. Political science: a major in political science or 18 semester hours in political science, which shall include coursework in American government (state and local government);

c. Geography: 9 semester hours; and

d. Economics: 6 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in history, political science, geography, and economics. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a teaching license with an endorsement in history, political science, geography, or economics; and

2. Completed 21 semester hours of coursework in the additional social science area - history, political science, geography, or economics for which the add-on endorsement is sought.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-400. Journalism (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed a minimum of 15 semester hours in journalism.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-410. Keyboarding (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 6 semester hours in keyboarding. Three of the six semester hours may be from either formal keyboarding instruction or documented demonstrated mastery of the touch keyboarding skill, and three semester hours shall include document formatting skills, word processing, and computer applications.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-420. Library media preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved preparation program in school library media; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 24 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Teaching for learning, including knowledge of learners and learning; effective and knowledgeable teaching; collaborative instructional partners; integration of learning standards and technologies; assessment of and for student learning; and the design and implementation of instruction that engages students interests and develops their ability to inquire, think critically, and gain and share knowledge: 3 semester hours;

b. Literacy and reading, including familiarity with children's, young adult, and professional literature in multiple formats; use of a variety of strategies to promote reading for enjoyment and information; collection development to support diverse learning needs; and collaboration to reinforce reading instructional strategies: 6 semester hours;

c. Information and knowledge, including efficient and ethical information-seeking behavior, ethical and equitable access to information, design and delivery of authentic learning through current and emerging technology, and the use of evidence-based action research to create and share knowledge: 6 semester hours;

d. Advocacy and leadership, including networking with the library community, commitment to professional development, leadership in articulating the role of the school library program in the educational community and in student learning, and advocacy for school library programs, resources, and services: 3 semester hours; and

e. Program management and administration, including planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating library programs, collections, and facilities; personnel; funding; organization of materials; professional ethics; and strategic planning and program assessment: 6 semester hours.

3. Supervised school library media practicum. Experiences shall include clinical experience to give the applicant an opportunity to apply the skills, knowledge, and competencies required for the endorsement. One year of successful, full-time experience as a school librarian in a public or accredited nonpublic school may be accepted in lieu of the supervised practicum.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-430. Mathematics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in mathematics; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in mathematics or 36 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Algebra. Experience shall include linear algebra (matrices, vectors, and linear transformations) and abstract algebra (ring, group, and field theory);

b. Geometry. Experience shall include Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries;

c. Analytic geometry;

d. Probability and statistics;

e. Discrete mathematics. Experience shall include the study of mathematical properties of finite sets and systems and linear programming;

f. Calculus. Experience shall include multivariable calculus;

g. Mathematical modeling; and

h. Computer science, including two programming languages.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-440. Mathematics – algebra I (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Either:

a. Completed an approved teacher preparation program in Algebra I; or

b. Completed 24 semester hours that include coursework in each of the following areas:

(1) Elementary functions, introductory college algebra, and trigonometry;

(2) Linear algebra;

(3) Calculus;

(4) Euclidean geometry;

(5) Probability and statistics;

(6) Discrete mathematics;

(7) Mathematical modeling; and

(8) Methods of teaching algebra.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-450. Music education – instrumental preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - instrumental; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours;

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary performance medium (band or orchestral instrument), in a secondary performance medium (band, orchestral, or keyboard instrument), and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours; and

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-460. Music education – vocal/choral preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in music education - vocal/choral; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 42 semester hours of coursework distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Basic music knowledge. Experiences shall be related to music theory, music history, and literature: 18 semester hours;

b. Musical performance. Experiences shall consist of developing competency in a primary and secondary medium, selected from voice or keyboard, and in teaching, rehearsing, and conducting ensembles: 18 semester hours; and

c. Electives with coursework selected from either of the two areas listed in subdivisions 2 a and 2 b of this section: 6 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-470. Science – biology.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in biology;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in biology or 32 semester hours in biology and at least one course in each of the following areas: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology, cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology and other preparation consistent with the competencies for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and completed at least 18 semester hours in biology, including at least one course in each of the following areas: genetics, biochemistry/molecular biology or cell biology, botany, zoology, anatomy/physiology, and evolutionary biology or ecology.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-480. Science – chemistry.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in chemistry;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in chemistry or 32 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the following areas: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and completed at least 18 semester hours in chemistry, including at least one course in each of the following areas: inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry, and analytical chemistry.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-490. Science – Earth science.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in Earth science;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in Earth science, geology, or environmental science with a minimum of 32 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the following areas: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and completed at least 18 semester hours in Earth sciences, including at least one course in each of the following areas: structural geology, petrology, paleontology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy/space science.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-500. Science – physics.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in physics;

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in physics or 32 semester hours in physics, including the following coursework: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics and other preparation consistent with the competencies required for the endorsement; or

3. Earned an endorsement in another science discipline and at least 18 semester hours in physics, including preparation in each of the following areas: mechanics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-510. Special education – adapted curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved program in special education - adapted curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities as distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities;

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behaviors supports, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, and development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. Adapted curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours of coursework distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics, including medical and health conditions, and learning and support needs of students with disabilities (K-12) whose cognitive and functional skills are significantly different from typically developing peers and therefore require adaptations to the general curriculum for an appropriate education, including, but not limited to, students with autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, intellectual disability, traumatic brain injury, and multiple disabilities including sensory, deaf-blindness, speech-language, orthopedic and other health impairments as an additional disability to those referenced above.

(2) Individualized education program (IEP) implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, roles, and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instruction, program, goal development, modifications, adaptations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and Virginia Standards of Learning through an aligned curriculum; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities in an adapted curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education, training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, age-appropriate transition assessments, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, and self-determination to include goal setting, decision making, problem solving, self-awareness and self-advocacy, guardianship, and other legal considerations.

(4) Instructional methods and strategies for the adapted curriculum: 3 semester hours. An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities who need an adapted curriculum. Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of modifications, adaptations, special instructional strategies, and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading, writing, and mathematics instruction for students with more significant disabilities; ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments; knowledge of available assistive and instructional technologies, including alternative communication methods and systems to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the adaptive curriculum and the ability to evaluate its effectiveness; ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessment to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional material and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery; ability to modify and adapt instructional content in a variety of settings and collaborate with general education content teachers to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the adapted curriculum and monitor student progress.

(5) Individualized supports and specialized care of students with significant disabilities: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of and ability to implement adapted strategies to address the positioning, handling, communication, personal care, and medical needs of students with significant disabilities. Knowledge and understanding of the roles of related disciplines and service providers in collaborative planning and service delivery. Demonstration of the ability to develop and utilize a blended curriculum design to address disability-specific or unique needs such as feeding and communication while addressing the adapted curriculum requirements.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-520. Special education blindness and visual impairments preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in special education visual impairments preK-12; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education blindness and visual impairments or 30 semester hours in education of students with visual impairments, distributed with at least one course in each of the following areas:

a. Characteristics of students with visual impairment: 3 semester hours. Provides an overview of the characteristics of and services to persons with visual impairments, including the impact of visual impairment on infant and child growth and development, child and adolescent emotional and social development, and family interaction patterns. Includes the educational, conceptual, psychosocial, and physical implications of a visual impairment.

b. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

c. Braille code: 3 semester hours. Includes the literary code of Braille, its implications for educational and literacy programs for students with visual disabilities and how to teach the Braille code to students with visual impairments.

d. Braille reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Includes instruction in the various technologies used by students who use Braille; basic instruction on transcription of advanced Braille codes, including uncontracted and contracted Unified English Braille, including music, foreign language, chemistry, and Nemeth code (Braille mathematics code); techniques for teaching skills in each code; and technology tools used to create Braille and tactile materials in addition to other assistive technologies used for instruction in mathematics and science.

e. Medical and educational implications of visual impairment: 3 semester hours. Includes anatomy of the human eye, normal visual development, pathology of the eye, examination procedures for the identification of visual pathology, and the effects of pathology on visual learning and development.

f. Assistive technology for students with sensory impairment: 3 semester hours. Introduces specific technology and resources available to enhance and improve ability of individuals with sensory disabilities and includes literacy skill development of students who are blind or visually impaired using technology.

g. Curriculum and assessment: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of educational assessments used with students with visual impairments and additional disabilities including deaf-blindness. Addresses assessment of technology needs of students with visual impairments, including functional vision assessments, learning media assessments, assistive technology, and assessment in areas of the expanded core curriculum; application of assessment results to development of the individualized education program (IEP); planning for placement; and services and accommodations for students with visual impairments.

h. Positive behavior intervention supports: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding of research-based, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement; and understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

i. Collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that include understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are visually impaired.

j. Teaching methods: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(1) Methods of teaching compensatory skills, the core curriculum, and technology used by students who are blind and visually impaired; introduces individual family service plans (IFSPs); and includes understanding and application of development and implementation of the IEP, including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are visually impaired.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are visually impaired.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to curriculum design and delivery.

(6) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, and monitor student progress.

(7) Ability to adapt materials and procedures to meet the needs of students with visual impairments.

k. Orientation and mobility. Includes the components of orientation and mobility (O&M); how the need for independent travel in the blind population created the field of O&M; and the philosophy and history of O&M, including cane instruction, dog guides, and methods of travel. Addresses techniques in developing orientation skills and basic mobility instruction. Motor and concept skill development are emphasized.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-530. Special education deaf and hard of hearing preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in special education deaf and hard of hearing; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in special education deaf and hard of hearing or 27 semester hours in education of students who are deaf and hard of hearing distributed in the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Includes knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical and legal aspects that include understanding and application of the regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Includes the ability to demonstrate knowledge of etiologies of hearing loss, definitions, characteristics, learning, and support needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing from pre-K through secondary levels, who may be using various communication modalities/languages and who may have additional disabilities.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practices, including types and characteristics of assessments, formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessment information to determine special education eligibility and inform service delivery, curriculum, accommodations, instructional methods, and student progress. Understanding comprehensive evaluation requirements, participation of students with disabilities in state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional planning: 3 semester hours. Includes the following:

(1) Familiarity with individual family service plans (IFSPs).

(2) An understanding and application of development and implementation of the individualized education program (IEP) including service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students who are deaf and hard of hearing and in transition.

(3) Knowledge of the general curriculum requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(4) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in instruction for students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

(5) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing, and monitor student progress.

e. Speech, language, and literacy development: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding of the normal developmental sequence of speech, language (oral, signed, and written), auditory, and cognitive milestones, varying methodologies and strategies used in assessing language skills (through the air and spoken) of a student who is deaf and hard of hearing; demonstrate skills necessary to foster and enhance language development and communication skills in students who are deaf and hard of hearing including American Sign Language, cued speech, and listening and spoken language skills. Ability to model and directly teach instructional strategies that foster language and literacy development.

f. Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior intervention supports and individual interventions; and demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans

g. Audiology and speech and hearing science: 3 semester hours. Understanding of the basic principles of sound reception and production including neuroanatomy of speech and hearing mechanisms and physical characteristics and measurement of acoustic stimuli; biological, neurological, and acoustic bases of communication; reading and interpreting audiograms and other audiologic assessments used in determining eligibility; knowledge of types, degrees, and effects of hearing loss on developmental domains; relevance of age of onset, age of identification of hearing loss, and age of amplification and intervention in speech and language development; ability to troubleshoot hearing aids, external components of cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices; and ability to foster development of listening skills.

h. Collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration that includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills, of culturally responsive practices and strategies, and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students who are deaf and hard of hearing.

i. Communication modalities: 3 semester hours. Includes introduction to the various communication modalities used by students who are deaf and hard of hearing, including listening and spoken language, cued speech, speech reading, and through the air communication including use of American Sign Language (ASL) and contact varieties of signed language and coursework to learn ASL.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-540. Special education early childhood (birth-age five years).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in early childhood special education; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in early childhood special education or 27 semester graduate hours in early childhood special education, including at least one course in each of the following:

a. Foundations and legal aspects of special education: 3 semester hours;

b. Assessment for diagnosis, program planning, and curriculum-based measurement to document progress for young children with typical development, disabling, and at-risk conditions: 3 semester hours;

c. Curriculum and instructional programming for preschool: 3 semester hours;

d. Speech and language development and intervention: 3 semester hours;

e. Medical aspects: 3 semester hours;

f. Social and emotional skills and behavior management for early childhood: 3 semester hours;

g. Consultation, co-teaching, coaching, and mentoring: 3 semester hours;

h. Family-centered intervention: 3 semester hours; and

i. Early childhood elective: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-550. Special education – general curriculum K-12.

Endorsement requirements: The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved program in special education - general curriculum; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed 27 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in the following areas:

a. Core coursework: 12 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

(1) Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

(2) Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

(3) Collaboration that includes skills in consultation, case management, co-teaching, and collaboration: 3 semester hours. Includes understanding roles and responsibilities, knowledge and application of effective communication skills and of culturally responsive practices and strategies and the ability to develop home, school, and community partnerships to address the needs of students with disabilities.

(4) Management of classroom instruction and behaviors: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and knowledge of research-based classroom management techniques, positive behavior support, and individual interventions and a demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment, including classroom organization, instructional design, and establishment of classroom routines and procedures. Knowledge of the elements of effective instructional planning, differentiation of instruction, and other instructional approaches to enhance student engagement and achievement. Understanding of behavior assessments, data collection and analysis, development, and monitoring of behavior intervention plans.

b. General curriculum coursework: 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

(1) Characteristics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area shall include the ability to demonstrate knowledge of definitions, characteristics, and learning and behavioral support needs of students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum at the elementary, middle, and high school levels, including students with learning disabilities, emotional disability, and intellectual disabilities; developmental delay; autism; other health impairments; traumatic brain injury; and multiple disabilities.

(2) Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

(3) Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

(4) Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

(5) Instructional strategies in mathematics: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(a) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(b) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(c) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(d) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(e) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(f) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(g) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-560. Special education – general curriculum K-6 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in elementary education, such as early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6.

2. Completed 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Assessment and evaluation: 3 semester hours. Includes an understanding and application of the foundation of assessment and evaluation related to best practice in special education, including types and characteristics of assessment, introduction to formal and informal assessment, and the use of assessments and other information to determine special education eligibility, service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities. Understanding of the current legal and ethical issues related to assessment selection and use, including comprehensive evaluation requirements, students with disabilities' participation in the state and local accountability systems, assessment options, appropriate grading and testing accommodations, and assessment of students from diverse backgrounds.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours). Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-570. Special education – general curriculum middle grades 6-8 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in middle education, such as middle education 6-8 English, middle education 6-8 history and social sciences, middle education 6-8 mathematics, or middle education-sciences.

2. Completed 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as it relates to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours). Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-580. Special education – general curriculum secondary grades 6-12 (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements: The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with an endorsement in English, history and social sciences, mathematics, biology, chemistry, Earth science, or physics.

2. Completed 15 semester hours in the education of students with disabilities distributed in each of the following areas:

a. Foundations: 3 semester hours. Characteristics that include knowledge of the foundation for educating students with disabilities; historical, ethical, and legal aspects that include an understanding and application of the federal and state regulatory requirements; and expectations associated with identification, education, and evaluation of students with disabilities.

b. Individualized education program development and implementation: 3 semester hours. Knowledge of the eligibility process and legal and regulatory requirements of IEP development, including timelines, components, team composition, and roles and responsibilities. Skills in this area include the ability to apply knowledge of assessment and evaluation throughout the K-12 grade levels to construct, use, and interpret a variety of standardized and nonstandardized data collection techniques; to make decisions about student progress, instructional, program, goal development, accommodations, placement, and teaching methodology for students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum and the Virginia Standards of Learning; and to demonstrate the use of assessment, evaluation, and other information to develop and implement individual educational planning and group instruction with students with disabilities who are accessing the general education curriculum across the K-12 grade levels.

c. Transitioning: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include the ability to prepare students and work with families and community agencies to provide successful student transitions throughout the educational experience to include postsecondary education training, employment, and independent living that addresses an understanding of long-term planning, career development, life skills, community experiences and resources, self-advocacy, and self-determination, guardianship, and legal considerations.

d. Instructional strategies in reading and writing: 3 semester hours. Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in reading and writing.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum, English requirements and expectations, and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address the identified reading needs of the students. Skills in this area include the ability to identify, understand, and implement a range of specialized instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in reading and writing instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge and ability to utilize current assistive and instructional reading and writing technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized reading and writing assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach reading and writing instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

e. Instructional strategies in mathematics: (3 semester hours). Skills in this area include:

(1) An understanding and application of service delivery, curriculum, and instruction of students with disabilities in mathematics.

(2) Knowledge of the general curriculum mathematics requirements and expectations and how to provide access to the curriculum based on student characteristics and needs.

(3) Ability to assess, interpret data, and implement instructional practices to address calculations, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Skills in this area include the ability to understand and use a range of specialized mathematics instructional strategies and research-based interventions that reflect best practice in mathematics instruction for students with disabilities.

(4) Ability to align the instructional practices and intervention with the Virginia Standards of Learning and state assessments.

(5) Knowledge of and ability to utilize current mathematics-related assistive and instructional technologies to promote learning and independence for students with disabilities in the general curriculum and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the technologies.

(6) Ability to develop and use curriculum-based and standardized mathematics assessments to conduct ongoing evaluations of instructional materials and practices to determine effectiveness and assess student needs as they relate to the mathematics curriculum design and delivery.

(7) Ability to model and directly teach mathematics instructional strategies in a variety of settings, collaborate and co-teach with general educators to develop and implement instructional practices that meet the needs of students with disabilities in the mathematics general curriculum, and monitor student progress.

3. Completed a practicum of at least 45 instructional hours. This practicum shall include a minimum of 45 instructional hours of successful teaching experiences with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school. In lieu of the practicum, one year of successful, full-time teaching experience with students with disabilities accessing the general curriculum in a public or an accredited nonpublic school may be accepted provided the teacher is assigned a mentor holding a valid license with an endorsement in special education.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-590. Speech communication (add-on endorsement).

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed a minimum of 15 semester hours in speech communication.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-600. Theatre arts preK-12.

A. Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in theatre arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in theatre arts or 33 semester hours distributed among the following areas:

a. Directing: 6 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 9 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours;

d. Performance: 6 semester hours; and

e. Dramatic literature: 9 semester hours.

B. Add-on endorsement requirements in theatre arts preK-12. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and hold a license issued by the Virginia Board of Education with a teaching endorsement in a teaching area; and

2. Completed 15 semester hours distributed in the following areas:

a. Directing: 3 semester hours;

b. Technical theatre: 3 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and theatre history: 3 semester hours; and

d. Performance: 6 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

8VAC20-23-610. Visual arts preK-12.

Endorsement requirements. The candidate shall have:

1. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and graduated from an approved teacher preparation program in visual arts; or

2. Earned a baccalaureate degree from a regionally accredited college or university and completed a major in visual arts or 36 semester hours in art distributed in the following areas:

a. Two-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

b. Three-dimensional media: 12 semester hours;

c. Cultural context and art history: 6 semester hours;

d. Evaluation and criticism and aesthetics: 3 semester hours; and

e. Related areas of the fine arts: 3 semester hours.

Statutory Authority

§§ 22.1-298.1 and 22.1-299 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 34, Issue 24, eff. August 23, 2018.

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