Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code
6/25/2022

Article 2. Operational and Monitoring Requirements

9VAC25-32-356. Pollutant monitoring and limits.

Article 2
Operational and Monitoring Requirements

A. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall be monitored for the parameters identified in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
PARAMETERS for BIOSOLIDS ANALYSIS(1)

Pollutant

Percent solids (%)

Volatile solids (%)

pH (standard units)

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (%)

Ammonia nitrogen (%)

Nitrates (mg/kg)

Total phosphorus (%)

Total potassium (%)

Alkalinity as CaCO3 (mg/kg)(2)

Arsenic (mg/kg)

Cadmium (mg/kg)

Copper (mg/kg)

Lead (mg/kg)

Mercury (mg/kg)

Molybdenum (mg/kg)

Nickel (mg/kg)

Selenium (mg/kg)

Zinc (mg/kg)

(1)Values reported on a dry weight basis unless indicated.

(2)Lime treated biosolids (10% or more lime by weight) shall be analyzed for percent CaCO3.

B. Biosolids pollutant limits.

1. Bulk biosolids or biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container shall not be applied to the land if the concentration of any pollutant in the biosolids exceeds the ceiling concentration for the pollutant in Table 2 of this section.

2. If bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site, either:

a. The cumulative loading rate for each pollutant shall not exceed the cumulative pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 3 of this section; or

b. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section.

3. If bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden, the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section.

4. If biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land, either:

a. The concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids shall not exceed the concentration for the pollutant in Table 4 of this section; or

b. The product of the concentration of each pollutant in the biosolids and the annual whole sludge application rate for the biosolids shall not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 5 of this section to be exceeded. The procedure used to determine the annual whole sludge application rate is presented in subsection D of this section.

C. Pollutant concentrations and loading rates - biosolids.

TABLE 2
CEILING CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Ceiling Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

75

Cadmium

85

Copper

4,300

Lead

840

Mercury

57

Molybdenum

75

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

7,500

*Dry weight basis

TABLE 3
CUMULATIVE POLLUTANT LOADING RATES(1)

Cumulative Pollutant Loading Rate

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic(2)

41

36

Cadmium

39

35

Copper

1,500

1,340

Lead

300

270

Mercury

17

16

Molybdenum(2)

Nickel

420

375

Selenium

100

89

Zinc

2,800

2,500

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA. Research suggests that for Molybdenum a cumulative pollutant loading rate below 40 kg/hectare may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

TABLE 4
POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS

Pollutant

Monthly Average Concentration
(milligrams per kilogram)*

Arsenic

41

Cadmium

39

Copper

1,500

Lead

300

Mercury

17

Molybdenum(1)

Nickel

420

Selenium

100

Zinc

2,800

*Dry weight basis

Note: (1) The monthly average concentration is currently under study by USEPA. Research suggests that a monthly average Molybdenum concentration below 40 mg/kg may be appropriate to reduce the risk of copper deficiency in grazing animals.

TABLE 5
ANNUAL POLLUTANT LOADING RATES (1)

Annual Pollutant Loading Rate
(per 365-day period)

Pollutant

(kilograms per hectare)

(pounds per acre)

Arsenic (2)

2.0

1.8

Cadmium

1.9

1.7

Copper

75

67

Lead

15

13

Mercury

0.85

0.76

Molybdenum(2)

Nickel

21

19

Selenium

5.0

4.6

Zinc

140

125

Notes:(1)Such total applications to be made on soils with the biosolids/soil mixture pH adjusted to 6.0 or greater if the biosolids cadmium content is greater than or equal to 21 mg/kg.

The maximum cumulative application rate is limited for all ranges of cation exchange capacity due to soil background pH in Virginia of less than 6.5 and lack of regulatory controls of soil pH adjustment after biosolids application ceases.

(2)The maximum cumulative application is currently under study by USEPA.

D. Procedures to determine the annual whole sludge application rate (AWSAR) for biosolids. Subdivision B 4 b of this section requires that the product of the concentration for each pollutant listed in Table 4 of this section in biosolids sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land and the AWSAR for the biosolids not cause the annual pollutant loading rate for the pollutant in Table 5 to be exceeded. This subsection contains that procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids that does not cause the annual pollutant loading rates (APLR) in Table 5 of this section to be exceeded.

1. The relationship between the APLR for a pollutant and the AWSAR for a biosolids is shown in equation (1):

EQUATION (1)

APLR = C X AWSAR X 0.001

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

0.001 = A conversion factor

2. To determine the AWSAR, equation (1) is rearranged into equation (2):

EQUATION (2)

AWSAR = APLR/(C X 0.001)

AWSAR = Annual whole sludge application rate in metric tons per hectare per 365-day period (dry weight basis)

APLR = Annual pollutant loading rate in kilograms per hectare per 365-day period

C = Pollutant concentration in milligrams per kilogram of total solids (dry weight basis)

0.001 = A conversion factor

3. The procedure used to determine the AWSAR for a biosolids is presented below:

a. Analyze a sample of the biosolids to determine the concentration for each of the pollutants listed in Table 4 of this section in the biosolids.

b. Using the pollutant concentrations from subdivision 3 a of this subsection and the APLRs from Table 5 of this section, calculate an AWSAR for each pollutant using Equation (2) above.

c. The AWSAR for the biosolids is the lowest AWSAR calculated in subdivision 3 b of this subsection.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-357. Operational standards, pathogens, and vector attraction reduction.

A. Biosolids shall be monitored to verify that the selected pathogen reduction treatment classification and vector attraction reduction method requirements have been met.

B. Pathogens – biosolids.

1. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A or the Class B pathogen requirements and site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. The Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

C. Pathogens – domestic septage. The requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 C shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

D. Vector attraction reduction – biosolids.

1. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 10 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site.

2. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when bulk biosolids is applied to a lawn or a home garden.

3. One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 shall be met when biosolids is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land.

E. Vector attraction reduction – domestic septage. The vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 9, B 10, or B 12 shall be met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site.

F. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-358. Frequency of monitoring.

A. Biosolids.

1. The frequency of monitoring for the pollutants listed in Tables 1 through 5 of 9VAC25-32-356; the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A and B 2 through B 4; and the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 4, B 7, and B 8 shall be the frequency in Table 1 of this section.

TABLE 1
FREQUENCY OF MONITORING – LAND APPLICATION

Amount of biosolids(1)

(metric tons per 365-day period)

Frequency(2)

Greater than zero but less than 290

Once per year

Equal to or greater than 290 but less than 1,500

Once per quarter (four times per year)

Equal to or greater than 1,500 but less than 15,000

Once per 60 days (six times per year)

Equal to or greater than 15,000

Once per month (12 times per year

Note(1): Either the amount of bulk biosolids applied to the land or the amount of biosolids received by a person who prepares biosolids that is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (dry weight basis).

Note(2): Sampling shall be conducted at approximately equal intervals at the listed frequencies. Biosolids programs that store biosolids and land apply only during discrete events throughout the year shall schedule sampling events to coincide with application periods. The department may require increased monitoring frequencies, if necessary, to adequately define any significant variability in biosolids quality.

2. After the biosolids has been monitored for two years at the frequency in Table 1 of this section, the board may reduce the frequency of monitoring for pollutant concentrations and for the pathogen density requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A 5 b and c.

B. Domestic septage. If the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 12 are met when domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, each container of domestic septage applied to the land shall be monitored for compliance with those requirements.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-359. Recordkeeping.

A. Biosolids.

1. If the pollutant concentrations in Table 4 of 9VAC25-32-356, the Class A pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 A are met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied; and

(3) A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied.

2. If the pollutant concentrations in 9VAC25-32-356 Table 4 and the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 4 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B are met; and

(4) When one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560, the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5, and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10, if one of those requirements is met) was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

(2) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met on each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(4) When the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met; and

(5) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site.

3. If the requirements in 9VAC25-32-356 B 2 are met when bulk biosolids is applied to agricultural land, forest, a public contact site, or a reclamation site:

a. The person who prepares the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

(1) The concentration of each pollutant listed in Table 2 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids;

(2) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-675 A or B and the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert one of the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8, if one of those requirements is met)) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fines and imprisonment.";

(3) A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-32-675 A or B are met; and,

(4) When one of the vector attraction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 1 through B 8 is met, a description of how the vector attraction reduction requirement is met.

b. The person who applies the bulk biosolids shall develop the following information, retain the information in subdivisions A 3 b (1) through A 3 b (7) indefinitely, and retain the information in subdivisions A 3 b (8) through A 3 b (13) for five years:

(1) The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(2) The number of hectares in each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(3) The date bulk biosolids is applied to each site;

(4) The cumulative amount of each pollutant (i.e., kilograms) listed in Table 3 of 9VAC25-32-356 in the bulk biosolids applied to each site, including the amount in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 c;

(5) The amount of biosolids (i.e., dry metric tons) applied to each site;

(6) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(7) A description of how the requirements to obtain information in 9VAC25-32-313 F 2 are met;

(8) The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the management practices in 9VAC25-32-313 B and 9VAC25-32-560 was prepared for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fine and imprisonment.";

(9) A description of how the management practices in 9VAC25-32-560 are met for each site on which bulk biosolids is applied;

(10) The following certification statement when the bulk biosolids meet the Class B pathogen requirements in 9VAC25-32-675 B:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including fines and imprisonment.";

(11) A description of how the site restrictions in 9VAC25-32-675 B 5 are met for each site on which Class B bulk biosolids is applied;

(12) The following certification statement when the vector attraction reduction requirement in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 is met:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the vector attraction reduction requirement in (insert either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment."; and

(13) If the vector attraction reduction requirements in either 9VAC25-32-685 B 9 or B 10 are met, a description of how the requirements are met.

B. Domestic septage. When domestic septage is applied to agricultural land, forest, or a reclamation site, the person who applies the domestic septage shall develop the following information and shall retain the information for five years:

1. The location, by either street address or latitude and longitude, of each site on which domestic septage is applied;

2. The number of acres in each site on which domestic septage is applied;

3. The date domestic septage is applied to each site;

4. The nitrogen and phosphorus requirement for the crop or vegetation grown on each site during the 365-day period;

5. The rate, in gallons per acre per 365-day period, at which domestic septage is applied to each site;

6. The following certification statement:

"I certify, under penalty of law, that the information that will be used to determine compliance with the pathogen requirements in (insert either 9VAC25-32-675 C 1 or C 2) and the vector attraction reduction requirements in (insert 9VAC25-32-685 B 9, B 10, or B 12) was prepared under my direction and supervision in accordance with the system designed to ensure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate this information. I am aware that there are significant penalties for false certification including the possibility of fine and imprisonment.";

7. A description of how the pathogen requirements in either 9VAC25-32-675 C 1 or C 2 are met; and

8. A description of how the vector attraction reduction requirements in 9VAC25-32-685 B 9; B 10 and B 12 are met.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-360. Reporting.

A. An activity report shall be submitted (electronically or postmarked) to the department by the 15th day of each month for land application activity that occurred in the previous calendar month, unless another date is specified in the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-80 I 4. The report shall indicate those sites where land application activities took place during the previous month. If no land application occurs under a permit during the calendar month, a report shall be submitted stating that no land application occurred.

B. A report shall be submitted to the department annually on February 19 of each year for the previous calendar year's activity. The report shall include at a minimum:

1. The information in 9VAC25-32-359 A, except the information in 9VAC25-32-359 A 1 b, A 2 b and A 3 b, for the appropriate requirements; and

2. The information in 9VAC25-32-359 A 3 b (1) through (7) when 90% or more of any of the cumulative pollutant loading rates in Table 3 of 9VAC25-32-356 is reached at a land application site.

C. Reports shall be maintained documenting the required treatment and quality characteristics and the maximum allowable land application loading rates established for biosolids use; in addition, operational monitoring results shall verify that required sludge treatment has achieved the specified levels of pathogen control and vector attraction reductions (9VAC25-32-675 and 9VAC25-32-685). Adequate records on biosolids composition, treatment classification, biosolids application rates, and methods of application for each site shall be maintained by the generator and owner.

D. The generator and owner shall maintain the records for a minimum period of five years. Sites receiving frequent applications of biosolids that meet or exceed maximum cumulative constituent loadings and dedicated disposal sites should be properly referenced for future land transactions (Sludge Disposal Site Dedication Form).

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-370. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-380. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-390. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-400. Additional monitoring.

A. The department may require that additional site specific monitoring be performed by the holder of the permit for any biosolids land application practice regardless of frequency of application or size of the application area. Such requirements may occur in situations in which groundwater contamination, surface runoff, soil toxicity, health hazards or nuisance conditions are identified as an existing problem or potential problem as a result of biosolids use operations. Additional monitoring may include, but is not limited to, groundwater, surface water, crop, and soil monitoring.

B. The board may require the owner or operator of any facility or operation to install, use, and maintain monitoring equipment for internal testing of biosolids quality, to identify and determine the causes of operational problems, and to determine the necessary corrective actions to correct such problems. If this testing is required, test results shall be recorded, compiled, and reported to the department.

C. Additional operational control information may be required on an individual basis by the department.

D. The department may require biosolids to be tested for certain toxic organic compounds prior to agricultural use. If performed and validated, these test results shall be utilized to evaluate the maximum allowable annual loading rate for the tested biosolids. If analytical test results verify that biosolids contains levels of organic chemicals exceeding concentration limits incorporated in federal regulations or standards, appropriate restrictions shall be imposed for agricultural use of those biosolids.

E. Additional parameters may be required for screening purposes such as aluminum (mg/kg), water soluble boron (mg/kg), calcium (mg/kg), manganese (mg/kg), sulfates (mg/kg), and those pollutants for which removal credits are granted.

F. Microbiological testing may be necessary to document the sludge treatment classification (9VAC25-32-675). Microbiological standards shall be verified by the log mean of the analytical results from testing of seven or more samples of the sludge source. Sampling events shall be separated by an appropriate period of time so as to be representative of the random and cyclic variations in sewage characteristics.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-410. Biosolids management plan.

A. The permit holder shall maintain and implement a Biosolids Management Plan that shall consist of three components:

1. The materials, including site booklets, developed and submitted at the time of permit application or permit modification adding a farm to the permit in accordance with 9VAC25-32-60 F;

2. Nutrient management plan developed for each site, prior to biosolids application; and

3. Operations and maintenance (O&M) manual, developed and submitted to the department within 90 days of the effective date of the permit.

B. The biosolids management plan and all of its components shall be incorporated as an enforceable part of the permit.

C. Nutrient management plan:

1. A nutrient management plan approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation shall be required for application sites prior to board authorization under specific conditions, including but not limited to:

a. Sites operated by an owner or lessee of a confined animal feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1 of the Code of Virginia, or confined poultry feeding operation as defined in subsection A of § 62.1-44.17:1.1 of the Code of Virginia;

b. Sites where land application more frequently than once every three years at greater than 50% of the annual agronomic rate is proposed;

c. Mined or disturbed land sites where land application is proposed at greater than agronomic rates; and

d. Other sites based on site-specific conditions that increase the risk that land application may adversely impact state waters.

2. Where conditions at the land application site change so that it meets one or more of the specific conditions identified in subdivisions 1 a through d of this subsection, an approved nutrient management plan shall be submitted prior to any future land application at the site.

3. The nutrient management plan shall be available for review by the department at the land application site during biosolids land application.

4. Within 30 days after land application at the site has commenced, the permit holder shall provide a copy of the nutrient management plan to the farm operator of the site, the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the chief executive officer or designee for the local government unless they request in writing not to receive the nutrient management plan.

5. The nutrient management plan must be approved by the Department of Conservation and Recreation prior to land application for application sites where the soil test phosphorus levels exceed the values in Table 1 of this section. For purposes of approval, permittees should submit the nutrient management plan to the Department of Conservation and Recreation at least 30 days prior to the anticipated date of land application to ensure adequate time for the approval process.

TABLE 1

SOIL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS REQUIRING NMP APPROVAL

Region

Soil Test P (ppm)

VPI & SU Test (Mehlich I)*

Eastern Shore and Lower Coastal Plain

135

Middle and Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont

136

Ridge and Valley

162

*If results are from another laboratory, the Department of Conservation and Recreation approved conversion factors must be used.

D. The O&M manual shall include at a minimum:

1. Equipment maintenance and calibration procedures and schedules;

2. Storage facility maintenance procedures and schedules;

3. Sampling schedules for:

a. Required monitoring; and

b. Operational control testing;

4. Sample collection, preservation, and analysis procedures, including laboratories and methods used; and

5. Instructions for recording and reporting of all monitoring activities.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, eff. September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-420. Operability.

A. Independently operated essential equipment, or components, of biosolids use facilities and operations, including treatment works, shall be provided with sufficient capacity and routine maintenance resources so that the average quantity of biosolids used may be reliably transported, stored, treated or otherwise managed in accordance with permit requirements.

B. The need for spare parts shall be determined from operational experience and evaluation of past maintenance requirements. A spare parts inventory may be included in the operation and maintenance manual.

C. Sufficient spare parts determined as necessary to ensure continuous operability of essential unit operations and equipment shall be either located at the treatment works or at readily accessible locations. The minimum quantities of spare parts actually provided shall be in accordance with the operation and maintenance manual.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-430. Maintenance.

A regular or routine program of preventive maintenance shall be adhered to. The operations and maintenance manual shall contain a system of maintenance requirements to be accomplished. The routine, minimum preventive maintenance system shall be in accordance with the operations and maintenance manual. Such a system should provide for advanced scheduling of preventive maintenance and should be continually assessed in order to reflect increased service requirements as equipment ages or flow rates increase. Adequate records, files and inventories to assist the operator in his task should also be described in the operation and maintenance manual. Information systems provided for maintenance should describe the documentation required to verify biosolids treatment quality necessary for compliance with permits. Where certain components of the treatment process may be damaged by flooding so as to cause excessive delays in restoring the treatment process to a normal operating level, the means of protecting or removal of such components prior to flooding should be described in the operations and maintenance manual.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008.

9VAC25-32-440. (Repealed.)

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; repealed, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-450. Sampling, analysis, and preservation.

A. Representative samples of biosolids that is applied to the land or placed on a surface disposal site shall be collected and analyzed.

1. Raw sewage or sludge samples are to be collected prior to the treatment process unit operations.

2. Final treated samples are to be taken at a point following appropriate unit operations in the treatment process. An evaluation of biosolids treatment may require monitoring of fecal coliform levels in treated biosolids.

3. Composite samples shall be collected in accordance with the treatment works operation and maintenance manual.

B. Liquid biosolids. In the case of digesters and liquid storage holding tanks, a representative sample shall be composed of at least four grab samples obtained during daily operations at the facility or land application site. Samples of liquid biosolids obtained under pressure or vacuum should be obtained shortly after the beginning, during and at the end of the time period that the biosolids are produced at the sampling point.

C. Biosolids storage facilities. Equal volumes of biosolids shall be withdrawn from random locations across the width and throughout the length of the storage facility at the surface, mid-depth and near the bottom of the lagoon at each grab sample location. These grab samples shall be added to form a composite mix. A range of the minimum number of grab samples that should be obtained from various sizes of biosolids storage facilities in order to obtain a representative composite sample is presented in Table 1 of this section:

TABLE 1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF GRAB SAMPLES FROM STORAGE FACILITIES

Surface Area (Acres)

Minimum Number of Grab Samples

Depth less than 4 feet

Depth greater than 4 feet

1 to 9.99

4 to 5

6 to 8

10 or more

6 to 8

9 to 11

D. Dewatered biosolids. Small, equally sized grab samples of the dewatered sludge stream may be taken at equally spaced intervals over the period of operation of the dewatering unit. Centrifuged biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or receiving hopper. Filter cake biosolids samples may be taken from a belt conveyor or a portion of the cake may be removed as it leaves the unit. The smaller grab samples should be combined to form a representative composite sample. A composite sample can be obtained over the daily operational period at the land application site.

E. Compost sampling. Collect composite samples composed of at least three grab samples of one kilogram or more so that a representative average level of compost characteristics can be obtained from analytical testing. This mixture should be used for analytical testing or for combination with other composites to obtain a total composite sample representing a fixed period of operation. Compost samples may be taken with a scoop or shovel and placed in flexible bags that can be thoroughly shaken to mix grab samples.

F. Biosolids samples shall be preserved and analyzed in accordance with methods listed in 40 CFR Part 136 and methods identified in 9VAC25-31-490. Calculation procedures in the methods shall be used to calculate the percent volatile solids reduction for biosolids. Any other acceptable test procedure not listed in 40 CFR Part 136 shall be specified in the VPA permit.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia; § 402 of the Clean Water Act; 40 CFR Parts 122, 123, 124, 403, and 503.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, September 1, 2013; Volume 34, Issue 19, eff. June 13, 2018.

9VAC25-32-460. Soils monitoring.

A. Soil shall be sampled and analyzed prior to biosolids application. No sample analysis used to determine application rates shall be more than three years old at the time of biosolids land application. Soil shall be sampled and analyzed in accordance with Table 1 of this section. Reduced monitoring may also apply to one time biosolids applications to forest or reclaimed lands. For background analysis, random composite soil samples from the zone of incorporation is required for infrequent applications and frequent applications at less than agronomic rates (total less than 15 dry tons per acre).

TABLE 1
SOIL TEST PARAMETERS FOR LAND APPLICATION SITES1

Parameter

Soil pH (Std. Units)

Available phosphorus (ppm)2

Extractable potassium (ppm)

Extractable sodium (mg/100g)3

Extractable calcium (mg/100g)

Extractable magnesium (mg/100g)

Zinc (ppm)

Manganese (ppm)

1Note: Unless otherwise stated, analyses shall be reported on a dry weight basis.

2Available P shall be analyzed using one of the following methods: Mehlich I or Mehlich III.

3Extractable sodium shall be analyzed only where biosolids known to be high in sodium will be land applied.

B. The permit applicant or permit holder may be required to conduct soil testing and analysis of additional parameters, as determined by the department, based on site-specific history or conditions.

C. Samples shall be collected in accordance with § 10.1-104.2 of the Code of Virginia.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, September 1, 2013.

9VAC25-32-470. Crop monitoring and reporting.

Vegetation monitoring may be required by the board upon recommendation of the department once every three years on sites with frequent applications of biosolids applied at or greater than agronomic rates and when 400 pounds per acre or more of available phosphorus has been applied to the soil. Analyses of plant tissue should be conducted at the proper growth stage as recommended by either the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation or Virginia Cooperative Extension Service. Routine analyses include nitrate-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc. Analysis for additional parameters may be necessary as determined on a case-by-case basis. Results shall be reported annually to the department.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008.

9VAC25-32-480. Groundwater monitoring and reporting.

A. Monitoring wells may be required by the board for land treatment sites, sludge lagoons, biosolids land application sites, or biosolids storage facilities to monitor groundwater quality.

B. If groundwater monitoring is required, a groundwater monitoring plan shall be submitted to the department for approval that includes at a minimum:

1. Geologic and hydrologic conditions at the site;

2. Monitoring well design, placement, and construction;

3. Sampling frequency;

4. Sampling procedures, including quality assurance and quality control; and

5. Collection of background samples.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.15 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Derived from Virginia Register Volume 24, Issue 6, eff. January 1, 2008, Errata, 25:15 VA.R. 2804 March 30, 2009; amended, Virginia Register Volume 29, Issue 24, September 1, 2013.

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