Administrative Code

Virginia Administrative Code

Article 1. Reports

9VAC25-790-940. Preliminary Engineering Report.

Article 1

A. A letter of transmittal consisting of a one-page or more letter typed on the submitting firm's letterhead should be submitted with the Preliminary Engineering Report and should include the following items:

1. Confirmation of a submission of the report to the client;

2. Statement of feasibility of constructing the project; and

3. Identification of all applicable areawide studies project, drainage basin, service area or metropolitan area plans with which the project has been coordinated.

B. A title page shall be included at the beginning of the report and should contain the following information:

1. Title of project and project number;

2. Municipality, county, etc.;

3. Names of officials, managers, superintendents;

4. Name and address of firm preparing report;

5. Seal and signature of appropriate professional in charge of project.

6. Grant number of grant project; and

7. If an expansion, existing certificate or permit number.

C. A table of contents shall be included on the report and should include such listings as:

1. Section headings, chapter headings and subheadings;

2. Maps;

3. Graphs;

4. Illustrations, exhibits;

5. Diagrams; and

6. Appendices.

Number all pages; cross reference by page number.

D. A summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations shall be included in the report and should address the following information:

1. Findings. Summarize the findings for the client.

a. Population and design flows--present, design (when), ultimate.

b. Land use and zoning--portion contributed by residential, commercial, industrial, greenbelt, etc.

c. Sewage characteristics and concentrations-portions of total hydraulic, organic, and solids loading attributed to residential, commercial, and industrial fractions and description of sewage nondomestic in character.

d. Sewerage system projects--immediate needs to implement recommended project and deferred needs to complete recommended projects, including pump station, force mains, appurtenances, etc.

e. Selected process--characteristics of process and characteristics of output.

f. Receiving waters--existing water quality and quantity, classifications and downstream water users, and impact of project on receiving water.

g. Total proposed project costs considered for each alternative.

h. Changes—alert client to situations that could alter recommended project.

2. Conclusions. Describe the project as recommended to client for construction.

3. Recommendations. Summarize step-by-step actions, for client to follow to implement conclusions:

a. Official acceptance of report;

b. Adoption of recommended project;

c. Submission of report to regulatory agencies for review and approval;

d. Authorization of engineering services for approved project (construction plans, specifications, contract documents, etc.);

e. Legal services;

f. Enabling ordinances, resolutions, etc., required;

g. Adoption of sewer-use ordinance;

h. Adoption of operating rules and regulations; and

i. Time schedules--implementation, construction, completion dates, reflecting any applicable certificate or permit enforcement actions.

E. An introduction shall be included in the report and should describe the following:

1. Purpose. Reasons for report and circumstances leading up to report.

2. Scope. Coordination of recommended project with area-wide, project, drainage basin, service area or metropolitan area plan and guideline for developing the report.

3. Background: appropriate past history.

a. Existing area, expansion, annexation, intermunicipal service ultimate area.

b. Drainage basin, portion covered.

c. Population growth, trends, increase during design life of facility (graph).

d. Residential, commercial and industrial land use, zoning, population densities, industrial types and concentrations.

e. Topography, general geology and effect on project.

f. Meteorology, precipitation, runoff, flooding, etc., and effect on project.

g. Existing ordinances, rules and regulations, including defects and deficiencies, etc.

h. Recommended amendments, revisions, or cancellation and replacement of local ordinances.

i. Sewer-use ordinance (toxic, aggressive, volatile, etc., substances).

j. Surcharge based on volumes and concentration for industrial waste waters.

k. Existing contracts and agreements (intermunicipal, etc.).

l. Enforcement provision including inspection, sampling, detection, penalties, etc.

F. The report shall include investigative considerations, including an existing facilities evaluation that should address the following as appropriate:

1. Existing sewerage systems:

a. Inventory the existing sewers.

b. Indicate the separation or isolation from water supply wells.

c. Review the collection system capacities and adequacy to meet project needs (structural condition, hydraulic capacity).

d. Tabulate any necessary pipeline or manhole testing, including gauging and infiltration.

e. List any existing points of overflows and required maintenance, repairs and improvements.

f. Outline any necessary rehabilitation, including repair, replacement, and stormwater separation requirements.

g. Establish renovation priorities.

h. Present recommended annual program to renovate sewers.

i. Indicate required annual expenditure.

2. Existing site:

a. Area for expansion.

b. Characteristics of terrain (drainage control).

c. Subsurface conditions.

d. Isolation from habitation (buffer zones).

e. Isolation from water supply structures.

f. Enclosure of unit operations, odor control, noise control.

g. Flood protection.

3. Existing treatment works:

a. Capacities and adequacy of unit operations (tabulate).

b. Relationship or applicability, or both, to proposed project.

c. Age and condition.

d. Adaptability to different usages.

e. Structures to be retained, modified, or demolished.

4. Existing sewage characteristics:

a. Water consumption (from records) (total, unit, industrial).

b. Sewage flow pattern, peaks, total, design flow.

c. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, and concentrations.

d. Residential, commercial, industrial, infiltration fractions, considering organic solids, toxic, aggressive, etc., substances (tabulate each fraction separately and summarize).

5. Environmental impact of sewage on receiving waters:

a. Sewage and industrial discharges upstream.

b. Receiving water base flow, min. mean-seven consecutive day drought flow with 10-Year Return Frequency (7Q10).

c. Characteristics (concentrations) of receiving waters.

d. Downstream water uses including water supply, shellfish, recreation, agricultural, industrial, etc.

e. Tabulation of effects on receiving waters.

f. Correlation of treatment works performance versus receiving water requirements.

G. The report shall include a proposed facility evaluation that should address the following as appropriate:

1. Sewerage system.

a. Inventory of proposed additions.

b. Isolation from water supply wells, reservoirs, facilities, etc.

c. Area of service.

d. Unusual construction problems.

e. Utility interruption and traffic interference.

f. Restoration of pavements, lawns, etc.

2. Site requirements. Comparative advantages and disadvantages as to cost, hydraulic requirements, flood control, accessibility, enclosure of unit operations, odor control, landscaping, etc., and isolation with respect to potential nuisances and protection of water supply facilities.

3. Sewage characteristics.

a. Character of sewage necessary to ensure amenability to process selected.

b. Need to pretreat industrial wastewater before discharge to sewers.

c. Portion of residential, commercial, industrial wastewater fractions to comprise projected growth.

d. Impact of proposed discharge on receiving waters--reliability requirements.

e. Tabulation of treatment performance versus receiving water standards.

f. Listing of effluent limitations.

4. Project alternatives.

a. Describe and delineate (line diagrams) each alternative.

b. Preliminary design for cost estimates.

c. Estimates of project's cost (total) (dated, keyed to construction cost index, escalated, etc.).

d. Advantages and disadvantages of each alternative.

e. Individual differences, requirements, limitations.

f. Select preferred alternative.

g. Justify selection and present tabulated comparisons.

h. Characteristics of treatment process performance.

i. Operation and maintenance expenses.

j. Annual expense requirements (tabulation of annual operation, maintenance, personnel, debt obligation).

5. Selected alternative.

a. Construction schedule.

b. Adaptability to future needs.

c. Design flow, variances, and effects on process.

d. Process functions and system backup.

e. Sludge management options.

f. Method of processing of excess combined sewage.

g. Outfall requirements, dispersion, etc.

6. Legal, financing and other considerations.

a. Necessary enabling legislation, ordinances, rules, and regulation.

b. Statutory requirements and limitations.

c. Contractual considerations on intermunicipal cooperation.

d. Public information and education.

e. Effect of state and federal assistance.

f. Exhibit conformance with all applicable federal requirements.

H. The report shall include technical information and design criteria that should address the following as appropriate:

1. Sewerage system.

a. Design tabulations--flow, size, velocities, etc.

b. Regulator or overflow design.

c. Pump station calculations.

d. Special appurtenances.

e. Stream crossings.

f. System map (downstream capacity).

2. Treatment works.

a. Criteria selection and basis of design for principal conventional features and all nonconventional features of the treatment process.

b. Hydraulic and organic loadings, minimum, average, maximum, and effect.

c. Dimensions of unit operations features within treatment process.

d. Rates and velocities of flow through the treatment process.

e. Detention periods provided for unit operations.

f. Concentration values projected for influent and effluent flows.

g. Recycle flows and rates within total treatment process.

h. Chemical additive control methods.

i. Physical control methods for rates of flow, etc.

j. A separate tabulation for performance ratings and treatment efficiencies of unit operations relative to residual solid and liquid processing.

k. Sludge management method.

l. Process configuration, interconnecting piping, processing, flexibility, etc.

m. Hydraulic flow profile.

n. Residual solids or sludge processing, including dewatering.

o. Unit operations flow diagram with capacities, etc.

3. Laboratory.

a. Physical and chemical tests and frequency to control process.

b. Time for testing.

c. Space and equipment requirements.

d. Personnel requirements--number, type, qualifications, salaries, benefits (tabulate).

4. Operation and maintenance.

a. Routine and special maintenance duties.

b. Time requirements.

c. Tools, equipment, vehicles, safety, etc.

d. Personnel requirements--number, type, qualifications, salaries, benefits (tabulate).

e. Processes needing chemical addition.

f. Chemicals and feed equipment.

g. Pump stations or regulator or overflow inspection and repair.

h. Flow gauging.

i. Industrial sampling and surveillance.

j. Ordinance enforcement.

k. Equipment requirements.

l. Trouble-call investigation.

m. Industrial pretreatment permits.

I. Management systems shall be described in the report including the following information as appropriate:

1. Personnel—recommended operator classification.

2. Equipment.

3. Chemicals.

4. Utilities.

5. Outline unusual specifications, construction materials, and construction methods.

6. Maps, photographs, diagrams (report size).

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Former 12VAC5-581-1000 derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. February 27, 2002; amended and adopted as 9VAC25-790-940, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-790-950. Contents for an operation and maintenance manual.

A. General. This section contains suggested and required contents for an Operations and Maintenance Manual. Items followed by an asterisk (*) should be submitted for treatment works or sewerage systems with design flows greater than or equal to 1.0 mgd.

1. Title page. The manual shall have a cover page that gives the title of the manual, the date the manual was prepared in final form, and the names of the authors of the manual.

2. Table of contents. The manual shall contain a table of contents that lists chapters and provides sufficient subsections in each chapter to permit easy identification of topics.

3. Introduction. The manual shall contain an introduction that briefly describes the organization and purpose of the manual. The introduction shall emphasize that the manual is operational in scope and will be updated so that it is not a static compilation of facts.

4. Definitions and terminology. Terms such as "BOD5" and "Suspended Solids" shall be defined in this section of the manual.

B. Permit requirements.

1. CTO. The manual shall give the number of the CTO for the particular treatment works or sewerage system. The permit requirements shall be listed and discussed. This discussion should include, but is not limited to the following:

a. The manner, nature, volume, and frequency of the discharge permitted.

b. Procedures for and frequency of any domestic or industrial waste monitoring. This may be referenced to the laboratory testing section, but should include a brief table of testing procedures and sampling frequencies.

c. Requirements for the operators concerned with particular treatment works or sewerage systems as outlined by the State Board for Certification of Operators of Water and Wastewater Works and these regulations.

d. Legal penalties under state and federal law applicable to the operator for improper operations, records, or reports.

e. Any additional conditions or special restrictions specified by the State Water Control Board (SWCB), Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), or any other concerned regulatory agency.

f. Any changes in treatment works or sewerage system classification due to future upgrading or expansion that may have been included in the original construction plans.

g. Time period for which permit is valid (expiration date) and any required upgrading that may have to be accomplished by the time for renewal.

A copy of the certificate and permit issued shall be included in this section with proper reference made to the appropriate regulations of the SWCB and DEQ.

2. Spill reporting. This section shall include a discussion of the federal/state laws and the SWCB/DEQ regulations and policies requiring reporting of a bypass/spill condition. This discussion should include, but is not limited to, the following:

a. The owner's responsibilities and liabilities;

b. Penalties for violations;

c. Reporting procedures and requirements;

d. Telephone numbers for immediate reporting to regulatory agencies and potentially affected downstream users; and

e. Sample reporting forms and instructions for completing them.

C. Process descriptions.

1. A flow diagram of the treatment works or sewerage system that shows all important components of the system.

2. Main line, recirculated, effluent, and sludge flows, etc., and design average/peak values of such flows.

3. A clear and concise description of each system component and its purpose, function, and type of treatment.

4. The expected influent/effluent concentrations and design efficiencies for unit operations and the treatment process.

5. This section may be combined with the "Operation and Control" section.

D. Operation and control.

1. Unit operation process description. The manual shall provide a general operational description of each unit operation. The descriptions should be brief with appropriate references to more detailed discussions of the unit operations. The description should physically trace the sewage flow through the unit operation and contain information on design efficiency. Pipeline and control schematics, valve location diagrams and operation keys, hydraulic/organic loadings, etc., should be included. Supplementary photographs and/or schematic diagrams should be included.

2. Relationship to adjacent unit operations. The function of unit operations located upstream, downstream or off-line from other unit operations should be described as they relate to other unit operations in the treatment process being considered.

3. Classification and control. Classification of each unit operation as conventional, I/A, etc., shall be included. The manual shall list and discuss the specific operational information and control techniques available for each major unit operation in the treatment process. This section shall be closely correlated with the specific treatment works or sewerage system operation. Process control variables such as recirculation ratios, valve/gate positions, pump controls, chemical feed rates should be included.

4. Common operating problems. Each major unit operation within the treatment works or sewerage system shall be analyzed and potential common operating problems defined. Potential problems that are peculiar to the treatment works or sewerage system under consideration shall be discussed. General problems that are adequately described in other sources shall be listed and properly referenced. Control of operating problems shall address the specific treatment works or sewerage system operation.

5. Laboratory controls. The manual shall list the laboratory tests that furnish information to evaluate and control the performance of the unit operation under consideration. Minimum testing requirements may be included in the operations permit. Expected ranges for the results of these tests shall also be given.

6. Start-up. The manual shall outline the steps for start-up of the unit operation. Information shall be provided on the special monitoring and controlling of the unit operation where treatment objectives are to be met.

7. Specific treatment works or sewerage system operation. The manual shall discuss (i) the normal operation, or the designed conventional loading conditions, of each unit operation, and (ii) alternate operation for unusual conditions for each unit operation. Information provided in this section shall enable the operator to operate the treatment works or sewerage system when it is not in the "normal operation" mode and shall be checked by the designer. It shall include methods and procedures with which to return the treatment works or sewerage system to "normal operation" following the proposed range of alternate operation conditions that may be encountered. It shall also include procedures and a logical decision-making process outline for the modifications of the original design "normal operation" and establishment of alternative operation conditions.

8. Emergency operation and failsafe features. The manual shall list and discuss the emergency operating procedures for the normally expected range of emergencies and failsafe features, particularly flood events, for each sewage treatment unit operation.

9. Process chemicals. A list of process chemicals shall be provided indicating minimum quantities to keep on hand and methods and precautions for storage.

E. Personnel responsibilities.

1. Operational and managerial responsibility. The responsibilities of both the operational personnel and the management personnel shall be clearly defined.

2. Staffing requirements and qualifications. This section is to reflect the personnel qualifications/certification and numbers for the treatment works or sewerage system. This should be formulated considering recommendations from the design engineer and the concerned regulatory agencies. The staffing plans for administration, supervision, operation, and maintenance shall be included. Certain positions in the staffing pattern that require certification by the state law shall be indicated in this section. Attendance requirements and routine work schedules with general responsibilities shall be presented. A delineation of training needs for administration and operational personnel shall be outlined in this section.

F. Laboratory testing.

1. Purpose and discussion. This section of the manual should explain the role of the laboratory in process control in providing an operating record for the treatment works and in analyzing problems within a unit operation.

The tests to be performed should be listed or charted, or both as appropriate, for permit required tests, such as discharge monitoring reports and process control tests. Sampling locations, frequency, etc., and a brief description of the analytical test and purpose should also be given. The detailed discussion of how each type test can be used in controlling or monitoring a specific unit operation shall be given in the "Operation and Control" sections. This portion of the manual should be tailored according to the laboratory staff capabilities of the treatment works under consideration. The following information shall be provided in this chapter.

2. Sampling program. This section of the manual shall include:

a. Sampling methods.

(1) Specific methods for obtaining grab and composite samples.

(2) Locations of all sampling points.

(3) Sampling procedures, including where samples are to be collected, and any special techniques, such as how to make up a composite sample or how to operate automatic samplers if applicable.

(4) Preservation of samples prior to analytical measurements.

(5) Sampling equipment and safety precautions (requirements).

(6) Projected range of test results on influent and effluent samples.

b. Equipment and chemicals.

(1) Lists of necessary laboratory equipment and proper usage noting importance of quality control.

(2) List of laboratory chemicals with common names, chemical names and formulas.

(3) List of suppliers' names, quantities used and shelf lives.

(4) Discussion of laboratory inspection.*

c. Operator/laboratory references. All essential references should be provided for proper laboratory operation. The detailed procedures for performing each test do not have to be included but should be properly referenced to one or more of the laboratory references provided.

d. Interpretation of laboratory tests.

(1) Expected ranges of typical results shall be included with explanation of typical transient differences from typical values.

(2) Detailed discussion in "Operation and Control" chapters.

e. Laboratory records. A brief discussion of the purposes for laboratory records recommended for use by the treatment works should be included.

G. Records and reports.

1. Daily operating log. This section of the manual shall delineate the requirement that operator's worksheets and daily operating logs be maintained. A sample log shall be included in the appendix.

2. Operational parameters. The daily log should outline the routine operational parameters for each unit operation, which shall include the minimum operational control tests required. These shall be adequate to enable proper operation of the units.

3. General information. This section of the manual should explain the operating conditions that should be recorded daily, such as:

a. Unusual conditions (operational and maintenance).

b. Accidents to personnel.

c. Complaints (odor, etc.).

d. Power consumption.

e. Plant visitors.

f. Personnel on duty/call.

4. Laboratory records. An example record sheet shall be included in the appendix. Information on the laboratory record sheet should include the following:

a. All lab tests to be performed with provisions for listing test results and summaries.

b. Wastewater flow and surrounding weather conditions at the time of sampling.

c. Chemicals used.

d. Analyst's name or initials.

e. Laboratory worksheets.

5. Monthly report to state agencies and federal government. The records section of the manual shall explain the responsibilities of the operator to report data to the appropriate agency, the reporting deadlines and how the monthly reports apply to the permit requirements. Sample forms of the monthly operation report, discharge monitoring report, etc., shall be provided in the manual's appendix.

6. Industrial and septage contributors. An inventory of significant industrial waste contributors shall be maintained. All sewage handlers that deposit septage at the treatment works shall be identified with pertinent information recorded, such as name of hauling company, volume deposited, date deposited, and description of the source of the septage.

7. Annual report.

a. This section of the manual shall discuss annual reports and who should prepare the report.*

b. The annual report should include management data relative to cost of operation.

c. Operating data included in the annual report should include average daily flow and average influent and effluent BOD and suspended solids for each month.

d. The annual report should include a graph showing at least 10 years of record (if available); personnel data; and budget data. An example annual report format shall be included in the appendix as applicable.

8. Additional records. The manual shall include specific information where records are available for reference and shall include:*

a. As-built engineering drawings.

b. Copy of construction specifications.

c. Equipment suppliers' manuals.

d. Data cards on all serviceable equipment.

e. Construction photographs.

9. Operating costs and record keeping. The manual shall provide a suggested operating cost breakdown for the treatment works or sewerage system.*

A record system for monitoring the cost shall be recommended.*

10. A personnel records procedure should be recommended that would include training.*

11. A record of emergency conditions affecting the treatment works or sewerage system shall be maintained. A system for maintaining these records shall be recommended.*

H. Maintenance.

1. Equipment record system. The maintenance chapter of the manual shall recommend an equipment record system. The equipment record system shall contain information on each item of operating equipment, such as common name, process function, date of purchase, manufacturer, serial number, availability of spare parts and previous maintenance. Sample equipment record forms and provision that the forms be made a supplemental index to the manual shall be included.

2. Equipment numbering system. A numbering system to identify each item of equipment requiring maintenance shall be provided for easy identification and to help ensure that all equipment receives proper attention.

3. Equipment catalog. A catalog system shall be prepared that lists equipment descriptions, locations and equipment numbers. The catalog shall contain the following data for all major items of equipment. The data shall include, but not be limited to, the following information:

a. Equipment name;

b. Vendor;

c. Model Number;

d. Serial Number;

e. Make or Type;

f. Pertinent mechanical/electrical data; and

g. Source of Supply.

4. Planning and scheduling. The manual shall make recommendations on planning and scheduling maintenance tasks. Documentation showing the lubrication and other preventive maintenance task schedules shall be provided. The manual shall recommend that maintenance records be kept so that a preventive maintenance schedule can be established. The maintenance records shall provide for inclusion of maintenance problems and curative procedures. A work order system could be established to initiate all corrective maintenance tasks.

5. Storeroom and inventory system. The manual shall make recommendations for establishing a storeroom and inventory system. The manual shall contain the spare parts inventory established in accordance with these regulations. The inventory shall list the minimum and maximum quantities of the spare parts, the equipment in which they are used, their storage location, replacement procedures and schedules, reference to addresses of suppliers, and other pertinent information.

6. Costs and budgets for maintenance operations. The section shall provide guidelines for the determination of maintenance cost and the development of maintenance budgets.

7. Housekeeping. The manual shall recommend housekeeping activities to be performed.

8. Special tools and equipment. The manual should provide recommendations or appropriate references on tool room procedures, the use of tool boards and maintenance required for all special tools, where appropriate.

9. Lubrication. The lubrication section of the manual shall appropriately reference each equipment's lubrication specification. An alternate lubricants chart shall be provided in this section. The information required by the above section should be assembled into a lubrication guidebook and be included as an appendix to the manual.

10. Electrical equipment information. The manual shall list each major item of electrical equipment not listed in the equipment catalog.

11. Warranty provision. The manual should provide a listing of all equipment warranties and pertinent features of each replacement guarantee. Copies of the warranties shall be included in the manual's appendix.

12. Service contracts. The manual shall include a listing of all prearranged outside contracts for service and repair work.

13. Equipment reference handbook list. A list of equipment handbooks for reference should be included.

I. Emergency operation and response program.

1. Objectives. The objectives of an Emergency Operating and Response Program include:

a. Eliminating or minimizing adverse effects from emergency situations affecting the treatment works or sewerage system and/or employee welfare.

b. Developing procedures for properly responding to emergencies.

c. Providing instruction for personnel.

d. Providing inventories of available emergency equipment and outlining existing mutual aid agreements and contracts with outside organizations for specialized assistance.

2. Vulnerability analysis*. A vulnerability analysis shall be conducted and reported in the manual. A vulnerability analysis is an estimation of the degree to which the treatment works or sewerage system is adversely affected, in relation to the function it must perform by an emergency condition. Expected natural disasters such as flooding must be investigated and the effects of these disasters must be studied in order to estimate the treatment works' or sewerage system's performance.

3. Methods to reduce vulnerability. Priorities for repair of the treatment works or sewerage system and alternate equipment provisions in case of light or severe damage are to be indicated. To reduce vulnerability, training procedures for emergencies for regular and auxiliary personnel should be included.

4. Emergency equipment inventory. The manual shall require that, using the spare parts inventory and the results of the vulnerability analysis, any additional equipment and supplies needed for emergencies be stockpiled or be available through mutual aid agreements or contracts. These arrangements must be delineated.

5. Preserving system records. The manual shall contain procedures for keeping documents containing pertinent information about the treatment works or sewerage system safe from potential disasters.

6. Auxiliary personnel requirements. Procedures for obtaining trained auxiliary personnel in cases of emergency shall be included in the manual. Procedures for alerting these personnel should be outlined and periodically updated.

7. Emergency equipment testing. A schedule for testing of back-up systems such as standby power should be included.

J. Safety.

1. Requirements. The manual shall inform personnel of the known hazards, preventive measures, and emergency procedures applicable to, but not limited to, the following safety items:

a. Electrical hazards;

b. Mechanical equipment hazards;

c. Explosion and fire hazards;

d. Biohazards, i.e., bacterial type infection;

e. Chlorine hazards;

f. Oxygen deficiency and toxic gases;

g. Laboratory hazards;

h. Safety equipment; and

i. Process chemical handling and storage.

2. Safety references. The manual shall contain a list of safety references of interest to operating personnel. The manual shall provide a list of all emergency telephone numbers. The manual should provide a discussion of the importance of good housekeeping practices in relation to safety, a list of available safety equipment for process units, a list of number and location of first aid kits and manuals, a list of safety rules for process and laboratory equipment, and a key to system piping paint color coding.

K. Utilities*.

1. Requirements. This section shall list the utilities being used, the sizes and capacities of the lines serving the treatment works or sewerage system, emergency cutoff procedures, and the personnel to contact within each utility company to ensure proper response to routine and emergency situations.

2. Electrical. This section shall contain a brief statement on the reliability of electrical service. This statement should be based on studies of past performance and discussions with utility personnel. The discussion should include clearly defined breakpoints in responsibility for service facilities between the utility company and the treatment works or sewerage system owner.

3. Telephone. The telephone system, if used as an alarm system, should be described and a statement made as to "failsafe" capabilities.

4. Natural gas. The natural gas utility company should be named and a description of the service given. A statement of reliability should be made.

5. Water. The water system should be described, and a statement of reliability should be made.

6. Fuel oil. The manual should list the sources for fuel, the capacities of storage facilities and procedures for ensuring adequate supplies year round.

L. Appendices.

1. Requirements. This section of the manual shall include any additional or supplemental material not suitable for inclusion in the text. As stated in 9VAC25-790-950 A, items followed by an asterisk (*) are required only for treatment works or sewerage systems with design flows greater than or equal to 1.0 mgd. The appendix shall begin with an index.

The following do not have to be duplicated in the appendices if included elsewhere in the manual.

a. VPDES permit. A copy of any applicable permit shall be included here if not already included elsewhere in the manual.

b. Example forms. An example of all forms, including state and federal reporting forms, laboratory record forms, etc., to be used shall be included. Instructions for completing each form shall be given.

c. Equipment record example. The equipment record example with location and responsible personnel shall be included.

d. Personnel. Names, addresses and telephone numbers of personnel should be included.

2. Schematics. Any basic flow diagrams, process flow sheets, bypass piping diagrams and hydraulic profiles that are not included in the engineering drawings or manual text shall be placed in an appendix.

3. Valve Indices.* Valve indices shall be included in an appendix. Valve indices shall be one, or a combination, of the following:

a. A complete tabulation of principal valves, each separately numbered and identified as to type, location, and function.

b. A coding system for each type of valve, together with a prefix or suffix identifying its liquid content or process function, and location of each valve coded on the construction drawings.

c. Diagrams for principal valves, clusters of valves, and adjacent piping that are buried.

d. Location through at least two measurements to nearby permanent above-ground objects.

4. Any chemicals used and suppliers shall be listed.

a. Storage considerations shall be discussed.

b. Capacities of dry chemical storage areas and liquid storage tanks shall be described.

5. A list of the lab chemicals by common name, chemical name and the chemical formula shall be provided. Suppliers' names, quantities normally needed, and shelf life of each shall be given. Storage considerations shall be discussed.

6. An appendix shall give the design criteria for all unit operations and processes.*

7. The manual furnished with each piece of equipment shall be bound separately, and the index for these shall be included in an appendix.

8. A list of potential sources for the types of repairs and equipment parts required shall be made and listed in appendix.*

9. A complete and accurate set of as-built engineering drawings with included shop drawings shall be furnished immediately following testing and start-up.*

10. A complete set of engineering drawings shall be furnished sufficiently in advance of start-up to permit proper training of operating and maintenance personnel.*

11. Construction photos shall be taken throughout the construction phase and shall be included or indexed in an appendix. All pictures shall be labeled and dated.*

12. Copies of warranties and performance bonds shall be placed in an appendix.*

13. If there is an existing infiltration ordinance, a copy shall be included.*

14. If there is an existing industrial waste ordinance, a copy shall be included in an appendix.*

15. The coding system selected for use shall be outlined.*

16. The various types of coatings to be used are to be listed with a suggested painting schedule. The manufacturer's trade name and coating number and color shall be specified.*

17. A list of essential references recommended for immediate procurement and a second list giving references that may be obtained at a later date for use in operation and maintenance shall be provided.*

18. The Lubrication Guidebook shall be included.*

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Former 12VAC5-581-1010 derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. February 27, 2002; amended and adopted as 9VAC25-790-950, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-790-960. Influent and effluent sampling.

A. Sampling tests and frequency. Table C lists the typical recommended minimum sampling program schedules for all sewage treatment works (STW).

B. STW effluent tests and frequency of effluent testing and frequency of other sampling for a treatment works will be provided in the VPDES permit or the VPA permit.



>2.01 MGD

1.0-2.0 MGD

0.101-0.999 MGD

0.401-0.1 MGD

0.0011-0.04 MGD


Totalizing, Indicating & Recording

Totalizing, Indicating & Recording

Totalizing, Indicating & Recording

Totalizing, Indicating & Recording



24- HC
1/ Day

24- HC
5 Days/ Wk

3 Days/ Wk

1 Day/ Wk


Total Nitrogen* Total Phosphorus*

24- HC
1/ Week

24- HC
1/ Week

1/ 2 Weeks

1/ Month


TRC, Contact tank**

Grab 1/2 Hr

4/Day at 4 Hr.Intervals

3/Day at 4 Hr.Intervals

3/Day at 4 Hr.Intervals


Fecal Coliform**


5 Days/Wk

3 Days/Wk



pH, DO, TRC Effluent






WQS Parameters (Toxics)

1/8,24 HC or 1/month

1/8,24 HC or 1/month

1/8, 8HC or 1/month

1/8, 4HC or 1/month


Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Former 12VAC5-581-1020 derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. February 27, 2002; amended and adopted as 9VAC25-790-960, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-790-970. Operational testing and control.

A. Minimum tests and frequency. Table D-l contains the typical minimum sampling and testing program for operational control of treatment works greater than 40,000 gallons per day.

B. Sampling instructions. The following sampling instructions should be followed when taking samples:

1. When samples are taken for BOD5, COD, volatile suspended solids, and suspended solids on influent and effluent streams, they should be composite samples.

2. All other samples should be grab samples.


Unit Process Parameters

Testing Location/Frequencies
(see key for description)

1. Primary


1/bw; 2,3/2

b) settleable solids

2, 3/d

c) pH


2. Suspended Growth Reactor

a) BOD5/nutrients

1/bw; 2/w; 3/bw


6/d; 13/w

c) 30 minute SSV/pH/DO


d) microscopic exam.


3. Attached Growth Reactors

a) BOD5/nutrients

1/bw; 2/w; 3/bw

b) TSS/TVS/microscopic exam.


c) pH, DO

1/d; 2/w

4. Ponds of Lagoons

a) BOD5/nutrients

1/w; 2/w

b) TSS/microscopic exam.

1/w; 2/w; 7/w

c) pH/DO/temperature

1/d; 7/d

5. Anaerobic Digestion


6,11,12/w; 8,9,10,13/bw

b) pH/alkalinity/temp.

6,12/d; 11,15/bw; 6/w; 13/bw

6. Aerobic Digestion


6,11,12/w; 13/bw

b) settleable solids


c) pH/temperature

6/d; 15/bw

d) microscopic exam.

6/w; 13/bw

7. Sludge Thickening



b) settleable solids


8. Sludge Dewatering



b) pH/alkalinity


9. Chemical Clarification





b) settleable solids/flocculation


c) nutrients


10. Tertiary Filtration



b) pH/alkalinity


c) nutrients





d - Daily

1. Process Influent

w - Weekly

2. Process Effluents

bw - Biweekly

3. Influent plus Return Waste Streams

q - Daily when in operation

4. Following Chemical Addition

5. Filtered Effluent


6. Contents of Reactor

BOD5 - 5-day biochemical oxygen demand

7. All Cells of Each Lagoon or Pond

SS - Suspended solids

8. Raw Sludge

TS - Total solids

9. Primary Sludge

VS - Volatile solids

10. Secondary Sludge

DO - Dissolved oxygen

11. Digester Influent

NUTRIENTS - Forms of phosphorus and nitrogen as required by the certificate CTO issued.

12. Treated Sludge

13. Return Sludge

14. Attached Growth

15. Process Supernatant

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Former 12VAC5-581-1030 derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. February 27, 2002; amended and adopted as 9VAC25-790-970, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

9VAC25-790-980. Factors for oxygen transfer.

A. Design. The oxygen supply requirements for diffused aeration systems serving suspended growth biological reactors should be established from the Alpha factor and the Beta factor (9VAC25-790-690 E 6).

B. Alpha factor. The alpha factor was once considered to be related only to wastewater characteristics, primarily surfactants. Additional investigations have shown that the alpha factor varies with other process conditions including mixing intensity, suspended solids concentration, and other factors, particularly the method of aeration. The alpha factor is unique for a particular wastewater treatment facility but is difficult to accurately determine; however, standards of practice for measuring the alpha factor have been proposed.

Reported observations on the variations of the alpha factor with diffuser type are as follows:

Bubble Size

Range of Alpha


0.4 - 0.55


0.7 - 0.8


0.8 - 0.9

Other studies have similarly indicated lower alpha factors for fine bubble diffusers in comparison to coarse bubble diffusers. Summaries of reported values for alpha factors for mechanical aerators indicate a general range of 0.8 to greater than 1.0 with some values as low as 0.6. Increasing mixing intensity tends to increase the alpha factor.

C. Beta factor. The beta factor has been observed to vary over a moderate range, although the variations are generally less than observed variations of the alpha factor. One method proposed for estimating the beta factor uses the TDS concentration of the wastewater and the Standard Methods chart for saturation dissolved oxygen concentrations at various chloride levels in which

Beta Factor = CSTC/CST,


CSTC-saturation dissolved oxygen concentration at temperature, T and chloride concentration, C

(Substitute chloride conc. for TDS conc. when using chart)


CST = saturation dissolved oxygen concentration at temperature, T and chloride concentration of 0.

Values reported for the beta factor for domestic wastewater are generally about 0.95 but considerable deviations from this value have been observed for industrial wastewater.

Statutory Authority

§ 62.1-44.19 of the Code of Virginia.

Historical Notes

Former 12VAC5-581-1040 derived from Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 10, eff. February 27, 2002; amended and adopted as 9VAC25-790-980, Virginia Register Volume 20, Issue 9, eff. February 12, 2004.

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