Authorities

Authorities
10/20/2021

Redevelopment and Housing Authority

§ 36-1. Title of chapter

This chapter may be referred to as the "Housing Authorities Law."

1938, p. 447; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(1).

§ 36-2. Findings and declaration of necessity

A. It is hereby found and declared that:

1. Blighted areas exist in the Commonwealth, and these areas endanger the health, safety, and welfare of the citizens of the Commonwealth;

2. The elimination of blight and redevelopment of blighted areas through the designation of redevelopment areas and the adoption and implementation of redevelopment plans for such areas; the prevention of further deterioration and blight through the designation of conservation areas and the adoption and implementation of conservation plans for such areas; and the designation of individual properties as blighted under the "spot blight" provisions of this chapter are public uses and purposes for which public money may be spent and private property acquired by purchase or through the exercise of the power of eminent domain as authorized by this chapter, and are governmental functions of grave concern to the Commonwealth;

3. As a part of a redevelopment or conservation plan, it is a public purpose to provide public facilities including, but not limited to, roads, water, sewers, parks, and real estate devoted to open-space use as that term is defined in § 58.1-3230 within redevelopment and conservation areas; and

4. It is a public purpose to promote the availability of affordable housing for all citizens of the Commonwealth and in particular to provide safe, decent, and sanitary housing for those citizens with low or moderate incomes. To that end, (i) the clearance, replanning, and reconstruction of the areas in which unsanitary or unsafe housing conditions exist and the providing of safe and sanitary dwelling accommodations for persons of low or moderate income and (ii) the sale or lease of land and the acquisition, construction, rehabilitation, and operation of residential housing units for persons of low and moderate incomes are necessary for the public welfare and are public uses and public purposes for which public money may be spent and private property acquired by purchase or through the exercise of the power of eminent domain as authorized in this chapter and are governmental functions of grave concern to the Commonwealth.

B. The necessity and the public purpose for the provisions hereinafter enacted are hereby declared as a matter of legislative determination.

1938, p. 447; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(2); 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-3. Definitions

The following terms, when used or referred to in this chapter, shall have the following respective meanings, unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context:

"Area of operation" means an area that (i) in the case of a housing authority of a city, shall be coextensive with the territorial boundaries of the city; (ii) in the case of a housing authority of a county, shall include all of the county, except that portion which lies within the territorial boundaries of (a) any city, and (b) any town that has created a housing authority pursuant to this chapter; (iii) in the case of a housing authority of a town, shall be coextensive with the territorial boundaries of the town as herein defined.

"Authority" or "housing authority" means any of the political subdivisions created by § 36-4.

"Blighted area" means any area that endangers the public health, safety or welfare; or any area that is detrimental to the public health, safety, or welfare because commercial, industrial, or residential structures or improvements are dilapidated, or deteriorated or because such structures or improvements violate minimum health and safety standards. This definition includes, without limitation, areas previously designated as blighted areas pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 1 (§ 36-1 et seq.) of this title.

"Blighted property" means any individual commercial, industrial, or residential structure or improvement that endangers the public's health, safety, or welfare because the structure or improvement upon the property is dilapidated, deteriorated, or violates minimum health and safety standards, or any structure or improvement previously designated as blighted pursuant to § 36-49.1:1, under the process for determination of "spot blight."

"Bonds" means any bonds, notes, interim certificates, debentures, or other obligations issued by an authority pursuant to this chapter.

"City" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-102.

"Clerk" means the clerk or secretary of the city or the clerk of the county, as the case may be, or the officer charged with the duties customarily imposed on such clerk.

"Conservation area" means an area, designated by an authority that is in a state of deterioration and in the early stages of becoming a blighted area, as defined in this section, or any area previously designated as a conservation area pursuant to this chapter.

"County" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-102.

"Derelict building" means the same as that term as defined in § 15.2-907.1 or in § 36-152.

"Farm structure" means the same as that term is defined in § 36-97.

"Farmers of low income" means persons of low income who derive their principal income from operating or working on a farm.

"Federal government" means the United States of America, the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, or any other agency or instrumentality, corporate or otherwise, of the United States of America.

"Governing body" means, in the case of a city or town, the council (including both branches where there are two), and in the case of a county, the board of supervisors or other governing body.

"Housing project," means any work or undertaking: (i) to demolish, clear or remove buildings from any slum area; such work or undertaking may embrace the adoption of such area to public purposes, including parks or other recreational or community purposes; or (ii) to provide decent, safe and sanitary urban or rural dwellings, apartments or other living accommodations for persons of low and moderate income; such work or undertaking may include buildings, land, equipment, facilities and other real or personal property for necessary, convenient or desirable appurtenances, streets, sewers, water service, parks, site preparation, gardening, administrative, community, health, recreational, welfare or other purposes; or (iii) to accomplish a combination of the foregoing. The term "housing project" also may be applied to the planning of the buildings and improvements, the acquisition of property, the demolition of existing structures or improvements, the construction, reconstruction, alteration and repair of the improvements and all other work in connection therewith.

"Locality" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-102.

"Obligee of the authority" or "obligee" means any bondholder, trustee or trustees for any bondholders, or lessor demising to the authority property used in connection with a project, or any assignee or assignees of such lessor's interest or any part thereof, and the federal government when it is a party to any contract with the authority.

"Persons of low income" means persons or families determined by the authority to lack the amount of income which is necessary to enable them to live in decent, safe and sanitary dwellings.

"Persons of moderate income" means persons or families determined by the authority to lack the amount of income necessary to obtain affordable housing.

"Real property" means all lands, including improvements and fixtures thereon, and property of any nature appurtenant thereto, or used in connection therewith, and every estate, interest and right, legal or equitable, therein, including terms for years and liens by way of judgment, mortgage or otherwise and the indebtedness secured by such liens.

"Redevelopment area" means an area (including slum areas), designated by an authority, that is in a state of blight that meets the criteria of a blighted area as defined in this section; or any area previously designated as a redevelopment area pursuant to this chapter.

"Slum" means any area where dwellings predominate that, by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, lack of ventilation, light or sanitary facilities, or any combination of these factors, is detrimental to safety, health, or morals.

"Spot blight" means a structure or improvement that is a blighted property as defined in this section.

"Spot blight abatement plan" means the written plan prepared by the owner or owners of record of the real property to address spot blight. If the owner or owners of record of the real property fail to respond as provided in § 36-49.1:1, the locality or the authority can prepare a spot blight abatement plan to address the spot blight with respect to an individual commercial, industrial, or residential structure or improvement, but may only implement such plan in accordance with the provisions of § 36-49.1:1.

"Town" means the same as that term is defined in § 15.2-102.

1938, p. 447; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(3); 1966, c. 129; 2006, c. 784; 2009, cc. 181, 551.

§ 36-4. Creation of redevelopment and housing authorities

In each locality there is hereby created a political subdivision of the Commonwealth, with such public and corporate powers as are set forth in this chapter, to be known respectively as the "__________ (insert name of locality) Redevelopment and Housing Authority" (hereinafter referred to as "authority"); provided, however, that any authority not now activated shall not transact any business or exercise any powers authorized under this chapter until or unless the qualified voters of such locality shall by a majority vote of such qualified voters voting in a referendum held as provided in § 36-4.1, have indicated a need for an authority to function in such locality. The referendum to determine whether or not there is a need for an authority to function (i) may be called by the governing body by resolution or (ii) shall be called by the governing body upon the filing of a petition signed by at least two percent of the qualified voters registered in the jurisdiction, asserting that there is need for an authority to function in such locality and requesting the governing body to call such referendum.

The governing body may by resolution call for a referendum to determine whether there is need for an authority in the locality if the governing body believes it is appropriate for one of the reasons set out in § 36-2. In the case of a town located within the county, the town council shall first obtain the concurrence of the governing body of the county and the county redevelopment and housing authority prior to scheduling a referendum.

In any suit, action or proceeding involving the validity or enforcement of or relating to any contract of the authority, the authority shall be conclusively deemed to have become established and authorized to transact business and exercise its powers hereunder if the voters of the locality have so indicated in a referendum held pursuant to § 36-4.1, that there is need for the authority.

1938, p. 448; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4); 1946, p. 276; 1947, p. 138; 1952, c. 427; 1958, c. 533; 2006, c. 784; 2009, c. 78.

§ 36-4.1. Holding of referendum; effect

A. If a referendum is called for under § 36-4, either by resolution of the governing body or upon the petition of at least two percent of the qualified voters as therein provided, the referendum shall be held at the next regularly scheduled election in the locality. The question on the ballot in such referendum shall be:

Is there a need for the redevelopment and housing authority to be activated in the county (or city or town) of.......… ?

The ballots shall be printed, the returns canvassed, and the results certified as provided in § 24.2-684.

B. If a majority of the qualified voters in such referendum shall indicate that there is a need for such authority, then the same shall be empowered to transact business and exercise the powers conferred by this chapter.

C. Once a referendum has been held, no other referendum on the same question shall be held in the county, city, or town within five years of the date of the prior referendum.

1952, c. 427; 1958, c. 171; 1982, c. 395; 2006, c. 784; 2009, c. 78.

§ 36-5. Reports

At least once a year, an authority shall file with the clerk a report of its activities for the preceding year, including a financial statement and a statement of the maximum income limits for tenants in its projects and shall make recommendations with reference to such additional legislation or other action as it deems necessary in order to carry out the purposes of this chapter. All records of an authority shall be public records, and shall be open to inspection by the public during all business hours under such reasonable regulations as the authority may prescribe; provided that the term "records" shall include only completed contracts and transactions of the authority.

1938, p. 457; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(20); 1956, c. 643; 1958, c. 116.

§ 36-6. Cooperation in undertaking housing projects

Any county, city or town, for the purpose of aiding and cooperating in the planning, undertaking, construction or operation of housing projects located within such county, city or town, may:

(a) Dedicate, sell, convey or lease any of its interest in any property, or grant easements, licenses or any other rights or privileges therein to any such housing authority;

(b) Cause parks, playgrounds, recreational, community, educational, water, sewer or drainage facilities, or any other works which it is otherwise empowered to undertake, to be furnished adjacent to or in connection with housing projects;

(c) Furnish, dedicate, close, pave, install, grade, regrade, plan or replan streets, roads, roadways, alleys, sidewalks or other places which it is otherwise empowered to undertake;

(d) Plan or replan, zone or rezone any part of such county, city or town; make exceptions from building regulations and ordinances; any city or town also may change its map;

(e) Cause services to be furnished to the housing authority of the character which such county, city or town is otherwise empowered to furnish;

(f) Enter into agreements with respect to the exercise by such county, city or town of its powers relating to the repair, elimination or closing of unsafe, insanitary or unfit dwellings;

(g) Purchase any of the bonds of a housing authority or legally invest in such bonds any funds belonging to or within the control of such county, city or town, and exercise all of the rights of any holder of such bonds;

(h) Do any and all things, necessary or convenient to aid and cooperate in the planning, undertaking, construction or operation of such housing projects;

(i) Enter into agreements with a housing authority respecting action to be taken by such county, city or town pursuant to any of the powers granted by this chapter.

1938, p. 457; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(21).

§ 36-7. Loans and donations to housing authority

Any city, town or county located in whole or in part within the area of operation of a housing authority shall have the power from time to time to lend or donate money to such authority to enable or assist such authority to carry out its purposes or to agree to take such action, and may issue bonds to provide funds therefor.

1938, p. 458; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(22); 1983, c. 68.

§ 36-7.1. Liquidation of housing project

If the governing body of any county or city determines after a public hearing that the need for a housing project has ceased to exist and that such project should be liquidated it shall so notify the housing authority which shall proceed to liquidate the project following public advertisement of the sale thereof. Provided that no bid on such project shall be accepted which would result in a sum insufficient to meet the outstanding obligations of the authority with respect to such project and provided further that if the authority finds that the highest offered price is not as much as what it considers a fair value for the property, the authority shall notify the governing body of this fact. After such notification no further proceedings shall be had in the liquidation of the property except at the specific direction of the governing body.

1958, c. 83.

§ 36-7.2. Notice of intent to demolish, liquidate, or otherwise dispose of housing projects

A. Any housing authority required to submit an application to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to demolish, liquidate, or otherwise dispose of a housing project shall serve a notice of intent to demolish, liquidate, or otherwise dispose of such housing project containing the requirements listed in subsection C at least 12 months prior to any application submission date to (i) the Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development, (ii) any agency that would be responsible for administering tenant-based rental assistance to persons who would otherwise be displaced from the housing project, and (iii) each tenant residing in the housing project.

B. The authority shall also provide notice containing the requirements listed in subsection C to any prospective tenant who is offered a rental agreement subsequent to the initial notice sent pursuant to subsection A prior to the prospective tenant signing the rental agreement or paying any deposit.

C. Notice of intent to demolish, liquidate, or otherwise dispose of a housing project shall include:

1. The anticipated date upon which an application to demolish, liquidate, or otherwise dispose of the housing project will be submitted to HUD;

2. The name, address, and phone number of any local legal aid societies;

3. Instructions for requesting more information pertaining to the application process, timeline, and implications for the tenant; and

4. Instructions for submitting written comment to the housing authority regarding the demolition, liquidation, or disposal of the housing project.

D. During the 12-month period subsequent to the provision of the notice required by subsection A, the housing authority shall not (i) increase rent for any tenant above the amount authorized by any federal assistance program applicable to the housing project; (ii) change the terms of the rental agreement for any tenant, except as permitted under the existing rental agreement; or (iii) evict a tenant or demand possession of any dwelling unit in the housing project, except for a lease violation or violation of law that threatens the health and safety of the building residents.

E. Any party who is entitled to receive notice under this section may bring a civil action to enjoin action by the housing authority or recover actual damages for any violation of this section, including any court costs and reasonable attorney fees.

2020, cc. 187, 397.

§ 36-8. Supplemental nature of chapter

The powers conferred by this chapter shall be in addition and supplemental to the powers conferred by any other law; except as may be expressly provided in the charter of a city or town specifically pertaining to such authority.

1938, p. 458; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(23); 1956, c. 615.

§ 36-9. Chapter controlling

Insofar as the provisions of this chapter are inconsistent with the provisions of any other law, general, special or local, except as may be otherwise expressly provided in the charter of a city or town, specifically pertaining to such authority, the provisions of this chapter shall be controlling.

1938, p. 458; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(24); 1956, c. 615.

§ 36-9.1. Exemptions from applicability of this chapter; conflicts in provisions of law

This chapter shall not be applicable to farm structures as defined in § 36-3 unless they are within the purview of the Uniform Statewide Building Code, as provided in § 36-99. Further, the creation of a redevelopment or conservation area, or designation of an individual structure as blighted pursuant to § 36-49.1:1, under the process for determination of spot blight, shall not abrogate the right to farm as protected in Chapter 3 (§ 3.2-300 et seq.) of Title 3.2. If there is a conflict between the provisions of this chapter and § 3.2-302, the provisions of § 3.2-302 shall control. If there is a conflict between the provisions of this chapter and § 25.1-106, the provisions of § 25.1-106 shall control. However, nothing herein shall be construed to preclude enforcement of local, state or federal criminal laws with respect to criminal activities occurring on a property where one or more farm structures are located.

2006, c. 784.

§ 36-10. Validation of establishment and organization of housing authorities and their contracts, undertakings, etc

(1) Organization and establishment. -- The establishment and organization of housing authorities in the Commonwealth of Virginia under the provisions of the housing authorities law together with all proceedings, acts and things heretofore undertaken, performed or done with reference thereto prior to June 27, 1942, are hereby validated, ratified, confirmed, approved and declared legal in all respects, notwithstanding any defect or irregularity therein or any want of statutory authority.

(2) Contracts and undertakings. -- All contracts, agreements, obligations, and undertakings of such housing authorities entered into before such date relating to financing or aiding in the development, construction, maintenance or operation of any housing project or projects or to obtaining aid therefor from the United States Housing Authority, including (without limiting the generality of the foregoing) loan and annual contributions contract and leases with the United States Housing Authority, agreements with municipalities or other public bodies (including those which are pledged or authorized to be pledged for the protection of the holders of any notes or bonds issued by such housing authorities or which are otherwise made a part of the contract with such holders of notes or bonds) relating to cooperation and contributions in aid of housing projects, payments (if any) in lieu of taxes, furnishing of municipal services and facilities, and the elimination of unsafe and insanitary dwellings, and contracts for the construction of housing projects, together with all proceedings, acts and things undertaken, performed or done with reference thereto before such date, are hereby validated, ratified, confirmed, approved and declared legal in all respects, notwithstanding any defect or irregularity therein or any want of statutory authority.

(3) Notes and bonds. -- All proceedings, acts and things before such date undertaken, performed or done in or for the authorization, issuance, execution and delivery of notes and bonds by housing authorities for the purpose of financing or aiding in the development or construction of a housing project or projects, and all notes and bonds issued by housing authorities before such date, are hereby validated, ratified, confirmed, approved and declared legal in all respects, notwithstanding any defect or irregularity therein or any want of statutory authority.

1942, p. 381; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(26).

§ 36-11. Appointment and tenure of commissioners; compensation

When the need for an authority to be activated in a city or county has been determined in the manner prescribed by law, the governing body of the city or county shall appoint not more than nine or less than five persons as commissioners of the authority created for such city or county. The governing body of the city or county may subsequently increase the number of commissioners of the authority to a maximum of nine. The commissioners who are first appointed shall be designated to serve for terms of one, two, three, four and five years, respectively, from the date of their appointment, but thereafter commissioners shall be appointed as aforesaid for a term of office of four years except that all vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term. Notwithstanding any special or general law to the contrary, after July 1, 2017, no member of the Chesapeake Redevelopment and Housing Authority shall serve more than two consecutive terms. Any person who has served more than one and one-half terms as a member of the Chesapeake Redevelopment and Housing Authority as of July 1, 2017, shall not be eligible for reappointment for another consecutive term. A member of the Chesapeake Redevelopment and Housing Authority shall serve at the pleasure of the city council of the City of Chesapeake. No Chesapeake Redevelopment and Housing Authority member shall work for the Authority within one year after serving as a member. Except as may be otherwise expressly provided in the charter of a city or town specifically pertaining to such authority, no commissioner of any authority may be an officer or employee, of the city or county for which the authority is created. A commissioner shall hold office until his successor has been appointed and has qualified. A certificate of the appointment or reappointment of any commissioner shall be filed with the clerk and such certificate shall be conclusive evidence of the due and proper appointment of such commissioner. A commissioner may receive compensation as may be determined by a locality for each meeting of the authority attended by the commissioner. A commissioner shall be entitled to the necessary expenses, including traveling expenses, incurred in the discharge of his duties.

Any exercise of the powers of an authority by its commissioners after June 30, 1968, otherwise in compliance with applicable law, is hereby declared to be valid and effective in all respects, notwithstanding that the number of commissioners exercising the powers, though not exceeding seven from July 1, 1968, through June 30, 1978, and not exceeding nine thereafter, may have exceeded the number appointed at the time the need for the authority to be activated had been determined in accordance with this section. No suit or action to vacate or set aside any exercise of said powers may be brought on the ground that the number of commissioners, though not exceeding seven from July 1, 1968, through June 30, 1978, and not exceeding nine thereafter, did exceed the number appointed at the time the need for the authority to be activated had been determined.

1938, p. 449; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(5); 1956, c. 615; 1958, c. 82; 1968, c. 696; 1978, c. 557; 1986, c. 357; 1987, c. 102; 1988, c. 601; 2007, c. 247; 2010, c. 311; 2017, cc. 541, 557.

§ 36-11.1. Compensation of commissioners in certain counties

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any county having a population of more than 90,000 which adjoins three or more cities of the first class the redevelopment and housing authority of the county may, from funds of the authority and with the approval of the governing body of the county, pay each such commissioner not exceeding $25 for each day or part thereof spent in discharge of his duties as such commissioner; provided that no such commissioner or his successor shall be paid more than $300 in any year.

1958, c. 434.

§ 36-11.1:1. Compensation of commissioners generally

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any redevelopment and housing authority may, from funds of the redevelopment and housing authority and with the approval of the governing body, pay each commissioner a stipend not to exceed $500 per month for services as a commissioner, in addition to such expenses as are allowed by law.

1970, c. 628; 1988, c. 367; 2020, c. 516.

§ 36-11.2. Appointment of commissioners in certain cities

Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, whenever the members of a council of any city have been authorized to act as commissioners of a redevelopment and housing authority created under § 36-4 for such city, the council of any such city is hereby authorized to adopt a resolution appointing other commissioners for such authority in accordance with § 36-11, to serve as such in lieu of the members of council so acting.

The provisions of this section shall not affect the provisions of the charter of any such city authorizing the governing body thereof to provide for the activation of such authority.

1960, c. 593.

§ 36-12. Powers vested in commissioners; quorum

The powers of each authority shall be vested in the commissioners thereof in office from time to time. A majority of the commissioners shall constitute a quorum of the authority for the purpose of conducting its business and exercising its powers and for all other purposes. Action may be taken by the authority upon a vote of a majority of the commissioners present, unless in any case the bylaws of the authority shall require a larger number.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(5); 1972, cc. 466, 782.

§ 36-13. Selection of chairman and other officers, agents and employees

The governing body of the city or county shall designate which of the commissioners appointed shall be the first chairman, but when the office of the chairman of the authority thereafter becomes vacant, the authority shall select a chairman from among its commissioners. An authority shall select from among its commissioners a vice-chairman, and it may employ a secretary (who shall be executive director), technical experts and such other officers, agents and employees, permanent and temporary, as it may require, and shall determine their qualifications, duties and compensation.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(5); 1958, c. 82.

§ 36-14. Legal counsel

For such legal services as it may require, an authority may call upon the city attorney of the city or the attorney for the Commonwealth of the county or may employ its own counsel and legal staff.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(5).

§ 36-15. Delegation of authority

An authority may delegate to one or more of its agents or employees such powers or duties as it may deem proper.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(5).

§ 36-16. Repealed

Repealed by Acts 1970, c. 463.

§ 36-17. Removal of commissioners

For inefficiency or neglect of duty or misconduct in office, a commissioner of an authority of any city or county may be removed by the governing body of such city or county; but a commissioner may be removed only after he shall have been given a copy of the charges at least ten days prior to the hearing thereon and had an opportunity to be heard in person or by counsel. In the event of the removal of any commissioner, a record of the proceedings, together with the charges and findings thereon, shall be filed in the office of the clerk.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(7); 1958, c. 82.

§ 36-18. Meetings and residence of commissioners

Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to prevent meetings of the commissioners of a housing authority anywhere within the perimeter boundaries of the area of operation of the authority or within any additional area where the housing authority is authorized to undertake a housing project, nor to prevent the appointment of any person as a commissioner of the authority who resides within such boundaries or such additional area, and who is otherwise eligible for such appointment under this chapter.

1942, p. 325; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4m).

§ 36-19. Enumeration of powers

An authority shall constitute a political subdivision of the Commonwealth with public and corporate powers, and having all the powers necessary or convenient to carry out and effectuate the purposes and provisions of this chapter, including the following powers in addition to others herein granted:

1. To sue and to be sued; to have a seal and to alter the same at pleasure; to have perpetual succession; to make and execute contracts and other instruments necessary or convenient to the exercise of the powers of the authority; and to make, amend and repeal bylaws, rules and regulations, not inconsistent with law, to carry into effect the powers and purposes of the authority.

2. Within its area of operation, to prepare, carry out, acquire, lease and operate housing projects and residential buildings, and to provide for the construction, reconstruction, improvement, alteration or repair of any housing project, residential building, or any part thereof, and to construct, remodel or renovate any public building or other facility used for public purposes provided the authority is requested to do so by the governing body of the political subdivision wherein the public building or facility is located.

3. To arrange or contract for the furnishing by any person or agency, public or private, of services, privileges, works, or facilities for, or in connection with, a housing project or the occupants thereof; and (notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this chapter or in any other provision of law) to include in any contract let in connection with a project, any provisions required to comply with any conditions which the federal government may have attached to its financial aid of the project.

4. In connection with any housing project: to lease or rent any dwelling, houses, accommodations, lands, buildings, structures or facilities embraced in any housing project and (subject to the limitations contained in this chapter) to establish and revise the rents or charges therefor; to own, hold, and improve real or personal property; to purchase, lease, obtain options upon, acquire by gift, grant, bequest, devise, or otherwise any real or personal property or any interest therein; to acquire by the exercise of the power of eminent domain any real property; to sell, lease, exchange, transfer, assign, pledge or dispose of any real or personal property or any interest therein; to insure or provide for the insurance of any real or personal property or operations of the authority against any risks or hazards, to procure or agree to the procurement of insurance or guarantees from the federal government of the payment of any bonds or parts thereof issued by an authority, including the power to pay premiums on any such insurance.

5. To invest any funds held in reserves or sinking funds, or any funds not required for immediate disbursement, in property or security in which savings banks may legally invest funds subject to their control; to purchase its bonds at a price not more than the principal amount thereof and accrued interest, all bonds so purchased to be cancelled.

6. Within its area of operation, to investigate into living, dwelling and housing conditions and into the means and methods of improving such conditions; to determine where blighted or slum areas exist or where there is a shortage of decent, safe and sanitary dwelling accommodations for persons of low income; to make studies and recommendations relating to the problem of clearing, replanning and reconstructing of blighted or slum areas, and the problem of providing dwelling accommodations for persons of low income, and to cooperate with the locality, the Commonwealth or any other political subdivision thereof in action taken in connection with such problems; and to engage in research, studies and experimentation on the subject of housing.

7. To make loans or grants for the prevention and elimination of blighted or slum areas and for assistance in housing construction or rehabilitation by private sponsors of any and all funds received through federal programs and any and all funds received from other sources, public or private including but not limited to, rehabilitation loans received pursuant to the provisions of § 312 of the Federal Housing Act of 1964, as amended and the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974.

8. Within its area of operation, to act as agent for a political subdivision or agency of the Commonwealth or for a federal agency in making construction or rehabilitation loans to persons of low or moderate income in accordance with the rules and regulations of the political subdivision or agency.

9. Within its area of operation to make grants, loans or refinance loans made by others for assistance in planning, development, acquisition, construction, repair, rehabilitation, equipping or maintenance of commercial, residential or other buildings; provided that prior approval of any such loan by the local governing body shall be required if the building is not located within a housing, redevelopment or conservation area, or rehabilitation area and provided further that any rehabilitation funded by any such grant or loan is in compliance with property maintenance standards contained in duly adopted redevelopment or conservation plans in effect in such area of operation.

10. To borrow money and issue evidence of indebtedness in the name of and for the use of the authority, to issue bonds and other obligations, and give security therefor, subject to such limitations as may be imposed by law.

11. To conduct examinations and investigations, and to make available to appropriate agencies (including those charged with the duty of abating or requiring the correction of nuisances or like conditions, or of demolishing unsafe or unsanitary structures within its area of operation) its findings and recommendations with regard to any building or property where conditions exist which are dangerous to the public health, morals, safety or welfare.

12. With the approval of the local governing body or its designee, to form corporations, partnerships, joint ventures, trusts, or any other legal entity or combination thereof, on its own behalf or with any person or public or private entity.

13. To exercise all or any part or combination of powers herein granted.

No provisions of law with respect to the acquisition, operation or disposition of property by other political subdivisions or public bodies shall be applicable to an authority unless the legislature shall specifically state.

1938, p. 450; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(8); 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 153; 1976, c. 510; 1977, c. 136; 1978, c. 679; 1982, c. 596; 1983, c. 27; 1984, cc. 350, 450; 1988, cc. 217, 416; 1995, c. 193; 2002, c. 548; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-19.1. Special provisions; City of Roanoke

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 36-19, an authority established in the City of Roanoke shall not contract for the construction of any housing unit that has not been contracted for on or before March 6, 1952, or acquire land for or purchase material for the construction or installation of any sewerage, streets, sidewalks, lights, power, water, or any other facilities for any housing units or projects on or before such date, unless a comprehensive plan for such unit or project has been approved by the governing body of the city.

1952, c. 200; 1975, c. 575.

§ 36-19.2. Powers limited by necessity for authority from or approval by governing body; public hearing on proposed budget

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 36-19, no authority permitted to transact business and exercise powers as provided in § 36-4 shall make any contract for the construction of any additional housing not authorized or approved by the governing body on April 1, 1952, or acquire land for, or purchase material for the construction or installation of, any sewerage, streets, sidewalks, lights, power, water, or any other facilities for any additional housing not authorized or approved on such date, unless and until such additional housing has been authorized or approved by the governing body of the locality in which the authority is authorized to transact business and exercise powers, provided that this section shall not affect or impair the provisions of § 36-19.1.

B. Before any authority gives final approval to (i) its budget or (ii) any request for funding for submission to the governing body, the authority shall hold at least one public hearing to receive the views of citizens within the area of operation of the authority. The authority shall cause public notice to be given at least 10 days prior to any hearing by publication in a newspaper having a general circulation within the area of operation of the authority.

1952, c. 427; 2006, c. 784; 2007, c. 342; 2017, cc. 68, 561.

§ 36-19.3. Repealed

Repealed by Acts 1960, c. 230.

§ 36-19.4. Referendum prior to making cooperation agreements for public housing projects in the City of Portsmouth

Notwithstanding the provisions of § 36-19, no authority established in the City of Portsmouth shall make any cooperation agreement with the governing body of the city for any public housing project that is not authorized or approved by the governing body of the city on or before July 1, 1960, unless a cooperation agreement for such public housing project has been approved by a majority of the qualified voters of the city voting in an election called by the governing body of the city for such purpose. The procedure for such election shall conform to general law. The provisions of this section shall not affect or impair the provisions of § 36-19.1, nor shall they apply to such low rent public housing units determined by the governing body of the city as necessary for the satisfactory relocation of families to be displaced by the city's urban renewal program.

1960, c. 490; 1975, c. 575.

§ 36-19.5. Additional powers

A. In addition to the powers otherwise granted, an authority may acquire, subject to prior approval, after public hearing, of each such acquisition by the governing body of the county, city or town wherein the property to be acquired is located, any single-family or multi-family dwelling unit within the authority's area of operation by purchase, lease, or gift or through the exercise of the power of eminent domain as provided in subsection B of this section, for development and redevelopment including, but not limited to, the renovation, rehabilitation and disposition thereof, when such authority has determined: (i) that such dwelling unit or other structure has deteriorated to such extent as to constitute a serious and growing menace to the public health, safety and welfare; (ii) that such dwelling unit or other structure is likely to continue to deteriorate unless corrected; (iii) that the continued deterioration of such dwelling unit or other structure may contribute to the blighting or deterioration of the area immediately surrounding the said dwelling unit or other structure; and (iv) that the owner of such dwelling unit or other structure, after sixty days' notice to the landowner by certified mail, citing § 36-19.5, has failed to correct the deterioration thereof.

B. A local governing body may, on behalf of an authority, acquire through the exercise of the power of eminent domain any single-family or multi-family dwelling unit within the authority's area of operation, but only for those purposes set forth in subsection A of this section.

1979, c. 424.

§ 36-20. Housing research and studies

In addition to all its other powers, an authority may, within its area of operation, undertake and carry out studies and analyses of the housing needs, and of the meeting of such needs (including data with respect to population and family groups and the distribution thereof according to income groups, the amount and quality of available housing and its distribution according to rentals and sales prices, employment, wages and other factors affecting the local housing needs and the meeting thereof) and make the results of such studies and analyses available to the public and the building, housing and supply industries; and may also engage in research and disseminate information on the subject of housing.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(4r).

§ 36-21. Housing projects not to be operated for profit

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Commonwealth that each housing authority shall manage and operate its housing projects in an efficient manner so as to enable it to fix the rentals for dwelling accommodations at the lowest possible rates consistent with such authority providing decent, safe and sanitary dwelling accommodations, and that no housing authority shall construct or operate any such project for profit, or as a source of revenue to the city or the county. To this end an authority shall fix the rentals for dwellings in its projects at no higher rates than it shall find to be necessary in order to produce revenues which (together with all other available moneys, revenues, income and receipts of the authority from whatever sources derived) will be sufficient (a) to meet the cost of, and to provide for, maintaining and operating the projects (including the cost of any insurance) and the administrative expenses of the authority; (b) to pay, as the same become due, the principal and interest on the bonds of the authority; (c) to provide a margin of safety for making such payments of principal and interest; and (d) to create and maintain a reserve sufficient to ensure the authority can pay the principal of and the interest on the bonds of the authority as the same shall come due.

1938, p. 452; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(9); 1975, c. 78.

§ 36-22. Rentals and tenant selection

In the operation or management of housing projects an authority shall at all times observe the following duties with respect to rentals and tenant selection: (a) it may rent or lease the dwelling accommodations therein only to persons of low income and at rentals within the financial reach of such persons of low income; (b) it may rent or lease to a tenant dwelling accommodations consisting of the number of rooms (but no greater number) which it deems necessary to provide safe and sanitary accommodations to the proposed occupants thereof, without overcrowding; (c) it shall not accept any person as a tenant in any housing project if the person or persons who would occupy the dwelling accommodations have an aggregate annual income in excess of the maximum income limits established by the authority for the purpose of determining what persons or families are of low income; and (d) at least thirty days before establishing or changing the aggregate annual maximum income limits for the purpose of determining what persons or families are persons of low income, an authority shall notify the governing body of the city or county thereof.

Nothing contained in this section or § 36-21 shall be construed as limiting the power of an authority to vest in an obligee the right, in the event of a default by the authority, to take possession of a housing project or cause the appointment of a receiver thereof, free from all the restrictions imposed by this section or § 36-21.

1938, p. 452; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(10); 1958, c. 116; 1972, cc. 466, 782.

§ 36-22.1. Conveyance of streets; no trespass policy

Each housing authority shall adopt a "no trespass" policy designed to protect the premises controlled by such authority and residents from nonresidents who enter the premises for unlawful purposes or without any lawful purpose. In adopting such policies, the authority shall determine whether to petition a locality or the Commonwealth to close to the public and convey to the authority any streets serving authority property. Neither a locality nor the Commonwealth shall be required to grant the conveyance.

2004, c. 585.

§ 36-23. Housing authority operations in other municipalities

In addition to its other powers, any housing authority may exercise any or all of its powers within the territorial boundaries of any municipality not included in the area of operation of such housing authority, for the purpose of planning, undertaking, financing, rehabilitating, constructing and operating a housing project or projects or a multi-family residential building or buildings within such municipality; provided that a resolution shall have been adopted (a) by the governing body of such municipality in which the housing authority is to exercise its powers and (b) by the authority of such municipality (if one has been theretofore established by such municipality and authorized to exercise its powers therein) declaring that there is a need for the aforesaid housing authority to exercise its powers within such municipality. A municipality shall have the same powers to furnish financial and other assistance to such housing authority exercising its powers within such municipality under this section as though the municipality were within the area of operation of such authority.

No governing body of a municipality shall adopt a resolution as provided in this section declaring that there is a need for the housing authority (other than a housing authority established by such municipality) to exercise its powers within such municipality, unless a public hearing has first been held by such governing body and unless such governing body shall have found in substantially the following terms: (a) that insanitary or unsafe inhabited dwelling accommodations exist in such municipality or that there is a shortage of safe or sanitary dwelling accommodations in such municipality available to persons of low income at rentals they can afford; and (b) that these conditions can be best remedied through the exercise of the aforesaid housing authority's powers within the territorial boundaries of such municipality; provided that such findings shall not have the effect of establishing an authority for any such municipality under § 36-4 nor of thereafter preventing such municipality from establishing an authority or joining in the creation of a consolidated housing authority or the increase of the area of operation of a consolidated housing authority. The clerk of the city or other municipality shall give notice of the time, place and purpose of the public hearing at least ten days prior to the date on which the hearing is to be held, in a newspaper published in such municipality, or if there is no newspaper published in such municipality, then in a newspaper published in the Commonwealth and having a general circulation in such municipality. Upon the date fixed for such public hearing an opportunity to be heard shall be granted to all residents of such municipality and to all other interested persons.

During the time that, pursuant to these findings, the aforesaid housing authority has outstanding (or is under contract to issue) any evidences of indebtedness for a project within the municipality, no other housing authority may undertake a project within such municipality without the consent of the housing authority which has such outstanding indebtedness or obligation.

1942, p. 324; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(41); 1984, c. 350.

§ 36-24. Cooperation of authorities

Any two or more housing authorities may join or cooperate with one another in the exercise, either jointly or otherwise of any or all of their powers for the purpose of financing (including the issuance of bonds, notes or other obligations and giving security therefor), planning, undertaking, owning, constructing, operating or contracting with respect to a housing project or projects located within the area of operation of any one or more of such authorities. For such purpose any authority may by resolution prescribe and authorize any other housing authority or authorities, so joining or cooperating with it, to act on its behalf with respect to any or all of such powers. Any authorities joining or cooperating with one another may by resolutions appoint from among the commissioners of such authorities an executive committee with full power to act on behalf of such authorities with respect to any or all of their powers, as prescribed by resolutions of such authorities.

1938, p. 453; 1942, p. 325; Michie Code 1942, §§ 3145(4n), 3145(11).

§ 36-25. Payments by housing authorities to other bodies

An authority may agree to make such payments to the city or county, the Commonwealth, or any political subdivision thereof, which payments such bodies are hereby authorized to accept, and to otherwise expend its funds in such manner as the authority finds consistent with the maintenance of the low-rent character of housing projects or the achievement of the purposes of this Housing Authorities Law.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(4q); 1970, c. 405.

§ 36-26. Aid from federal government

In addition to the powers conferred upon an authority by other provisions of this chapter, an authority is empowered to borrow money or accept contributions, grants or other financial assistance from the federal government for or in aid of any housing project within its area of operation, to take over or lease or manage any housing projects or undertaking, within such area, constructed or owned by the federal government, and to these ends, to comply with such conditions and enter into such mortgages, trust indentures, leases or agreements as may be necessary, convenient or desirable.

1938, p. 457; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(19).

§ 36-27. Eminent domain

A. An authority shall have the right to acquire by the exercise of the power of eminent domain any real property pursuant to a duly adopted redevelopment or conservation plan, or otherwise only in accordance with this chapter, after the adoption by it of a resolution declaring that the acquisition of the real property described therein is necessary for such public purposes. An authority may exercise the power of eminent domain in the manner provided in Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1. In condemnation proceedings evidence may be presented as to the value of the property including but not limited to the owner's appraisal and the effect that any pending application for a zoning change, special use permit application or variance application may have on the value of the property. The court may also determine whether there has been unreasonable delay in the institution of the proceedings after public announcement by the condemnor of a project that necessitates acquisition by the condemnor of a designated land area consisting of or including the land sought to be condemned. If the court determines that such unreasonable delay has occurred, it shall instruct the commissioners or jurors in such proceedings to allow any damages proved to their satisfaction by the landowner or landowners to have been sustained to his or their land during and because of such delay, in addition to and separately from the fair market value thereof, but such damages shall not exceed the actual diminution if any in fair market value of the land in substantially the same physical condition over the period of the delay.

B. Prior to the adoption of any redevelopment plan for a redevelopment area pursuant to § 36-49 or any conservation plan for a conservation area pursuant to § 36-49.1, an authority shall send by certified mail, postage prepaid, to the record owner or owners of every parcel of property to be acquired pursuant to such plan, at their last known address as contained in the records of the treasurer, the current real estate tax assessment records, or the records of such other officer responsible for collecting taxes in that locality, a notice advising such owner that (i) the property owned by such owner is proposed to be acquired, (ii) such owner will have the right to appear before the local governing body and present testimony with respect to the proposed redevelopment or conservation area, and (iii) such owner will have the right to appear in any condemnation proceeding instituted to acquire the property and present any defense which such owner may have to the taking. Such notice shall not be the basis for eligibility for relocation benefits. At the time it makes its price offer, the authority shall also provide to the property owner a copy of the appraisal of the fair market value of such property upon which the authority has based the amount offered for the property, which appraisal shall be prepared by a real estate appraiser licensed in accordance with Chapter 20.1 (§ 54.1-2009 et seq.) of Title 54.1.

C. In all such cases the proceedings shall be according to the provisions of Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1, so far as they can be applied to the same. No real property belonging to the city, the county, the Commonwealth or any other political subdivision thereof may be acquired without its consent.

1938, p. 453; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(12); 1958, c. 518; 1972, cc. 466, 782; 1989, c. 593; 1998, c. 880; 2000, c. 1029; 2001, c. 729; 2002, c. 272; 2003, c. 940; 2006, cc. 586, 784.

§ 36-27.01. Plan for alternative housing of persons displaced by condemnation, conversion, etc

In any condemnation proceeding which involves the taking or conversion of properties populated by low and moderate income families in multi-family housing projects owned or controlled by the redevelopment and housing authority, or with respect to the development or redevelopment of any property owned or controlled by it, the authority shall adopt a plan of relocation identifying alternative housing for the persons who will be displaced. No conversion of multi-family housing complexes to industrial use shall be authorized prior to the identification of alternative housing required herein.

1983, c. 518.

§ 36-27.1. Damages to leasehold interests in the City of Waynesboro

In considering the damages to be allowed under § 36-27 for property located in the City of Waynesboro, the court shall instruct the commissioners that damages shall be allowable for injury to leasehold interests in property adjoining, and operated jointly with, the land being condemned.

1966, c. 383; 1975, c. 575.

§ 36-27.2. Limitations on certain housing authorities; exception

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 36-27 and except as provided in subsection B, no housing authority transacting business and exercising powers as provided in § 36-4 in the City of Norfolk shall be authorized after July 1, 2007, to acquire by the exercise of the power of eminent domain, any real property located within the boundaries set forth in the Conservation and Redevelopment Plan (the Plan) for the East Ocean View Conservation and Redevelopment Project adopted July 1989, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to such plan adopted September 1992.

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to any such real property for which an offer has been made by such housing authority or for which such authority has initiated condemnation proceedings prior to July 1, 2007.

B. The City of Norfolk and the housing authority shall not be precluded from adopting (i) a new redevelopment plan, in accordance with the provisions of §§ 36-27, 36-49, and 36-51, which designates a redevelopment area that includes real property for acquisition that was previously included within the Plan, or (ii) a new conservation plan, in accordance with the provisions of §§ 36-27, 36-50.1, and 36-51.1, which designates a conservation area that includes real property for acquisition that was previously included within the Plan.

2002, c. 540; 2007, c. 786.

§ 36-28. Planning, zoning and building laws

All housing projects of an authority shall be subject to the planning, zoning, sanitary and building laws, ordinances and regulations applicable to the locality in which the housing project is situated. In the planning and location of any housing project, an authority shall take into consideration the relationship of the project to any larger plan or long-range program for the development of the area in which the housing authority functions.

1938, p. 453; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(13).

§ 36-29. Power to issue bonds; liability in general

An authority shall have power to issue bonds from time to time in its discretion, for any of its corporate purposes. An authority shall also have power to issue refunding bonds for the purpose of paying or retiring bonds previously issued by it or for the purpose of refunding loans made by another entity if such loans could have been made by the authority. An authority may issue such types of bonds as it may determine, including (without limiting the generality of the foregoing):

(a) Bonds on which the principal and interest are payable:

(1) Exclusively from the income and revenues of the housing project financed with the proceeds of such bonds; or

(2) Exclusively from the income and revenues of certain designated housing projects whether or not they are financed in whole or in part with the proceeds of such bonds; or

(3) From its revenues generally.

(b) Bonds on which the principal is payable solely from annual contributions or grants received from the federal government or received from any other source, public or private.

Any such bonds may be additionally secured by a pledge of any grant or contributions from the federal government or other source, or a pledge of any income or revenues of the authority, or a mortgage of any housing project, projects or other property of the authority.

Neither the commissioners of an authority nor any person executing the bonds shall be liable personally on the bonds by reason of the issuance thereof. The bonds and other obligations of an authority (and such bonds and obligations shall so state on their face) shall not be a debt of the city, the county, the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof (other than the authority) and neither the city or the county, nor the Commonwealth or any political subdivision thereof (other than the authority) shall be liable thereon, nor in any event shall such bonds or obligations be payable out of any funds or properties other than those of the authority. The bonds shall not constitute an indebtedness within the meaning of any constitutional or statutory debt limitation or restriction.

1938, p. 454; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(14); 2002, c. 548.

§ 36-30. Form and sale of bonds; presumption of validity

Bonds of an authority shall be authorized by its resolution and may be issued in one or more series and shall bear such date or dates, mature at such time or times, bear interest at such rate or rates, be in such denomination or denominations, be in such form, either coupon or registered, carry such conversion or registration privileges, have such rank of priority, be executed in such manner, be payable in such medium of payment, at such place or places, and be subject to such terms of redemption (with or without premium) as such resolution, its trust indenture or mortgage may provide.

The bonds may be sold at public or private sale at not less than par.

In case any of the commissioners or officers of the authority whose signatures appear on any bonds or coupons shall cease to be such commissioners or officers before the delivery of such bonds, such signatures shall, nevertheless, be valid and sufficient for all purposes, the same as if such commissioners or officers had remained in office until such delivery. Any provisions of any law to the contrary notwithstanding, any bonds issued pursuant to this chapter shall be fully negotiable.

In any suit, action or proceedings involving the validity or enforceability of any bond of an authority or the security therefor, any such bond reciting in substance that it has been issued by the authority to aid in financing a housing project to provide dwelling accommodations for persons of low income shall be conclusively deemed to have been issued for a housing project of such character and such project shall be conclusively deemed to have been planned, located and constructed in accordance with the purposes and provisions of this chapter.

1938, p. 454; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(15); 1972, c. 466; 1980, c. 133.

§ 36-31. Provisions of bonds, trust indentures and mortgages

In connection with the issuance of bonds or the incurring of obligations under leases and in order to secure the payment of such bonds or obligations, an authority, in addition to its other powers, shall have power:

(a) To pledge all or any part of its gross or net rents, fees or revenues to which its right then exists or may thereafter come into existence.

(b) To mortgage all or any part of its real or personal property, then owned or thereafter acquired.

(c) To covenant against pledging all or any part of its rents, fees and revenues, or against mortgaging all or any part of its real or personal property, to which its right or title then exists or may thereafter come into existence or against permitting or suffering any lien on such revenues or property; to covenant with respect to limitations on its right to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of any housing project or any part thereof; and to covenant as to what other, or additional debts or obligations may be incurred by it.

(d) To covenant as to the bonds to be issued and as to the issuance of such bonds in escrow or otherwise, and as to the use and disposition of the proceeds thereof; to provide for the replacement of lost, destroyed or mutilated bonds; to covenant against extending the time for the payment of its bonds or interest thereon; and to redeem the bonds, and to covenant for their redemption and to provide the terms and conditions thereof.

(e) To covenant (subject to the limitations contained in this chapter) as to the rents and fees to be charged in the operation of a housing project or projects, the amount to be raised each year or other period of time by rents, fees and other revenues, and as to the use and disposition to be made thereof; to create or to authorize the creation of special funds for moneys held for construction or operating costs, debt service, reserves, or other purposes, and to covenant as to the use and disposition of the moneys held in such funds.

(f) To prescribe the procedure, if any, by which the terms of any contract with bondholders may be amended or abrogated, the amount of bonds the holders of which must consent thereto and the manner in which such consent may be given.

(g) To covenant as to the use of any or all of its real or personal property; and to covenant as to the maintenance of its real and personal property, the replacement thereof, the insurance to be carried thereon and the use and disposition of insurance moneys.

(h) To covenant as to the rights, liabilities, powers and duties arising upon the breach by it of any covenant, condition, or obligation; and to covenant and prescribe as to events of default and terms and conditions upon which any or all of its bonds or obligations shall become or may be declared due before maturity, and as to the terms and conditions upon which such declaration and its consequences may be waived.

(i) To vest in a trust or trustees or the holders of bonds or any proportion of them the right to enforce the payment of the bonds or any covenants securing or relating to the bonds; to vest in a trustee or trustees the right, in the event of a default by the authority, to take possession and use, operate and manage any housing project or part thereof, and to collect the rents and revenues arising therefrom and to dispose of such moneys in accordance with the agreement of the authority with the trustee; to provide for the powers and duties of a trustee or trustees and to limit the liabilities thereof; and to provide the terms and conditions upon which the trustee or trustees or the holders of bonds or any portion of them may enforce any covenant or right securing or relating to the bonds.

(j) To exercise all or any part or combination of the powers herein granted; and to make covenants other than and in addition to the covenants herein expressly authorized, of like or different character.

1938, p. 455; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(16).

§ 36-32. Remedies of obligee of authority

An obligee of an authority shall have the right in addition to all other rights which may be conferred on such obligee, subject only to any contractual restrictions binding upon such obligee:

(a) By mandamus, suit, action or proceeding at law or in equity to compel the authority and the commissioners, officers, agents or employees thereof to perform each and every term, provision and covenant contained in any contract of the authority with or for the benefit of such obligee, and to require the carrying out of any or all such covenants and agreements of the authority and the fulfillment of all duties imposed upon the authority by this chapter.

(b) By suit, action or proceeding in equity, to enjoin any acts or things which may be unlawful, or the violation of any of the rights of such obligee of the authority.

1938, p. 456; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(17).

§ 36-33. Additional remedies conferrable by authority

An authority shall have power by its resolution, trust indenture, mortgage, lease or other contract to confer upon any obligee holding or representing a specified amount in bonds, or holding a lease, the right (in addition to all rights that may otherwise be conferred), upon the happening of an event of default as defined in such resolution or instrument, by suit, action or proceeding in any court of competent jurisdiction:

(a) To cause possession of any housing project or any part thereof to be surrendered to any such obligee.

(b) To obtain the appointment of a receiver of any housing project of the authority or any part thereof and of the rents and profits therefrom. If such receiver be appointed, he may enter and take possession of such housing project or any part thereof and operate and maintain same, and collect and receive all fees, rents, revenues, or other charges thereafter arising therefrom, and shall keep such moneys in a separate account or accounts and supply the same in accordance with the obligation of the authority as the court shall direct.

(c) To require the authority and the commissioners thereof to account as if it and they were the trustees of an express trust.

1938, p. 456; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(18).

§ 36-34. Housing bonds to be legal investments, legal security and negotiable

The Commonwealth and all public officers, municipal corporations, political subdivisions (other than housing authorities), and public bodies, all banks, bankers, trust companies, savings banks and institutions, building and loan associations, savings and loan associations, investment companies and other persons carrying on a banking business, all insurance companies, except domestic life insurance companies may legally invest any sinking funds, moneys or other funds belonging to them or within their control in any bonds or other obligations issued by a housing authority pursuant to the Housing Authorities Law, or issued by any public housing authority or agency in the United States, when such bonds or other obligations are secured by a pledge of annual contributions to be paid by the United States government or any agency thereof, and such bonds and other obligations shall be authorized security for all public deposits and shall be fully negotiable in this Commonwealth; it being the purpose of this act to authorize any persons, firms, corporations, associations, political subdivisions, bodies and officers, public or private, to use any funds owned or controlled by them, including (but not limited to) sinking, insurance, investment, retirement, compensation, pension funds, and funds held on deposit, for the purchase of any such bonds or other obligations and that any such bonds or other obligations shall be authorized security for all public deposits and shall be fully negotiable in this Commonwealth; provided, however, that nothing contained in this section with regard to legal investments shall be construed as relieving any person, firm or corporation from any duty of exercising reasonable care in selecting securities.

1942, p. 404; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(25).

§ 36-35. Contracts and covenants with federal government, etc.; agreements to sell

In any contract or amendatory or superseding contract for a loan and annual contributions heretofore or hereafter entered into between a housing authority and the federal government with respect to any housing project undertaken by the housing authority, any such housing authority is authorized to make such covenants (including covenants with holders of obligations of the authority issued for purposes of the project involved) and to confer upon the federal government such rights and remedies, as the housing authority deems necessary to assure the fulfillment of the purposes for which the project was undertaken. In any such contract, the housing authority may, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, agree to sell and convey the project (including all lands appertaining thereto) to which such contract relates to the federal government upon the occurrence of such conditions, or upon such defaults on obligations for which any of the annual contributions provided in such contract are pledged, as may be prescribed in such contract, and at a price (which may include the assumption by the federal government of the payment, when due, of the principal of and interest on outstanding obligations of the housing authority issued for purposes of the project involved) determined as prescribed therein and upon such other terms and conditions as are therein provided. Any such housing authority is hereby authorized to enter into such supplementary contracts, and to execute such conveyances, as may be necessary to carry out the provisions hereof. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law, any contracts or supplementary contracts or conveyances made or executed pursuant to the provisions of this section shall not be or constitute a mortgage within the meaning or for the purposes of any of the laws of this Commonwealth.

1942, p. 326; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4o).

§ 36-36. Powers of county and regional housing authorities

County housing authorities and regional housing authorities are specifically empowered and authorized to borrow money, accept grants and exercise their other powers to provide housing for farmers of low income. In connection with such projects, any such housing authority may enter into such leases or purchase agreements, accept such conveyances and rent or sell dwellings forming part of such projects to or for farmers of low income, as such housing authority deems necessary in order to assure the achievement of the objectives of this Housing Authorities Law. Such leases, agreements or conveyances may include such covenants as such housing authority deems appropriate regarding such dwellings and the tracts of land described in any such instrument, which covenants shall be deemed to run with the land where such housing authority deems it necessary and the parties to such instruments so stipulate. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed as limiting any other powers conferred by this Housing Authorities Law.

1942, p. 322; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4h).

§ 36-37. Same subject; tenant selection limitations; homestead exemption

A regional or county housing authority shall have power to rent, sell, or make loans to finance the cost of dwellings on farms or in other areas outside of cities and to make or accept such conveyances or leases as it deems necessary to carry out the rural housing purposes of this chapter. With respect to such housing, county and regional housing authorities shall not be subject to the tenant selection limitations provided in clause (c) of § 36-22.

When an authority provides a dwelling on a farm hereunder, the owner of the farm living in the dwelling under a lease or purchase agreement shall be entitled to receive the same homestead exemption as if he had title to the dwelling.

1946, p. 277; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(4p).

§ 36-38. Housing applications by farmers

The owner of any farm operated, or worked upon, by farmers of low income in need of safe and sanitary housing may file an application with a county housing authority or a regional housing authority requesting that it provide for a safe and sanitary dwelling or dwellings for occupancy by such farmers of low income. Such applications shall be received and examined by such housing authorities in connection with the formulation of projects or programs to provide housing for farmers of low income.

1942, p. 323; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4i).

§ 36-39. Repealed

Repealed by Acts 2006, c. 784, cl. 2.

§ 36-40. Creation of regional housing authority

If the board of supervisors of each of two or more contiguous counties by resolution declares that there is a need for one housing authority to be created for all of such counties to exercise in such counties powers and other functions prescribed for a regional housing authority, a political subdivision of the Commonwealth to be known as a regional housing authority shall thereupon exist for all of such counties and exercise its public and corporate powers and other functions in such counties; and thereupon each housing authority created for each of such counties shall cease to exist except for the purpose of winding up its affairs and executing a deed to the regional housing authority as hereinafter provided; provided that the board of supervisors of a county shall not adopt a resolution as aforesaid if there is a county housing authority created for such county which has any obligations outstanding unless first, all obligees of such county housing authority and parties to the contracts, bonds, notes, and other obligations of such county housing authority consent in writing to the substitution of such regional housing authority in lieu of such county housing authority on all such contracts, bonds, notes, or other obligations; and second, the commissioners of such county housing authority adopt a resolution consenting to the transfer of all the rights, contracts, obligations, and property, real and personal, of such county housing authority to such regional housing authority as hereinafter provided; and provided further that when the above two conditions are complied with and such regional housing authority is created and authorized to exercise its powers and other functions, all rights, contracts, agreements, obligations, and property of such county housing authority shall be in the name of and vest in such regional housing authority, and all obligations of such county housing authority shall be the obligations of such regional housing authority and all rights and remedies of any person against such county housing authority may be asserted, enforced, and prosecuted against such regional housing authority to the same extent as they might have been asserted, enforced, and prosecuted against such county housing authority.

When any real property of a county housing authority vests in a regional housing authority as provided above, the county housing authority shall execute a deed of such property to the regional housing authority which thereupon shall file such deed in the office provided for the filing of deeds, provided that nothing contained in this sentence shall affect the vesting of property in the regional housing authority as provided above.

The board of supervisors of each of two or more contiguous counties shall by resolution declare that there is a need for one regional housing authority to be created for all of such counties to exercise in such counties powers and other functions prescribed for a regional housing authority, if such board of supervisors finds (and only if it finds) (a) that insanitary or unsafe inhabited dwelling accommodations exist in such county or there is a shortage of safe or sanitary dwelling accommodations in such county available to persons of low income at rentals they can afford and (b) that a regional housing authority would be a more efficient or economical administrative unit than the housing authority of such county to carry out the purposes of this Housing Authorities Law in such county.

In any suit, action, or proceeding involving the validity or enforcement of or relating to any contract of the regional housing authority, the regional housing authority shall be conclusively deemed to have become created as a public body corporate and politic and to have become established and authorized to transact business and exercise its powers hereunder upon proof of the adoption of a resolution by the board of supervisors of each of the counties creating the regional housing authority declaring the need for the regional housing authority. Each such resolution shall be deemed sufficient if it declares that there is need for the regional housing authority and finds in substantially the foregoing terms (no further detail being necessary) that the conditions enumerated above in (a) and (b) exist. A copy of such resolution of the board of supervisors of a county, duly certified by the clerk of such county, shall be admissible in evidence in any suit, action, or proceeding.

The area of operation of a regional housing authority shall include (except as otherwise provided elsewhere in this chapter) all of the counties for which such regional housing authority is created and established.

1942, p. 317; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4a).

§ 36-41. Increasing area of operation of regional housing authority

The area of operation of a regional housing authority shall be increased from time to time to include one or more additional contiguous counties not already within a regional housing authority if the board of supervisors of each of the counties then included in the area of operation of such regional housing authority, the commissioners of the regional housing authority and the board of supervisors of each such additional county or counties each adopt a resolution declaring that there is a need for the inclusion of such additional county or counties in the area of operation of such regional housing authority. Upon the adoption of such resolutions, the county housing authority created for each such additional county shall cease to exist except for the purpose of winding up its affairs and executing a deed to the regional housing authority as hereinafter provided; provided, however, that such resolutions shall not be adopted if there is a county housing authority created for any such additional county which has any obligations outstanding unless first, all obligees of any such county housing authority and parties to the contracts, bonds, notes, and other obligations of any such county housing authority consent in writing to the substitution of such regional housing authority in lieu of such county housing authority on all such contracts, bonds, notes, or other obligations; and second, the commissioners of such county housing authority adopt a resolution consenting to the transfer of all the rights, contracts, obligations, and property, real and personal, of such county housing authority to such regional housing authority as hereinafter provided; and provided further that when the above two conditions are complied with and the area of operation of such regional housing authority is increased to include such additional county, as hereinabove provided, all rights, contracts, agreements, obligations, and property of such county housing authority shall be in the name of and vest in such regional housing authority, all obligations of such county housing authority shall be the obligations of such regional housing authority and all rights and remedies of any person against such county housing authority may be asserted, enforced, and prosecuted against such regional housing authority to the same extent as they might have been asserted, enforced, and prosecuted against such county housing authority.

When any real property of a county housing authority vests in a regional housing authority as provided above, the county housing authority shall execute a deed of such property to the regional housing authority which thereupon shall file such deed in the office provided for the filing of deeds, provided that nothing contained in this sentence shall affect the vesting of property in the regional housing authority as provided above.

The board of supervisors of each of the counties in the regional housing authority, the commissioners of the regional housing authority and the board of supervisors of each such additional county or counties shall by resolution declare that there is need for the inclusion of such county or counties in the area of operation of the regional housing authority, if (a) the board of supervisors of each such additional county or counties finds that insanitary or unsafe inhabited dwelling accommodations exist in such county or there is a shortage of safe or sanitary dwelling accommodations in such county available to persons of low income at rentals they can afford and (b) the board of supervisors of each of the counties then included in the area of operation of the regional housing authority, the commissioners of the regional housing authority and the board of supervisors of each such additional county or counties find that the regional housing authority would be a more efficient or economical administrative unit to carry out the purposes of this Housing Authorities Law if the area of operation of the regional housing authority is increased to include such additional county or counties.

1942, p. 318; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4b).

§ 36-42. Decreasing area of operation of regional housing authority

The area of operation of a regional housing authority shall be decreased from time to time to exclude one or more counties from such area if the board of supervisors of each of the counties in such area and the commissioners of the regional housing authority each adopt a resolution declaring that there is a need for excluding such county or counties from such area; provided that no action may be taken pursuant to this section if the regional housing authority has outstanding any bonds, notes or other evidences of indebtedness, unless first, all holders of such evidences of indebtedness consent in writing to such action; and provided further that if such action decreases the area of operation of the regional housing authority to only one county, such authority shall thereupon constitute and become a housing authority for such county, in the same manner as though such authority were created by and authorized to transact business and exercise its powers pursuant to § 36-4, and the commissioners of such authority shall be thereupon appointed as provided for the appointment of commissioners of a housing authority created for a county.

The board of supervisors of each of the counties in the area of operation of the regional housing authority and the commissioners of the regional housing authority shall adopt a resolution declaring that there is a need for excluding a county or counties from such area if: (a) each such board of supervisors of the counties to remain in the area of operation of the regional housing authority and the commissioners of the regional housing authority find that (because of facts arising or determined subsequent to the time when such area first included the county or counties to be excluded) the regional housing authority would be a more efficient or economical administrative unit to carry out the purposes of this Housing Authorities Law if such county or counties were excluded from such area, and (b) the board of supervisors of each such county or counties to be excluded and the commissioners of the regional housing authority each also find that (because of the aforesaid changed facts) the purposes of this Housing Authorities Law could be carried out more efficiently or economically in such county or counties if the area of operation of the regional housing authority did not include such county or counties.

Any property held by a regional housing authority within a county or counties excluded from the area of operation of such authority, as herein provided, shall (as soon as practicable after the exclusion of the county or counties respectively) be disposed of by such authority in the public interest.

1942, p. 319; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4c).

§ 36-43. Housing authority for county excluded from regional authority

At any time after a county or counties is excluded from the area of operation of a regional housing authority as provided above, the board of supervisors of any such county may adopt a resolution declaring that there is a need for a housing authority in the county, if the board shall find such need according to the provisions of § 36-4. Thereupon a political subdivision of the Commonwealth to be known as the housing authority of the county shall exist for such county and may transact business and exercise its powers in the same manner as though created by § 36-4. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as preventing such county from thereafter being included within the area of operation of a regional housing authority as provided in § 36-40 or 36-41.

1942, p. 320; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4d).

§ 36-44. Public hearing to create regional authority or change its area of operation, and findings

The board of supervisors of a county shall not adopt any resolution authorized by §§ 36-40, 36-41 or 36-42 unless a public hearing has first been held. The clerk of such county shall give notice of the time, place, and purpose of the public hearing at least ten days prior to the day on which the hearing is to be held, in a newspaper published in such county, or if there is no newspaper published in such county, then in a newspaper published in the Commonwealth and having a general circulation in such county. Upon the date fixed for such public hearing an opportunity to be heard shall be granted to all residents of such county and to all other interested persons.

In determining whether dwelling accommodations are unsafe or insanitary the board of supervisors of a county shall take into consideration the safety and sanitation of dwellings, the light and air space available to the inhabitants of such dwellings, the degree of overcrowding, the size and arrangement of the rooms and the extent to which conditions exist in such dwellings which endanger life or property by fire or other causes.

In connection with the issuance of bonds or the incurring of other obligations, a regional housing authority may covenant as to limitations on its right to adopt resolutions relating to the increase or decrease of its area of operation.

1942, p. 320; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4e).

§ 36-45. Commissioners of regional housing authority

The board of supervisors of each county included in a regional housing authority shall appoint one person as a commissioner of such authority, and each such commissioner to be first appointed by the board of supervisors of a county may be appointed at or after the time of the adoption of the resolution declaring the need for such regional housing authority or declaring the need for the inclusion of such county in the area of operation of such regional housing authority. When the area of operation of a regional housing authority is increased to include an additional county or counties as provided above, the board of supervisors of each such county shall thereupon appoint one additional person as a commissioner of the regional housing authority. The board of supervisors of each county shall appoint the successor of the commissioner appointed by it. A certificate of the appointment of any such commissioner shall be filed with the clerk of the county, and such certificate shall be conclusive evidence of the due and proper appointment of such commissioner. If any county is excluded from the area of operation of a regional housing authority, the office of the commissioner of such regional housing authority appointed by the board of supervisors of such county shall be thereupon abolished.

If a regional housing authority consists of only two counties, the boards of supervisors may agree to appoint two members each as commissioners of such authority. However, if the regional housing authority is changed to consist of three or more counties, the counties shall thereafter appoint one member each as a commissioner.

If the area of operation of a regional housing authority consists at any time of an even number of counties, the commissioners of the regional housing authority appointed by the boards of supervisors of such counties shall appoint one additional commissioner whose term of office shall be as herein provided for a commissioner of a regional housing authority except that such term shall end at any earlier time that the area of operation of the regional housing authority shall be changed to consist of an odd number of counties. The commissioners of such authority appointed by the boards of supervisors of such counties shall likewise appoint each person to succeed such additional commissioner; provided that the term of office of such person begins during the terms of office of the commissioners appointing him. A certificate of the appointment of any such additional commissioner of such regional housing authority shall be filed with the other records of the regional housing authority and shall be conclusive evidence of the due and proper appointment of such additional commissioner.

When a regional housing authority is required by federal housing law to appoint a commissioner satisfying the criteria specified in Section 2 (b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, at least one but not more than two such commissioners shall be appointed by the commissioners of the regional housing authority. The executive director of the regional housing authority shall prepare a slate of eligible candidates for appointment for the commissioners' consideration. However, the appointing commissioners shall not be required to make appointments from such slate. The term of such appointed commissioner shall be as herein provided for a commissioner of a regional housing authority. A certificate of the appointment of any such commissioner of a regional housing authority shall be filed with the other records of the regional housing authority and shall be conclusive evidence of the due and proper appointment of such commissioner.

The commissioners of a regional housing authority shall be appointed for terms of four years except that all vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired terms. Each commissioner shall hold office until his successor has been appointed and has qualified, except as otherwise provided herein.

The commissioners shall constitute the regional housing authority, and the powers of such authority shall be vested in such commissioners in office from time to time.

The commissioners of a regional housing authority shall elect a chairman from among the commissioners and shall have power to select or employ such other officers and employees as the regional housing authority may require. A majority of the commissioners of a regional housing authority shall constitute a quorum of such authority for the purpose of conducting its business and exercising its powers and for all other purposes.

For inefficiency or neglect of duty or misconduct in office, a commissioner of a regional housing authority may be removed by the board of supervisors appointing him, or in the case of the commissioner appointed by the commissioners of the regional housing authority, by such commissioners; provided that such commissioner shall be removed only after he shall have been given a copy of the charges against him at least 10 days prior to the hearing thereon and had an opportunity to be heard in person or by counsel. In the event of the removal of a commissioner by the board of supervisors appointing him, a record of the proceedings, together with the charges and findings thereon, shall be filed in the office of the clerk of the county; and in the case of the removal of the commissioner appointed by the commissioners of the regional housing authority, such record shall be filed with the other records of the regional housing authority.

1942, p. 321; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4f); 2003, cc. 417, 535, 559, 809.

§ 36-46. Powers of regional housing authority

Except as otherwise provided herein, a regional housing authority and the commissioners thereof shall, within the area of operation of such regional housing authority, have the same functions, rights, powers, duties, privileges, immunities and limitations provided for housing authorities created for cities or counties and the commissioners of such housing authorities, and all the provisions of law applicable to housing authorities created for cities or counties and the commissioners of such authorities shall be applicable to regional housing authorities and the commissioners thereof; provided, that for such purposes, the term "mayor" or "governing body" as used in this Housing Authorities Law shall be construed as meaning "board of supervisors," unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context; and provided further that a regional housing authority, with respect to housing projects for farmers of low income, shall not be subject to the limitations provided in clause (c) of § 36-22. A regional housing authority shall have power to select any appropriate corporate name.

1942, p. 322; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4g).

§ 36-47. Consolidated housing authority

If the governing body of each of two or more municipalities (whether or not contiguous) by resolution declares that there is a need for one housing authority to be created for all of the municipalities to exercise in the municipalities the powers and other functions prescribed for a consolidated housing authority, a political subdivision of the Commonwealth to be known as a consolidated housing authority (with a corporate name it selects) shall thereupon exist for all of the municipalities and exercise its public and corporate powers and other functions within its area of operation (as herein defined), including the power to undertake projects therein. Thereupon, any housing authority created for each of the municipalities shall cease to exist except for the purpose of winding up its affairs and executing a deed of its real property to the consolidated housing authority. The creation of a consolidated housing authority and the finding of need therefor shall be subject to the same provisions and limitations of this chapter as are applicable to the creation of a regional housing authority. The provisions of this chapter applicable to regional housing authorities and the commissioners thereof shall be applicable to consolidated housing authorities and the commissioners thereof. The area of operation of a consolidated housing authority shall include all of the territory within the boundaries of each municipality joining in the creation of the authority, except that the area of operation may be changed to include or exclude any municipality or municipalities in the same manner and under the same provisions as provided in this chapter for changing the area of operation of a regional housing authority by including or excluding a county or counties. For all such purposes, the term "board of supervisors" shall be construed as meaning "governing body." The term "county" shall be construed as meaning "municipality" and the terms "county housing authority" and "regional housing authority" shall be construed as meaning "housing authority of the city" and "consolidated housing authority," respectively, unless a different meaning clearly appears from the context.

The governing body of a municipality for which a housing authority has not been created shall not adopt the above resolution unless it first declares that there is a need for a consolidated housing authority to function in the municipality, which declaration shall be made in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as the declaration of the governing body of a city required by § 36-4 for the purpose of authorizing a housing authority created for a city to transact business and exercise its powers.

Except as otherwise provided herein, a consolidated housing authority and the commissioners thereof shall, within the area of operation of the consolidated housing authority, have the same functions, rights, powers, duties, privileges, immunities and limitations as those provided for housing authorities created for cities, counties, or groups of counties and the commissioners of such housing authorities, in the same manner as though all the provisions of law applicable to housing authorities created for cities, counties, or groups of counties were applicable to consolidated housing authorities.

The term "municipality" as used in this chapter shall mean any county, city or town in the Commonwealth.

The term "residential buildings" as used in this chapter shall include, but not be limited to, any multi-family residential property in which no less than twenty percent of the units will be occupied by persons of low income and the remainder therein by persons of moderate income, both as determined by the housing authority using the criteria set forth in the definition of "persons and families of low and moderate income" in § 36-55.26, and any nursing care facility, or any nursing home as defined in § 32.1-123.

1942, p. 323; Michie Code 1942, § 3145(4k); 1958, c. 82; 1982, c. 330; 1983, c. 347; 1984, c. 350; 1987, c. 433; 1988, c. 217.

§ 36-47.1. Compensation of commissioners

The commissioners of any housing authority created for or operating in two or more cities may, in addition to being reimbursed for their expenses as otherwise provided, be paid salaries not to exceed $150 per month for each such commissioner.

1956, c. 327; 1962, c. 64; 1974, c. 610.

§ 36-47.2. Consolidation of two or more housing authorities within same city

If the governing body of any city having two or more separate housing authorities created pursuant to this title shall, by resolution, declare it necessary and in the public interest to consolidate such authorities, or abolish the same and create a single or consolidated housing authority, then such new housing authority shall thereupon be created (with such corporate name as may be selected), and it shall exercise its public and corporate powers, and such other functions within such city pursuant to the provisions of this chapter, including the power to undertake projects applicable to housing authorities created for cities or counties. The governing body of any such city shall have the authority to terminate any one or more of such authorities and continue any other single authority, as a consolidated authority in which case any terminated authority shall cease to exist except for the purpose of winding up its affairs and executing the necessary documents for the transfer of its respective assets and liabilities, if any, to the new consolidated or surviving authority. If a new or consolidated authority is created, its membership shall be composed of seven commissioners, five of whom shall be the commissioners presently serving under existing law under any authority created within such city, and two of whom shall be commissioners selected from the other authority or the authority that is terminated. Each such commissioner shall continue to serve for the term for which he was appointed or until his successor has been appointed and has qualified.

1972, c. 124.

§ 36-48. Creation of Redevelopment Areas

A redevelopment area as defined in § 36-3 may be created by an authority as provided in this chapter and a redevelopment plan may be adopted to address conditions in such redevelopment area. The redevelopment plan shall (i) outline specific boundaries for the redevelopment area and designate for acquisition such properties as are necessary or appropriate for the clearance, replanning, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the redevelopment area, (ii) be adopted in accordance with § 36-49, and (iii) satisfy the requirements as set forth in § 36-51.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8a); 1975, c. 455; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-48.1. Creation of Conservation Areas

A conservation area as defined in § 36-3 may be created by an authority as provided in this chapter and a conservation plan may be adopted to provide for the conservation, rehabilitation, and revitalization of such conservation area. The conservation plan shall (i) outline specific boundaries for the conservation area, (ii) be adopted in accordance with § 36-49.1, and (iii) satisfy the requirements as set forth in § 36-51.1.

1964, c. 378; 1978, c. 360; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49. Adoption of Redevelopment Plans

A. An authority may adopt a redevelopment plan for a designated redevelopment area to address blighted areas and in particular is specifically empowered to carry out any work or undertaking in the redevelopment area, including any or all of the following:

1. Acquire blighted areas, which are hereby defined in § 36-3;

2. Acquire other real property for the purpose of removing, preventing, or reducing blight;

3. Acquire real property where the condition of the title, the diverse ownership of the real property to be assembled, the street or lot layouts, or other conditions prevent a proper development of the property and where the acquisition of the area by the authority is necessary to carry out a redevelopment plan;

4. Permit the preservation, repair, or restoration of buildings of historic interest; and to clear any areas acquired and install, construct, or reconstruct streets, utilities, and site improvements essential to the preparation of sites for uses in accordance with the redevelopment plan;

5. Provide for the conservation of portions of the project area and the rehabilitation to project standards as stated in the redevelopment plan of buildings within the project area, where such rehabilitation is deemed by the authority to be feasible and consistent with project objectives;

6. Make land so acquired available to nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies (including sale, leasing, or retention by the authority itself) in accordance with the redevelopment plan;

7. Assist the reconstruction of project areas by making loans or grants of funds received from any public or private source, for the purpose of facilitating the construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation or sale of housing or other improvements constructed or to be constructed on land situated within the boundaries of a redevelopment project;

8. Acquire, construct or rehabilitate residential housing developments for occupancy by persons of low, moderate and middle income to be owned, operated, managed, leased, conveyed, mortgaged, encumbered or assigned by an authority. Income limits for such persons shall be determined for each redevelopment project by an authority by resolution adopted by a majority of its appointed commissioners, shall be adjusted for household size and may be revised as an authority deems appropriate. In connection with a residential housing development, an authority shall have all rights, powers and privileges granted by subdivision 4 of § 36-19;

9. Accomplish any combination of the foregoing to carry out a redevelopment plan; and

10. Exercise such other powers as are authorized by law.

B. No redevelopment plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and the redevelopment plan has been approved by the local governing body.

1946, p. 278; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8b); 1962, c. 336; 1972, cc. 466, 782; 1980, c. 133; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49.1. Adoption of Conservation Plans

A. An authority may adopt a conservation plan for a designated conservation area to address blight and blighting conditions, to conserve such area, prevent further deterioration and prevent such area from becoming blighted, and in particular is specifically empowered to carry out any work or undertaking in the conservation area, including any or all of the following:

1. Acquire property within such areas which is blighted, designated for public use in the conservation plan, or the use or condition of which is inconsistent with the purposes of the conservation plan or the provisions of the zoning ordinance or code of the locality;

2. Rehabilitate or clear property so acquired;

3. Provide for the installation, construction or reconstruction of streets, utilities, parks, parking facilities, playgrounds, public buildings and other site improvements essential to the conservation or rehabilitation planned;

4. Make land or improvements so acquired available to nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies (by sale, lease or retention of ownership by the authority itself);

5. Assist the reconstruction of project areas by making loans or grants of funds received from any public or private source, for the purpose of facilitating the construction, reconstruction, rehabilitation or sale of housing or other improvements constructed or to be constructed on land situated within the boundaries of a conservation project;

6. Encourage and assist property owners or occupants within the conservation area to improve their respective holdings, by suggesting improved standards for design, construction, maintenance and use of such properties and offering encouragement or assistance in other ways including the power to lend money and make grants to owners or occupants, directed toward prevention and elimination of blight;

7. Acquire, construct or rehabilitate residential housing developments for occupancy by persons of low, moderate and middle income to be owned, operated, managed, leased, conveyed, mortgaged, encumbered or assigned by an authority. Income limits for such persons shall be determined for each conservation project by an authority by resolution adopted by a majority of its appointed commissioners, shall be adjusted for household size and may be revised as an authority deems appropriate. In connection with a residential housing development, an authority shall have all rights, power and privileges granted by subdivision 4 of § 36-19; and

8. Exercise such other powers as are authorized by law.

B. No conservation plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and the conservation plan has been approved by the local governing body.

1964, c. 378; 1966, cc. 81, 418; 1968, c. 312; 1970, cc. 222, 491, 555, 596; 1972, c. 174; 1973, c. 29; 1974, c. 137; 1975, c. 532; 1976, c. 510; 1980, c. 133; 1988, cc. 572, 591; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-49.1:1. Spot blight abatement authorized; procedure

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, an authority, or any locality, shall have the power to acquire or repair any blighted property, as defined in § 36-3, whether inside or outside of a conservation or redevelopment area, by purchase or through the exercise of the power of eminent domain provided in Chapter 2 (§ 25.1-200 et seq.) of Title 25.1, and, further, shall have the power to hold, clear, repair, manage or dispose of such property for purposes consistent with this chapter. In addition, the authority and locality shall have the power to recover the costs of any repair or disposal of such property from the owner or owners of record, determined in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27. This power shall be exercised only in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section.

B. The chief executive or designee of the locality or authority shall make a preliminary determination that a property is blighted in accordance with this chapter. It shall send notice to the owner or owners of record determined in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27, specifying the reasons why the property is blighted. The owner or owners of record shall have 30 days from the date the notice is sent in which to respond in writing with a spot blight abatement plan to address the blight within a reasonable time.

C. If the owner or owners of record fail to respond within the 30-day period with a written spot blight abatement plan that is acceptable to the chief executive of the agency, authority or locality, the agency, authority or locality may request the locality to declare the property as blighted, which declaration shall be by ordinance adopted by the governing body.

D. No spot blight abatement plan shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record and an ordinance has been adopted by the local governing body. Written notice to the property owner shall be sent by regular mail to the last address listed for the owner on the locality's assessment records for the property, together with a copy of such spot blight abatement plan prepared by the agency, authority, or locality. If the repair or other disposition of the property is approved, the authority, agency, or locality may carry out the approved plan to repair or acquire and dispose of the property in accordance with the approved plan, the provisions of this section, and the applicable law.

E. If the ordinance is adopted by the governing body of the locality, the locality shall have a lien on all property so repaired or acquired under an approved spot blight abatement plan to recover the cost of (i) improvements made by such locality to bring the blighted property into compliance with applicable building codes and (ii) disposal, if any. The lien on such property shall bear interest at the legal rate of interest established in § 6.2-301, beginning on the date the repairs are completed through the date on which the lien is paid. The lien authorized by this subsection may be recorded as a lien among the land records of the circuit court, which lien shall be treated in all respects as a tax lien and enforceable in the same manner as provided in Articles 3 (§ 58.1-3940 et seq.) and 4 (§ 58.1-3965 et seq.) of Chapter 39 of Title 58.1. The governing body may recover its costs of repair from the owner or owners of record of the property when the repairs were made at such time as the property is sold or disposed of by such owner or owners. If the property is acquired by the governing body through eminent domain, the cost of repair may be recovered when the governing body sells or disposes of the property. In either case, the costs of repair shall be recovered from the proceeds of any such sale.

F. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, unless otherwise provided for in Title 36, if the blighted property is occupied for personal residential purposes, the governing body, in approving the spot blight abatement plan, shall not acquire by eminent domain such property if it would result in a displacement of the person or persons living in the premises. The provisions of this subsection shall not apply to acquisitions, under an approved spot blight abatement plan, by any locality of property which has been condemned for human habitation for more than one year. In addition, such locality exercising the powers of eminent domain in accordance with Title 25.1, may provide for temporary relocation of any person living in the blighted property provided the relocation is within the financial means of such person.

G. In lieu of the acquisition of blighted property by the exercise of eminent domain, and in lieu of the exercise of other powers granted in subsections A through H, any locality may, by ordinance, declare any blighted property as defined in § 36-3 to constitute a nuisance, and thereupon abate the nuisance pursuant to § 15.2-900 or § 15.2-1115. Such ordinance shall be adopted only after written notice by certified mail to the owner or owners at the last known address of such owner as shown on the current real estate tax assessment books or current real estate tax assessment records. If the owner does not abate or remove the nuisance and the locality abates or removes the nuisance at its expense, the costs of the removal or abatement of the nuisance shall be a lien on the property and such lien shall bear interest at the legal rate of interest established in § 6.2-301, beginning on the date the removal or abatement is completed through the date on which the lien is paid.

H. The provisions of this section shall be cumulative and shall be in addition to any remedies for spot blight abatement that may be authorized by law.

1994, 2nd Sp. Sess., cc. 5, 10; 1995, cc. 702, 827; 1996, c. 847; 1997, c. 572; 1998, cc. 690, 898; 1999, cc. 39, 410, 418; 2001, c. 482; 2003, c. 940; 2006, c. 784; 2007, c. 763; 2009, cc. 181, 551.

§ 36-49.2. Power to purchase or lease land for certain other redevelopment projects

In addition to the other powers to acquire real property by purchase or lease, an authority is specifically empowered to purchase or lease real property for immediate or future use, without the exercise of the power of eminent domain, for improvement and development for sale, lease, or sublease as industrial sites, scientific research laboratory sites, educational institution sites or sites for housing persons displaced from other lands of the authority.

1964, Ex. Sess., c. 16.

§ 36-50. Extension of general powers for actions taken pursuant to a redevelopment plan

In undertaking actions pursuant to a redevelopment plan, an authority shall have all the rights, powers, privileges, and immunities provided in this chapter. However, nothing contained in §§ 36-21 and 36-22 shall be construed as limiting the power of an authority, in the event of a default (including failure of compliance with a redevelopment plan) by a purchaser or lessee of land in a redevelopment plan, to acquire property and operate it free from the restrictions contained in §§ 36-21 and 36-22; and provided further, that any property which an authority leases to nongovernmental persons or entities for redevelopment under a redevelopment plan shall have the same tax status as if such leased property were owned by such nongovernmental persons or entities.

1946, p. 279; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8c); 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-50.1. Extension of general powers for actions taken pursuant to a conservation plan

In implementing a conservation plan, an authority shall have all the rights, powers, privileges, and immunities provided in this chapter. However, the power of eminent domain shall not be exercised in connection with a conservation project except to acquire (i) properties designated for use by the public or a public agency in the conservation plan, (ii) properties which are determined by the authority to be in violation of the standards for design, construction, maintenance and use of property set out in the conservation plan for the project in which such property is situate, and which have not been made to comply with such standards within one year after a written request to rehabilitate to project standards is given to the owner by the authority, (iii) properties as to which voluntary conveyance cannot be effected in the course of the execution of the conservation plan because of the inability of the owners to convey marketable title, or (iv) properties which are infeasible of rehabilitation, blighted properties or properties which inhibit or prevent accomplishment of the purposes of the conservation plan.

1964, c. 378; 1972, c. 733; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-51. Redevelopment plans

A. An authority shall not implement any redevelopment plan under this law until the governing body of the locality has approved the redevelopment plan, which provides an outline for the development or redevelopment of the redevelopment area and is sufficiently complete to indicate (i) its relationship to definite local objectives as to appropriate land uses and improved traffic, public transportation, public utilities, recreational and community facilities and other public improvements; (ii) proposed land uses and building requirements in the redevelopment area; (iii) the land in the redevelopment area that the authority does not intend to acquire; (iv) the land in the redevelopment area that will be made available after acquisition to nongovernmental persons or entities for redevelopment and that land which will be made available after acquisition to public enterprise for redevelopment; (v) anticipated funding sources that may be sufficient to acquire all property designated for acquisition within five years of the locality's approval; and (vi) the method for the temporary relocation of persons living in the redevelopment areas; and also the method for providing (unless already available) decent, safe and sanitary dwellings in the locality substantially equal in number to the number of substandard dwellings to be cleared from the redevelopment area, at rents within the financial reach of the income groups displaced from such substandard dwellings. Any locality is hereby authorized to approve redevelopment plans through their governing body or agency designated for that purpose.

B. No sooner than thirty months or later than thirty-six months following the date of the locality's approval of the redevelopment plan (hereinafter called the "approval date"), the locality shall review and determine by resolution whether to reaffirm the redevelopment plan. Where the locality fails to reaffirm the redevelopment plan, any real property within the redevelopment area that has not been acquired by the authority, or for which a petition in condemnation has not been filed by the authority, prior to the date of adoption of such resolution by the locality (hereinafter called the "termination date") shall no longer be eligible for acquisition by the authority unless the authority and the property owner mutually agree to the acquisition, in which case the authority shall be specifically empowered to acquire the property. For purposes of this section, a mediation request submitted by either the authority or the property owner, in accordance with § 36-27, prior to the termination date shall preserve the authority's right to file a petition in condemnation relating to such real property for a period of six months after the termination date.

C. Where the locality reaffirms the redevelopment plan, the authority shall continue to be authorized to acquire real property within the redevelopment area by purchase, or through the institution of eminent domain proceedings in accordance with § 36-27, until the fifth anniversary of the approval date. Any real property within the redevelopment area that has not been acquired by the authority, or for which a petition in condemnation has not been filed by the authority, prior to the fifth anniversary of the approval date, shall no longer be eligible for acquisition by the authority unless the authority and the property owner mutually agree to the acquisition, in which case the authority shall be specifically empowered to acquire the property. For purposes of this section, a mediation request submitted by either the authority or the property owner, in accordance with § 36-27, prior to the fifth anniversary of the approval date, shall preserve the authority's right to file a petition in condemnation relating to the real property for a period of six months after the fifth anniversary of the approval date.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a locality shall not be precluded from adopting a new redevelopment plan, in accordance with this section, which designates a redevelopment area that includes real property that was previously included within a redevelopment area under a previously adopted redevelopment plan.

E. If the authority decides against acquiring real property designated for acquisition under an approved redevelopment plan after having made a written purchase offer to the owner of the property, it shall, upon the written request of the property owner given no later than one year after the date of written notice from the authority to the property owner of its decision not to acquire his property, reimburse the owner of the property his reasonable expenses incurred in connection with the proposed acquisition of his property. Reasonable expenses shall include, but are not limited to, reasonable fees of attorneys and appraisers or other experts necessary to establish the value of the property to be appraised.

1946, p. 279; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8d); 2001, c. 729; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-51.1. Requirements for "conservation plan" generally

An authority shall not implement any conservation plan under this law until the governing body of the locality has approved a conservation plan, which provides an outline for the conservation, development or redevelopment of the conservation area, affording maximum opportunity for conservation, rehabilitation or redevelopment by nongovernmental persons or entities consistent with the ends to be achieved, and is sufficiently complete to indicate (i) its relationship to definite local objectives as to appropriate land uses and improved traffic, public transportation, public utilities, recreational and community facilities and other public improvements; (ii) any conditions and limitations on acquisition of property; (iii) proposed land uses for the properties to be acquired; (iv) any conditions and limitations, including time limitation, under which property shall be made available for rehabilitation or redevelopment by public enterprise or nongovernmental persons or entities (by sale, lease or retention by the authority itself); (v) standards of design, construction, maintenance, and use of property and other measures to be taken or recommended toward elimination and prevention of blight and deterioration; (vi) the method for the temporary relocation of any persons living in the conservation area who will be displaced in accordance with the plan, as well as the method of providing (unless already available) decent, safe and sanitary dwellings in such city or county substantially equal in number to the number of substandard dwellings to be cleared from the conservation area, at rents within the financial reach of the income groups displaced from such substandard dwellings; (vii) any limitation on the length of time within which project activities can be undertaken; (viii) a procedure for administrative review of the determination at staff level and prior to a final determination by the authority under § 36-50.1 that an individual property is in violation of project standards and, therefore, subject to condemnation; and (ix) the procedure by which such conservation plan may be amended.

1964, c. 378; 1966, c. 81; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52. Cooperation by localities

Any local government shall have the same rights and powers to cooperate with and assist authorities with respect to implementation of conservation or redevelopment plans that such locality has pursuant to §§ 36-6 and 36-7 and any other provision of the Housing Authorities Law.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8e); 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52.1. Authority for localities to create conservation or redevelopment areas

A locality has no authority to create conservation or redevelopment areas, except through a redevelopment and housing authority and only in accordance with this chapter.

1964, c. 378; 1966, c. 81; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-52.2. Acquisition of property prior to adoption of development or conservation plan in certain cities

Whenever the governing body of any city of more than 300,000 population has approved an area for survey and planning preliminary to the adoption of a redevelopment or conservation plan, and the area includes property within such county, city or town duly designated by said governing body for educational, medical center or municipal uses, an authority may acquire such property by deed or by eminent domain.

1968, c. 710.

§ 36-52.3. Adoption and designation of "rehabilitation area."

A. Whenever it appears to the governing body of any locality that a portion of such locality adjacent to an area embraced in a "conservation plan," approved by such body pursuant to § 36-49.1, is in the early stages of deterioration and determines that if not rehabilitated such area is likely to continue to deteriorate and become eligible for designation as a conservation area, such governing body may create a rehabilitation area.

B. No rehabilitation area shall be effective until notice has been sent to the property owner or owners of record in such area in accordance with subsection B of § 36-27 and an ordinance approving such rehabilitation area has been adopted by the local governing body. The ordinance shall outline specific boundaries for the rehabilitation area, establish that the rehabilitation area is adjacent to a conservation area and include such properties as are in need of rehabilitation in such area.

C. An authority is specifically empowered to encourage and assist property owners or occupants within the rehabilitation area so designated to improve their respective holdings, by suggesting improved standards for design, construction, maintenance, renovation and use of such properties and offering encouragement or assistance in other ways including the power to lend money and make grants to said owners or occupants, directed toward prevention and elimination of deteriorating conditions within such area.

D. In executing the powers provided in subsection C, an authority shall have all of the rights, powers and immunities granted in connection with conservation or redevelopment plans pursuant to this chapter except the power to acquire property through the exercise of the power of eminent domain.

1978, c. 360; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-53. Making property available for conservation or redevelopment

An authority may make land in a conservation or redevelopment area available for purchase or use by nongovernmental persons or entities or public agencies in accordance with the conservation or redevelopment plan. Such land may be made available at its fair value, which represents the value at which the authority determines such land should be made available in order that it may be developed, conserved or redeveloped for the purposes specified in such plan.

To assure that land acquired in a conservation or redevelopment area is used in accordance with the conservation or redevelopment plan, an authority, upon the sale or lease of such land, shall obligate purchasers or lessees: (1) to use the land for the purpose designated in the conservation or redevelopment plan; (2) to begin the building of their improvements within a period of time which the authority fixes as reasonable; and (3) to comply with such other conditions as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter. Any such obligations by the purchaser shall be covenants and conditions running with the land where the authority so stipulates.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8f); 1970, c. 222; 2006, c. 784.

§ 36-54. Aid from federal government

An authority may borrow money or accept contributions from the federal government to assist in its undertaking redevelopment projects. An authority may do any and all things necessary or desirable to secure such financial aid (including obligating itself in any contract with the federal government for annual contributions to convey to the federal government the project to which the contract relates upon the occurrence of a substantial default thereunder), in the same manner as it may do to secure such aid in connection with slum clearance and housing projects.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8g).

§ 36-55. Bonds to be legal investments and security

Bonds or other obligations issued by an authority in connection with projects authorized under this chapter shall be security for public deposits and legal investments to the same extent and for the same persons, institutions, associations, corporations and other bodies and officers as bonds or other obligations issued by an authority in connection with the development of slum clearance or housing projects.

1946, p. 280; Michie Suppl. 1946, § 3145(8h); 1964, c. 378.

§ 36-55.1. In certain counties

§ 36-55.1. through 36-55.6. These sections as set forth in Chapter 501 of the Acts of 1960, as amended by Chapter 303 of the Acts of 1973 and Chapter 95 of the Acts of 1975, relating to redevelopment and urban renewal authorities in counties having a density of population in excess of 4,000 per square mile, are incorporated in this Code by this reference.